Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language of Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2019, Luxembourg had a population of 613,894, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, "little castle", the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four emperors during the High Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the county to the Duchy of Luxembourg; the duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresa, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2020, Luxembourg citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport second in the world, tied with Germany and Spain. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union.
This resulted in the opening of the German market, the development of Luxembourg's steel indu
No Now is the debut album by English experimental pop artist Clarence Clarity. It was released on 2 March 2015 on the Bella Union label. Clarity had gained notability among the music community for his previous releases, 2013's Save †hyself EP and 2014's Who Am Eye EP, both of which featured tracks that reappeared on No Now. No Now was Clarity's first full-length album under the Clarence Clarity name. In an interview with DIY Magazine he stated that "I just wanted to make it the biggest, boldest statement that I could make." He claimed that the LP took years to create and that his previous EPs were "bitesize clarity". Clarity expressed in the press release for the album that the album was his "bubble of clarity", that it was "the exorcism of everything I’ve learned. It’s all left me now – no more human condition left to give; this is the album. And now I can bow out ungracefully – Creator and destroyer of my own worlds." The Guardian gave the album praise, saying it sounded "like funk played by a swarm of bees" and that it was "almost as good as Clarence Clarity thinks it is," drawing comparison to much of Prince's output.
Consequence of Sound drew a similar comparison, stating "We’ve seen shades of his messianic act before. Prince is one touchstone, both for his larger-than-life persona and his willingness", calling No Now a "rollercoaster of an album". DIY Magazine gave it 4 stars, claiming Clarence is "currently without an equal" and describing his music as polarizing. All tracks are written by Clarence Clarity
White Gardens Office Center is a Class A office center located next door to White Square Office Center and nearby the Belorusskaya Metro Station in Moscow, Russia. White Gardens consists of two office buildings, comprising a total of 63,000 square meters of net rentable area, ground floor restaurants and amenities, five levels of underground parking, its defining features include private terraces for select office floors and an arcade between its two buildings. White Gardens is the second phase of the White District development, is expected to be completed in 2013; the first phase of White District, White Square Office Center, was completed in 2009. White Gardens Office Center consists of two buildings - one with 16 storeys and one with 12 storeys - comprising a total of 60,000 square meters of net rentable office area, 3,000 square meters of net rentable retail area. In addition, it offers five levels of underground parking, providing 960 parking spaces, a parking ratio of 1 space per 68 square meters of office space.
White Gardens Office Center is being co-developed by AIG/Lincoln, Coalco, TPG Capital, VTB Capital. White Gardens Office Center was designed by APA Wojciechowski Architects; the office center will be managed by AIG/Lincoln, which, in addition to having developed over 2,500,000 square meters of property manages over 1,480,000 square meters of office, retail and entertainment property across Central and Eastern Europe. White Gardens is located near the Belorussky Rail Terminal, it will have two street addresses: Building A will be located at Lesnaya Street 7, while Building B will be located at Lesnaya Street 9. The office center is located a block away from one of the Circle Line exits from the Belorusskaya Metro Station, linked to the Green Line. White Gardens is a short walk from the Belorussky Rail Terminal, which provides direct access to Sheremetyevo International Airport via the Aeroexpress train service. Meanwhile, the Green Line provides quick access from White Gardens to the Paveletskaya Metro station, which in turn has a direct Aeroexpress train link to Domodedovo International Airport, Russia's largest airport.