A Lutheran chorale is a musical setting of a Lutheran hymn, intended to be sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. The typical four-part setting of a chorale, in which the sopranos sing the melody along with three lower voices, is known as a chorale harmonization. Starting in 1523, Martin Luther began translating worship texts into German from the Latin, he composed melodies for some hymns himself, such as "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott", a few harmonized settings. For other hymns he adapted Gregorian chant melodies used in Catholic worship to fit new German texts, sometimes using the same melody more than once. For example, he fitted the melody of the hymn "Veni redemptor gentium" to three different texts, "Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich", "Erhalt uns, bei deinem Wort", "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland"; the first Lutheran hymns were published in 1524. These included the Achtliederbuch and the Erfurt Enchiridion, as well as Johann Walter's Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn, the first to contain part song settings of Lutheran hymns.
Luther and his contemporaries referred to these vernacular hymns as geistliche Lieder, christliche Lieder, geistliche Gesänge or Kirchengesänge. The German word Choral, used to describe Latin plainchant melodies, was first applied to the Lutheran hymn only in the sixteenth century. In the modern era, many Lutheran hymns are used in Protestant worship, sometimes sung in four-part harmony. Composers of tunes for Lutheran hymns, or who adopted such tunes in their compositions: Martin Luther Johann Walter Sebald Heyden Nikolaus Herman Johannes Hermann Nikolaus Selnecker Cyriakus Schneegass Joachim a Burck Philipp Nicolai Bartholomäus Gesius Michael Praetorius Melchior Franck Melchior Teschner Michael Altenburg Heinrich Schütz Johann Hermann Schein Samuel Scheidt Johann Schop Heinrich Scheidemann Johann Crüger Andreas Hammerschmidt Dieterich Buxtehude Gottfried Vopelius Johann Pachelbel Johann Sebastian Bach harmonised hundreds of chorales used at the end of his cantatas and concluding scenes in his Passions.
In his St Matthew Passion, he set five stanzas of "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" in four different ways. He used hymns as the base for his cycle of chorale cantatas and chorale preludes. Bach concentrated on the chorales in the Chorale cantatas of his second annual cycle, composed in 1724/25. Felix Mendelssohn Anton Bruckner Johannes Brahms Max Reger Sigfrid Karg-Elert Igor Stravinsky Ernst Pepping Hugo Distler Sofia Gubaidulina George C. Baker Chorales appear in chorale preludes, pieces for organ designed to be played before the congregational singing of the hymn, but developed into an autonomous genre by north-German composers of the middle and late 17th century Dieterich Buxtehude. A chorale prelude includes the melody of the chorale, adds contrapuntal lines. One of the first composers to write chorale preludes was Samuel Scheidt. Bach's many chorale preludes are the best-known examples of the form. Composers of the chorale prelude include Johannes Brahms, for example in his Eleven Chorale Preludes, Max Reger who composed many examples, including Wie schön leucht' uns der Morgenstern.
In the 20th century, important contributions to the genre were made by Hugo Distler and Ernst Pepping. Sofia Gubaidulina – Meditation über den Bach-Choral "Vor deinen Thron tret' ich hiermit", for harpsichord, two violins, viola and contrabass Scholarship regarding Lutheran chorales intensified from the 19th century. Carl von Winterfeld published three volumes of Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhältniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes from 1843 to 1847. Johannes Zahn published Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder in six volumes from 1889 to 1893. Braun, Werner. 2001. "Walter, Johann ". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Leaver, Robin A. 2001. "Luther, Martin". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Marshall, Robert L. 2001. "Chorale prelude". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell.
