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Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as lycopods, lycophytes or other terms including the component lyco-. Members of the class are called clubmosses and quillworts, they have dichotomously branching stems bearing simple leaves called microphylls and reproduce by means of spores borne in sporangia on the sides of the stems at the bases of the leaves. Although living species are small, during the Carboniferous, extinct tree-like forms formed huge forests that dominated the landscape and contributed to coal deposits; the nomenclature and classification of plants with microphylls varies among authors. A consensus classification for extant species was produced in 2016 by the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group, which places them all in the class Lycopodiopsida, which includes the classes Isoetopsida and Selaginellopsida used in other systems. Alternative classification systems have used ranks from division to subclass. In the PPG I system, the class is divided into three orders, Lycopodiales and Selaginellales.

Club-mosses are homosporous, but the genera Selaginella and Isoetes are heterosporous, with female spores larger than the male, gametophytes forming within the spore walls. A few species of Selaginella such as S. apoda and S. rupestris are viviparous. Club-moss gametophytes are mycoheterotrophic and long-lived, residing underground for several years before emerging from the ground and progressing to the sporophyte stage; the extant lycophytes are vascular plants with microphyllous leaves, distinguishing them from the euphyllophytes. The sister group of the extant lycophytes and their closest extinct relatives are believed to be the zosterophylls, a paraphyletic or plesion group. Ignoring some smaller extinct taxa, the evolutionary relationships are as shown below; as of 2019, there was broad agreement, supported by both molecular and morphological evidence, that the extant lycophytes fell into three groups, treated as orders in PPG I, that these, both together and individually, are monophyletic, being related as shown in the cladogram below: The rank and name used for the taxon holding the extant lycophytes varies widely.

Table 1 below shows some of the highest ranks. Systems may use taxa at a rank lower than the highest given in the table with the same circumscription; some systems use a higher rank for a more broadly defined taxon of lycophytes that includes some extinct groups more distantly related to extant lycophytes, such as the zosterophylls. For example, Kenrick & Crane use the subdivision Lycophytina for this purpose, with all extant lycophytes falling within the class Lycopsida. Other sources exclude the zosterophylls from any "lycophyte" taxon. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, the three orders are placed in a single class, holding all extant lycophyte species. Older systems have used either three classes, one for each order, or two classes, recognizing the closer relationship between Isoetales and Selaginellales. In these cases, a higher ranked taxon is needed to contain the classes; as Table 2 shows, the names "Lycopodiopsida" and "Isoetopsida" are both ambiguous. The PPG I system divides up the extant lycophytes.

Class Lycopodiopsida Bartl. Order Lycopodiales DC. ex Bercht. & J. Presl Family Lycopodiaceae P. Beauv. Order Isoetales Prantl Family Isoetaceae Dumort. Order Selaginellales Prantl Family Selaginellaceae Willk Some extinct groups, such as zosterophylls, fall outside the limits of the taxon as defined by the classifications in Table 1 above. However, other extinct groups fall within some circumscriptions of this taxon. Taylor et al. and Mauseth include a number of extinct orders in their division Lycophyta, although they differ on the placement of some genera. The orders included by Taylor et al. are: Order †Drepanophycales Order †Protolepidodendrales Order †Lepidodendrales Order †PleuromeialesMauseth uses the order †Asteroxylales, placing Baragwanathia in the Protolepidodendrales. The relationship between some of these extinct groups and the extant ones was investigated by Kenrick and Crane in 1997; when the genera they used are assigned to orders, their suggested relationship is: The Lycopodiopsida are distinguished from other vascular plants by the possession of microphylls and by their sporangia, which are lateral as opposed to terminal and which open transversely rather than longitudinally.

In some groups, the sporangia are borne on sporophylls. Phylogenetic analysis shows the group branching off at the base of the evolution of vascular plants and they have a long evolutionary history. Fossils are abundant worldwide in coal deposits. Fossils that can be ascribed to the Lycopodiopsida first appear in the Silurian period, along with a number of other vascular plants; the Silurian Baragwanathia longifolia is one of the earliest identifiable species. Lycopodolica is another Silurian genus; the group evolved roots independently from the rest of the vascular plants. From the Devonian onwards, some species grew tree-like. Devonian fossil tree

Puck (moon)

Puck is an inner moon of Uranus. It was discovered in December 1985 by the Voyager 2 spacecraft; the name Puck follows the convention of naming Uranus's moons after characters from Shakespeare. The orbit of Puck lies between the first of Uranus's large moons, Miranda. Puck is spherical in shape and has diameter of about 162 km, it has a dark cratered surface, which shows spectral signs of water ice. Puck—the largest inner moon of Uranus—was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 30 December 1985, it was given the temporary designation S/1985 U 1. The moon was named after the character Puck who appears in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, a little sprite who travels around the globe at night with the fairies. In Celtic mythology and English folklore, a Puck is a mischievous sprite, imagined as an evil demon by Christians, it is designated Uranus XV. Puck is the largest small inner moon of Uranus, it is intermediate in size between Miranda. Puck's orbit is located between the rings of Miranda.

Little is known about Puck aside from its orbit, radius of about 81 km, geometric albedo in visible light of 0.11. Of the moons discovered by the Voyager 2 imaging team, only Puck was discovered early enough that the probe could be programmed to image it in some detail. Images showed that Puck has a shape of a prolate spheroid, its surface is cratered and is grey in color. There are the largest being about 45 km in diameter. Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and large terrestrial telescopes found water-ice absorption features in the spectrum of Puck. Nothing is known about the internal structure of Puck, it is made of a mixture of water ice with the dark material similar to that found in the rings. This dark material is made of rocks or radiation-processed organics; the absence of craters with bright rays implies that Puck is not differentiated, meaning that ice and non-ice components have not separated from each other into a core and mantle. Moons of Uranus Rings of Uranus List of geological features on Puck Explanatory notes Citations Sources Jacobson, R.

