Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium is sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals, although lanthanum is more considered as such. Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, American chemist Charles James. All of these researchers found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, thought to consist of ytterbium; the dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other. He chose the name lutecium for the new element, but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones.
Lutetium is not a abundant element, although it is more common than silver in the earth's crust. It has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a abundant radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. Lutetium occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy on neuroendocrine tumours. Lutetium has the highest Brinell hardness of any lanthanide, at 890–1300 MPa. A lutetium atom has 71 electrons, arranged in the configuration 4f145d16s2; when entering a chemical reaction, the atom loses its two outermost electrons and the single 5d-electron. The lutetium atom is the smallest among the lanthanide atoms, due to the lanthanide contraction, as a result lutetium has the highest density, melting point, hardness of the lanthanides. Lutetium's compounds always contain the element in the oxidation state +3. Aqueous solutions of most lutetium salts are colorless and form white crystalline solids upon drying, with the common exception of the iodide.
The soluble salts, such as nitrate and acetate form hydrates upon crystallization. The oxide, fluoride, carbonate and oxalate are insoluble in water. Lutetium metal is unstable in air at standard conditions, but it burns at 150 °C to form lutetium oxide; the resulting compound is known to absorb water and carbon dioxide, it may be used to remove vapors of these compounds from closed atmospheres. Similar observations are made during reaction between water. Lutetium metal is known to react with the four lightest halogens to form trihalides. Lutetium dissolves in weak acids and dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the colorless lutetium ions, which are coordinated by between seven and nine water molecules, the average being 3+. 2 Lu + 3 H2SO4 → 2 Lu3+ + 3 SO2–4 + 3 H2↑ Lutetium occurs on the Earth in form of two isotopes: lutetium-175 and lutetium-176. Out of these two, only the former is stable, making the element monoisotopic; the latter one, lutetium-176, decays via beta decay with a half-life of 3.78×1010 years.
To date, 32 synthetic radioisotopes of the element have been characterized, ranging in mass from 149.973 to 183.961. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 9 days, the majority of these have half-lives that are less than half an hour. Isotopes lighter than the stable lutetium-175 decay via electron capture, with some alpha and positron emission; the element has 42 nuclear isomers, with masses of 150, 151, 153–162, 166–180. The most stable of them are lutetium-177m, with a half-life of 160.4 days, lutetium-174m, with a half-life of 142 days. Lutetium, derived from the Latin Lutetia, was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, American chemist Charles James, they found it as an impurity in ytterbia, thought by Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac to consist of ytterbium. The scientists proposed different names for the elements: Urbain chose neoytterbium and lutecium, whereas Welsbach chose aldebaranium and cassiopeium.
Both of these articles accused the other man of publishing results based on those of the author. The International Commission on Atomic Weights, responsible for the attribution of new element names, settled the dispute in 1909 by granting priority to Urbain and adopting his names as official ones, based on the fact that the separation of lutetium from Marignac's ytterbium was first described by Urbain; until the 1950s, some Ge
Amphipoea oculea, the ear moth, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1761 and it is found in most of the Palearctic ecozone; the wingspan is 29–34 mm. Forewing pale or dark ferruginous brown. Adults are on wing from June to September depending on the location. There is one generation per year; the larvae feed on the stems and roots of various grasses and low plants, including Petasites hybridus. Requiring genitalic examination Amphipoea fucosa Amphipoea crinanensis Amphipoea lucens Kimber, Ian. "73.128 BF2360 Ear Moth Amphipoea oculea". UKMoths. Retrieved 28 June 2019. Savela, Markku. "Amphipoea oculea". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved June 28, 2019. Taxonomy Lepidoptera of Belgium De Vlinderstichting Lepiforum e. V. Includes photo of genitalia
A sewing table or work table is a table or desk used for sewing. It has large amounts of space and a full set of sewing tools. Nearby there will be a waste bin. A common attachment is a dropleaf to give expanded space. Other attachments can be a cloth bag for storing drawers, or shelves; the sewing table originated in England around 1770 and was adopted in post-Revolutionary War America. Prior to the use of the sewing table, women kept needlework in a bag, it was designed to provide a surface and storage for a gentlewoman’s needlework or other leisure actives, including basket-weaving, macramé and painting as it was customary for women to gather and take up work around the table. The majority of tables created in the U. S. during this time were of Empire style and constructed of mahogany. In the mid-1800s, sewing machines were developed and the sewing table was altered to accommodate a machine; the Singer cabinet works was established in 1868 as a contractor constructing the Singer Company’s sewing tables in South Bend, Indiana.
The plant was designed for sewing table distribution in the Western United States. In 1891, the plant expanded covering 20 acres of lumber yards with a factory railroad; the new plant handled all Singer operations with tables being shipped to the Eastern U. S. as well as Europe, South America, Asia