London: Macmillan Publishers. Marshall, Robert L. and Robin A. Leaver. 2001. "Chorale". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Harten, Uwe. 1996. Anton Bruckner. Ein Handbuch. Salburg: Residenz Verlag. ISBN 3-7017-1030-9. Tovey, Donald Francis. "Chorale". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Winterfeld, Carl von. Der evan
Peter Hearn was an English first-class cricketer who played for Kent County Cricket Club between 1947 and 1956. He was an elegant top-order batsman who scored over 8,000 runs for Kent and made a century on his debut for the county, he spent time as a prisoner of war. Hearn was educated at The Skinners' School in the town, his grandfather was the groundsman at the Nevill Ground and Hearn grew up at his cottage on the ground's boundary. His father played for Tunbridge Wells Cricket Club and his uncle, Sidney played for Kent in the 1920s, he played cricket at school and, in 1942, appeared as a teenager in a team organised by ex-Kent batsman CH Knott alongside, amongst others, Kent great Frank Woolley. In 1943 Hearn joined the Royal Engineers during the Second World War, he was captured and spent time as a prisoner of war in Germany before being repatriated at the end of the war. He played some cricket whilst in the army and was still a serving soldier when he made his Kent debut in 1947. Hearn's first-class debut for Kent came at the end of May 1947 at Garrison Ground 2 in Gillingham against Warwickshire in the 1947 County Championship.
He scored a century on his debut and, as an "elegant, left-handed" batsman he drew comparisons with Frank Woolley. Playing as a top-order batsman, Hearn made 196 appearances for Kent and became a regular in the county side after he completed his military service, he was awarded his county cap in 1947 and scored over 8,000 runs for Kent, making seven centuries for the county. His form could be inconsistent however and he was considered a "nervous starter" although he could play elegantly and he "rivalled the most attractive batsmen in the country" when he was in top form, he appeared in 200 first-class matches, including three for Combined Services in 1947 and one for an Under-32 side in 1950. He scored 1,000 runs in a season three times and made 1,413 in 1954, including his career best score of 172 against Worcestershire, one of his seven centuries, he bowled occasional slow left arm spin. Hearn was released by Kent after appearing only three times during the 1956 season, he played as a professional for Kirkaldy Cricket Club in Scotland and coached cricket at Tonbridge School in his native Kent.
The Harris Repertoire consists of two manuscripts, both written by the sisters Amelia and Jane Harris. Containing 29 and 59 ballads and songs these manuscripts are part of the cornerstone of nineteenth-century ballad collecting; the second manuscript written was used by Francis James Child in his seminal work, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads known as the Child Ballads. In 1859 Amelia Harris sent William Edmonstoune Aytoun, a professor at the University of Edinburgh, a manuscript containing 29 ballads, she had heard him talk on the subject in Lerwick in 1855, knew that he himself had published two volumes of "Antient Ballads". She enclosed a letter, which has become famous within ballad studies, for it not only presents the origin of the ballads she and her sister Jane knew, but offers the conundrum of ballads being passed from the non-literate to the literate. While the sisters knew loved, sang the ballads, did not re-create the tales, but sang what they knew, were "most scrupulous in writing them as I heard them, leaving a blank, when I was in doubt as to a word or line".
Aytoun was appreciative of the manuscript, wrote to the sisters to thank them - we know this from surviving extract made by Jane Harris. He informed other collectors, whom he was in contact with, such as the Aberdonian advocate Norval Clyne. Clyne was interested in the Harris sisters' version of "Sir Patrick Spens", as it provided evidence against the much-discussed "Lady Wardlaw Heresy", initiated by David Laing and perpetuated by Robert Chambers, which proposed that Lady Wardlaw was in fact the author of the ballad. While Aytoun's letter including the Harris sisters' version of the ballad came too late for Clyne to include it in the text of his refutation of Chambers' proposition, James Hutton Watson did use the Harris material - quoting a letter Aytoun had written to Clyne in its entirety. Aytoun had intended to publish the Harris MS material, but did not live to prepare a third volume of ballads, but Clyne did keep the Harris ballads in mind, when he was contacted by Dr John Stuart of General Register House, who had a request from Francis James Child for advice and information on collecting ballads in Britain.
Clyne advised Child to place an appeal in Queries regarding material and its location. Clyne himself became involved in Child's search, was in correspondence with him. Having written to the publisher John Blackwood, to Aytoun's sisters - who were fond of ballads - and to Aytoun's widow, who "was not on terms" with his family, following up leads in Newburgh, where the Harris sisters had been living when they sent the manuscript, Clyne drew a blank: the manuscript had vanished and 1873, Clyne and Child resigned themselves to the fact that the manuscript was lost and the ladies who had written it could not be traced. On the same day that Clyne wrote to Child regarding the failure to trace either the 1859 ballad manuscript, or the women who had written it, Jane Harris was writing to Professor David Masson, Aytoun's successor as Professor of Rhetoric at the University of Edinburgh. Although she did not refer to Child's Notes and Queries appeal, it may have been the impetus for the sisters to try to contact someone about their ballads, as they had annotated their ballads and songs a second time.
