Honeydew (secretion)

Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky liquid, secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. When their mouthpart penetrates the phloem, the sugary, high-pressure liquid is forced out of the anus of the aphid. Honeydew is common as a secretion in hemipteran insects and is the basis for trophobiosis; some caterpillars of Lycaenidae butterflies and some moths produce honeydew. Honeydew producing insects like cicadas pierce phloem ducts to access the sugar rich sap; the sap continues to bleed. Ants may collect, or "milk", honeydew directly from aphids and other honeydew producers, which benefit from their presence due to their driving away predators such as lady beetles or parasitic wasps—see Crematogaster peringueyi. Animals and plants in a mutually symbiotic arrangement with ants are called Myrmecophiles. In Madagascar, some gecko species in the genera Phelsuma and Lygodactylus are known to approach flatid plant-hoppers on tree-trunks from below and induce them to excrete honeydew by head nodding behaviour.

The plant-hopper raises its abdomen and excretes a drop of honeydew right onto the snout of the gecko. Honeydew can cause sooty mold—a bane of gardeners—on many ornamental plants, it contaminates vehicles parked beneath trees, can be difficult to remove from glass and bodywork. Honeydew is secreted by certain fungi ergot. Honeydew is collected by certain species of birds, wasps, stingless bees and honey bees, which process it into a dark, strong honey; this is prized in parts of Europe and Asia for its reputed medicinal value. Parachartergus fraternus, a eusocial wasp species, collects honeydew to feed to their growing larvae. Recent research has documented the use of honeydew by over 40 species of wild, native solitary bees in California. In Norse mythology, dew falls from the ash tree Yggdrasil to the earth, according to the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, "this is what people call honeydew and from it bees feed."In Greek mythology, méli, or "honey", drips from the Manna–ash, with which the Meliae, or "ash tree nymphs", nursed the infant god Zeus on the island of Crete.

Honey-dew is referenced in the last lines of Samuel Coleridge's poem Kubla Khan because of its mythological connotations: And all who heard should see them there, And all should cry, Beware! Beware! His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread, For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise. In the Hebrew Bible, while the Israelites are wandering through the desert after the Exodus, they are miraculously provided with a substance, sometimes associated with honeydew. Exodus 16:31 provides a description: "it was like coriander seed and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey." In eucalypt forests, production of both the honeydew nectar and manna tends to increase in spring and autumn. Eucalyptus can produce more manna than honeydew nectar; the sugar glider possum eats both. Other species attracted to the nectar include the feathertail glider, brush-tailed phascogale, brown antechinus. Most trees are not able to produce sap.

The Ommatissus lybicus is attracted to certain cultivars of the date palm tree. The honeydew producing insects preferred the Medjhool variety to the Deglet Noor in Israel, where they have been observed in the Arava Valley. Dense insect populations may have some adverse effects. Different methods of controlling the insects, including chemical, have been studied. Two scale insects in the Sinai, Trabutina mannipara and Najacoccus serpentinus feed on Tamarisk trees, they secrete a sugary nectar that turns white when it hardens, resembling certain whitish flakes described in the Hebrew scriptures. Lerp List of honeydew sources

So Beautiful

"So Beautiful" is a pop song written by Australian singer-songwriter Darren Hayes and Robert Conley. In 2005, the song was released as a single as a part of the promotion of the greatest hits album Truly Madly Completely: The Best of Savage Garden, a band that Hayes was part of until their split in 2001. Hayes was credited on the release as "Darren Hayes"; the song was written for Hayes's boyfriend Richard Cullen, whom he married in a civil partnership ceremony in London on 19 June 2006. The song peaked at number 27 on the U. S. Adult Contemporary chart, it reached number 8 in Darren Hayes' native Australia. The single itself features a different version of the song that did not feature on the album, produced by Robert Conley; this version resembles Hayes's solo work more than the album version does, which sounds more like Savage Garden's work. The single version of the song contains a different introduction and a faster tempo; the album version appears in edited form on the UK maxi single as "Spike's Radio Edit" and is the version used for the video.

It was produced by Mark "Spike" Stent. Australia"So Beautiful" – 4:13 "To the Moon and Back" – 7:18 "Truly Madly Deeply" – 6:15 "Something in the Sky" – 4:44 "So Beautiful" – 4:03UK CD1"So Beautiful" – 4:13 "To the Moon and Back" – 5:44UK CD2"So Beautiful" – 3:58 "Something in the Sky" – 4:44 "Truly Madly Deeply" – 6:15 "So Beautiful" – 4:03 "So Beautiful" UK promotional single"So Beautiful" – 3:57 "So Beautiful" – 7:12 "Savage Garden Megamix" – 9:46 So Beautiful music video Darren Hayes' official site Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics