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Lunette

In architecture, a lunette is a half-moon shaped space, either filled with recessed masonry or void. A lunette is formed when a horizontal cornice transects a round-headed arch at the level of the imposts, where the arch springs. If a door is set within a round-headed arch, the space within the arch above the door, masonry or glass, is a lunette. If the door is a major access, the lunette above is massive and set, it may be called a tympanum; the term is usefully employed to describe the section of interior wall between the curves of a vault and its springing line. A system of intersecting vaults produces lunettes on the wall surfaces above a cornice; the lunettes in the structure of the Sistine Chapel ceiling inspired Michelangelo to come up with inventive compositions for the spaces. In the Neoclassical architecture of Robert Adam and his French contemporaries like Ange-Jacques Gabriel, a favorite scheme set a series of windows within shallow blind arches; the lunettes above lent themselves to radiating motifs: a sunburst of bellflower husks, radiating fluting, a low vase of flowers, etc.

A lunette may be segmental, the arch may be an arc taken from an oval. The spaces are still lunettes. A lunette is called a half-moon window, when the space is used as a window. Fanlight Lunette on Encyclopaedia Britannica

2013 San Pablo local elections

Local elections was held in San Pablo City on May 13, 2013 within the Philippine general election. The voters elected for the elective local posts in the city: the mayor, vice mayor, ten councilors. Incumbent Mayor Vicente B. Amante is term limited, his party UNA nominate city administrator Loreto Amante. His opponents are former mayor Florante Aquino from PDP-Laban, former vice mayor Hizon Arago, father of Congresswoman Maria Evita Arago from Liberal Party and City councilor Angelo Adriano as an independent candidate. Incumbent vice-mayor Angelita Yang will run as a reelectionist under UNA, her opponents are Restituto Mendoza, PDP-Laban's nominee, Frederick Martin Ilagan from Liberal Party, Alejandro Yu from Nacionalista Party, Edwin Gapunay and Michael Anthony Potenciano both independent candidates; the candidates for mayor and vice mayor with the highest number of votes wins the seat. Election in the city council is at large at 10 seats will be on the line

Gaetuli

Gaetuli was the Romanised name of an ancient Berber tribe inhabiting Getulia. The latter district covered the large desert region south of the Atlas Mountains, bordering the Sahara. Other documents place Gaetulia in pre-Roman times along the Mediterranean coasts of what is now Algeria and Tunisia, north of the Atlas; the Zenatas are believed to be descendants of the Gaetuli. Getulia was the name given to an ancient district in the Maghreb, which in the usage of Roman writers comprised the nomadic Berber tribes of the southern slopes of the Aures Mountains and Atlas Mountains, as far as the Atlantic, the oases in the northern part of the Sahara; the Gaetulian people were among the oldest inhabitants in northwestern Africa recorded in classical writings. They occupied the area of modern-day Algeria as far north as Gigthis in the southwestern region of Tunisia, they were under the coastal Libyes people. The coastal region of Mauritania was above them and, although they shared many similar characteristics, were distinct from the Mauri people that inhabited it.

The Gaetulians were exposed to the conditions of the harsh African interior near the Sahara and produced skillful hardened warriors. They were known for horse rearing, according to Strabo had 100,000 foals in a single year, they were clad in skins, lived on meat and milk, the only manufacture connected with their name is that of the purple dye that became famous from the time of Augustus, was made from the purple shellfish Murex brandaris found on the coast both in the Syrtes and on the Atlantic. The writings of several ancient Roman histories, most notably Sallust, depict the various indigenous North African tribes as a uniform state and refer to them collectively as the Libyans and Gaetuli; the misinformation is due to language and cultural barrier. When the period of Roman colonization in North Africa took off, Sallust writes that the Gaetuli were " ignarum nominis Romani,", ignorant of the Roman name. Sallust describes the Libyans and Gaetuli as a "rude and uncivilized folk" who were "governed neither by institutions nor law, nor were they subject to anyone’s rule."Later accounts contradict this description.

Pliny the Elder claims that the Gaetuli were different from other indigenous North African Numidian tribes despite sharing the same language. Contemporary historians acknowledge the significant ethnic divisions between the Berber tribes and the existence of individual kings and separate political spheres. Roman records of the Gaetuli first emerge during the Jugurthine War when the group of tribes served as an auxiliary force in Jugurtha’s army against the Romans; this was the first recorded contact between the Romans and the Gaetuli and is the earliest Roman record of the tribes. During the Jugurthine War the Gaetuli attacked and harassed Roman forces and possessed cavalry regiments that provided a significant challenge to the Roman legions. After a truce negotiated between the Numidians and the Romans led to the end of the war the Gaetuli forces were disbanded. Gaetulian forces next appear as forces loyal to Gaius Marius during the Sulla's first civil war. In return for land the Gaetulian forces fought for Marius against Gnaeus Octavius.

After 90 years of documented peace between the Gaetuli and Rome the tribes invaded the Roman occupied area in what became known as the “Gaetulian War” in 3 AD. Some historians describe the war more as an uprising that occurred as a result of possible land incursions and Roman mandated control of the movement of the semi-nomadic Gaetuli. In response to the attack, forces led by Cossus Cornelius Lentulus were dispatched to put down the invasion which they accomplished in 6 A. D. Cossus Cornelius Lentulus was given the surname Gaetulicus for his successful campaign. In 17 AD the Musulamii tribe, a Gaetulian sub-tribe, fought back against the Romans over the building of a road across Musulamii territory by the Legio III Augusta; the Musulamii were joined in the conflict against the Romans by the Gaetuli and the neighboring Garamantes. This was the largest war in the Algeria region of Roman Africa in the history of Roman occupation. After the defeat of the Musulamii the Gaetuli ceased to appear in Roman military record.

Further records of the Gaetuli indicate that soldiers from the tribes served as auxiliary forces in the Roman army, while the tribes themselves provided the Empire with a range of exotic animals and purple dye among other goods through trade. Records indicate that many of the animals used in Roman games were acquired through trade connections with the Gaetuli; the region of Gaetulia hosted a multitude of climates and thus forced the Gaetulian tribes to adopt several different means of habitation. They are documented living in huts in the more mountainous, inland portions of Gaetulia and under the hulls of overturned ships in the coastal regions; the mobility and varying living styles contributed to the difficulty of Roman historians to define the Gaetuli in both a political and cultural sense. Sallust and Pliny the Elder both mention the warlike tendencies of the Gaetuli, supported by the frequent accounts of Gaetuli invasions; these accounts appear to demonstrate that the Gaetuli did not discriminate in their targets, as they are recorded invaded both Roman territories as well as other Numidian tribes.

The Gaetuli intermarried with other tribes. Apuleius references his semi-Numidian heritage in the Latin novel The Golden Ass. Sallust mentions that the Gaetuli intermarried with the Persians and merged with them, becoming nomads; the Gaetuli spoke two Berber dialects: the Schellou and the Schoviah