This letter was sent from Laurel Bank, near Edinburgh, which explains Clyne's failure to trace them in Newburgh. Masson sent Jane Harris's letter on to Child alerted Clyne. Clyne deduced that Miss Harris who wrote to Masson had to be the elusive Newburgh lady, he made contact. On 26 August 1873, Clyne had tea with the Misses Harris and established an essential point of contact for Child. Clyne found that while Jane had written to Masson about the new manuscript, she had written the musical score, while her sister, had written out the verses; the Misses Harris were clear about the origin of their ballads - they had learned them from their mother, who in turn had got them from "an aged nurse". This gave these sets an eighteenth-century provenance, he discovered that they had sent a couple of ballads to Peter Buchan as well as Aytoun. On the polite suggestion Jane Harris that the manuscript may be of worth and Child agreed that some sum had to be agreed upon, in a letter dated 15 September 1873, Amelia Harris noted that she had received a telegram from Frederick James Furnivall, whom Child was staying with in London in the summer of 1873, informing her that he had forwarded a cheque for £15 for the manuscript.
She promises to send the manuscript of the ballads that afternoon, the manuscript of the music the following day. Child was on the point of leaving for America - he had noted in his correspondence with Macmath that "from the 16th it will be safer to address me in America". We know that the manuscripts were bound - costing a further 6 shillings on top of the £15 paid; the cost in shillings indicates that this was done in Britain, it seems that Furnivall may have taken responsibility for it. The manuscript was forwarded to Child at Harvard; this manuscript remains in America, in the Houghton Library, MS 25241.17*, still bound in 3/4 maroon Morocco and marbled boards. Neither Child nor Clyne located the first manuscript, its history after Aytoun's death is obscure. However, it was discovered by Mr Hilary Corke in an Edinburgh bookshop-depository in 1955, it was among other books belonging to one Captain Forbes: the flyleaf of this bound volume is inscribed "Capt. Forbes, R. N. Seabank"; the Forbes books had been deposited before 1939 and had not been disturbed between that time and 1955.
This MS contained only the texts, having noted that Amelia Harris refers to the writing down of the airs, an t
The soundtrack to Planet Terror was released on April 3, 2007 from Varèse Sarabande, though the score managed to sell on iTunes a week early. Rodriguez revealed at Comic-Con 2006 that inspiration for his score came from music composed by John Carpenter. Rodriguez said that during the filming of Planet Terror, Carpenter's music was played on set. "Grindhouse" - "Doc Block" - "The Sickos" - "You Belong to Me" - Performed by Rose McGowan "Go Go Not Cry Cry" - "Hospital Epidemic" - "Useless Talent #32" - Performed by Rose McGowan "His Prescription... Pain" - "Cherry Darling" - "The Grindhouse Blues" - "El Wray" - "Police Station Assault" - "Dakota" - "Zero to Fifty In Four" - "Fury Road" - "Helicopter Sicko Chopper" - "The Ring in the Jacket" - "Killer Legs" - "Melting Member" - "Too Drunk to Fuck" - Performed by Nouvelle Vague "Cherry's Dance of Death" - Performed by Chingon "Two Against the World" - Performed by Rose McGowan Death Proof
The Mazda Porter and Porter Cab are a series of small trucks that were produced from 1961 to 1989 by Mazda for sale in the domestic Japanese market. Export versions of the Porter were labelled E360; the Porter was replaced by a rebadged Suzuki Carry. The predecessor of the Porter, introduced in February 1961, the Mazda B360, was available as a pickup or light van version of the R360 kei passenger car, it weighed 535 kg. The 1962, export only Mazda B600 was similar to the B360 except that it received an enlarged 577 cc version of the air-cooled V-twin. Versions shared the P600 Carol's 586 cc RA engine. In September 1963 the B360 gained the 358 cc 20 PS DB OHV engine from the Carol, it received a facelift and new modelcodes, a DeLuxe Van version was added. Top speed went up from 67 to 79 km/h. In October 1966 the B360 received another facelift. In 1972, the B360/600 entered license production in Burma. Mazda's investment consisted of shipping the production equipment to Burma. After strict sanctions were imposed in 1988 and the import of Japanese parts became impossible, manufacture shifted to MADI.
The little trucks were built in the "No 2 Automobile Industry" plant in the small town of Tonbo, at Kwinhla Station, Pandaung Township, Bago Division, where MADI assembled the Mazda Pathfinder and the Hino TE truck. The truck was kept in production until the mid-1990s with 100 percent local content. Always painted in blue from the factory, these were ubiquitous as taxis in Burma until after the markets opened up in 2011. Available either as a pickup truck or a small van, the first Porter was produced from November 1968 to April 1976; the car was based on the B360 predecessor, but with all-new body panels. This model was assembled in South Africa by Motor Assemblies. 942 examples of the E360 were built there in 1969 and 1970. The initial engine was the carry-over four-stroke, 20 PS 358 cc inline-four from the B360; the engine was changed to the Chantez' 35 PS 359 cc water-cooled, two-stroke two-cylinder in April 1973, which brought with it some cosmetic changes. In 1975 the Porter was modified to fit new, larger license plates and the engine downgraded to 32 PS to match new, stricter emissions regulations.
The wheelbase was 1,995 mm with leaf springs in the rear, weight was 475 kg and maximum cargo capacity was 300 kg when first introduced. The Porter Cab was introduced in March 1969, it was a small, cabover pickup truck on a 1,835 mm wheelbase, equipped with a live rear axle and a 23 PS at 5500 rpm, 359 cc water-cooled, two-stroke two-cylinder. This, the CC, was Mazda's first two-stroke engine. Top speed was 90 km/h; the Porter Cab, with its peculiar cowlings around the headlights carried an recognizable "surprised" appearance. In 1970 new doors were developed, with sliding windows exchanged for roll-down items, incorporating a quarter window. A ventilation vent was added to the front. Like the Porter, the Porter Cab received the Chantez-derived AA engine in April 1973, which offered 30 PS at 6000 rpm, five less than in the Chantez. In January 1975, the Porter Cab too was modified to fit the new larger license plates - hitherto, kei cars had carried smaller license plates than regular cars. In April 1976 the Porter Cab received an engine which met the new, tougher 1975 emissions regulations and the model code PC3A.
The only color available was changed too, from light green to white. Like the Porter before it, the Porter Cab was labelled E360 in export markets; when Kei car regulations were changed for 1976, due to shrinking sales in the category, Mazda did not think it a worthwhile expenditure to develop a new, clean 550 cc engine. Instead, they discontinued the Chantez passenger car and the Porter pickup, began buying Mitsubishi's 2G23 engines to equip the New Porter Cab which appeared in 1977; the Porter Cab was widened by 100 mm. Dimensions were now 3,195 mm x 1,395 mm, the 546 cc Vulcan S two-cylinder developed 29 PS at 5500 rpm; the headlight bezels were squared off. In 1979 the car gained two more horsepower; the second generation Porter Cab was only available in a bright blue color with light grey trim and black interior, until the 1983 facelift after which only white was available. The facelifted version gained the cleaner Vulcan II engine. Trim pieces were now in a darker interior brown. In 1985 there was another minor facelift, with trim pieces now in black and a black band between the headlights.
The engine switched from a timing chain to a timing belt, the interior changed to gray. Air conditioning was now available as an option. In 1987 the Mitsubishi Minicab received Mitsubishi's new three-cylinder engine, but the Porter Cab had to soldier on with the old two-cylinder. In June 1989, after twenty years of continuous production with nothing more than facelifts, the Porter Cab was retired, it was replaced by a mere badge-engineered Suzuki Carry. 360cc: Nippon 軽自動車 Memorial 1950-1975: p97, 2007. ISBN 978-4-
Pseudagrion spernatum, the Natal sprite, is a species of damselfly in the family Coenagrionidae. It is found in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe Burundi, the Republic of the Congo, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, rivers. Clausnitzer, V. 2005. Pseudagrion spernatum. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 10 August 2007