A.. "The Orbits of the Inner Uranian Satellites From Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager 2 Observations". The Astronomical Journal. 115: 1195–1199. Bibcode:1998AJ....115.1195J. Doi:10.1086/300263. Karkoschka, Erich. "Voyager's Eleventh Discovery of a Satellite of Uranus and Photometry and the First Size Measurements of Nine Satellites". Icarus. 151: 69–77. Bibcode:2001Icar..151...69K. Doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6597. Karkoschka, Erich. "Comprehensive Photometry of the Rings and 16 Satellites of Uranus with the Hubble Space Telescope". Icarus. 151: 51–68. Bibcode:2001Icar..151...51K. Doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6596. Thomas, P.. V.. "Voyager observations of 1985U1". Icarus. 72: 79–83. Bibcode:1987Icar...72...79T. Doi:10.1016/0019-103590121-7. Smith, B. A.. A.. "Voyager 2 in the Uranian System: Imaging Science Results". Science. 233: 43–64. Bibcode:1986Sci...233...43S. Doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.43. PMID 17812889. Dumas, Christophe. "Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Multiband Photometry of Proteus and Puck". The Astronomical Journal. 126: 1080–1085.

Bibcode:2003AJ....126.1080D. Doi:10.1086/375909. Marsden, Brian G.. "Satellites of Uranus and Neptune". IAU Circular. 4159. Retrieved 2012-01-24. USGS/IAU. "Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology. Retrieved 2012-01-24. Page that includes a reprocessed version of the Voyager 2 Puck image

Portrait of the Fighter as a Young Man

Portrait of the Fighter as a Young Man is a 2010 Romanian drama film directed by Constantin Popescu Jr. It was released at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival; the film is the first part of a trilogy which describes the fight of the Romanian anticommunist resistance in the 50s. This first movie is centered on the figure of Ion Gavrilă Ogoranu, a member of the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard, played by Constantin Diță. In April 2010, the movie received the Public Award and the Image Award at B-EST Film Festival in Bucharest; the film was released in Romania on 18 November 2010. Constantin Diță Alexandru Potocean Răzvan Vasilescu Mimi Brănescu Teodor Corban Mihai Constantin Bogdan Dumitrache Mimi Brănescu Dan Bordeieanu Cătălin Babliuc Constantin Lupescu Nicodim Ungureanu Ingrid Bisu Alin Mihalache Radu Iacoban Portrait of the Fighter as a Young Man on IMDb

Paper mills of Aberdeen

This is an article about the 3 main paper mills in Aberdeen, Scotland. The Donside Paper Mill was paper mill in Aberdeen, shortly to the north of Old Aberdeen and the Tillydrone area, by the River Don. Since its closure in 2001, all the mill buildings have been cleared, the site has been redeveloped as an "urban village" The mill was developed to produce off-machine coated grades of paper. Principle grades were label, gloss matt art. In 2016 a hydro electric turbine was installed on the site by Aberdeen Community Energy; the installation revealed an old lade which had delivered water to the paper mill. Davidson Mill was a paper mill in the Mugiemoss area of Aberdeen, it closed in June 2005. Stoneywood Paper Mill is a paper mill still functioning in Aberdeen, it was established in 1710 by James Moir. It is now the only remaining paper mill on the river Don. After entering administration in January 2019, the Stoneywood Paper Mill survived after a management buyout by Creative Paper Holdings Ltd. in September 2019.

Stoneywood Paper Mill Davidson Mill Davidsons on BAPH UKMills Forum Donside Paper Mill closure costs 250 jobs Donside on BAPH UKMills Forum

Schuster (crater)

Schuster is a lunar impact crater that lies along the eastern rim of the much larger walled plain Mendeleev, on the far side of the Moon. To the east of Schuster is the crater Henderson, to the southeast lies the large Chaplygin; the schuster is a worn and eroded crater formation, with the most intact portion of the rim along the western half where it overlaps Mendeleev. There is a tight cluster of small craterlets along the northern inner wall and floor where the crater rim joins the rim of Mendeleev; the satellite craters Schuster Schuster R overlie the southwestern rim edge. At the midpoint of the crater interior is a central peak; the eastern half of the floor is pock-marked by tiny craterlets. Prior to naming in 1970 by the IAU, this crater was known as Crater 218. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Schuster. Andersson, L. E.. A.. NASA Catalogue of Lunar Nomenclature. NASA RP-1097. Blue, Jennifer. "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature".

USGS. Retrieved 2007-08-05. Bussey, B.. The Clementine Atlas of the Moon. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81528-4. Cocks, Elijah E.. Who's Who on the Moon: A Biographical Dictionary of Lunar Nomenclature. Tudor Publishers. ISBN 978-0-936389-27-1. McDowell, Jonathan. "Lunar Nomenclature". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 2007-10-24. Menzel, D. H.. "Report on Lunar Nomenclature by the Working Group of Commission 17 of the IAU". Space Science Reviews. 12: 136–186. Bibcode:1971SSRv...12..136M. Doi:10.1007/BF00171763. Moore, Patrick. On the Moon. Sterling Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-304-35469-6. Price, Fred W.. The Moon Observer's Handbook. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33500-3. Rükl, Antonín. Atlas of the Moon. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 978-0-913135-17-4. Webb, Rev. T. W.. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-20917-3. Whitaker, Ewen A.. Mapping and Naming the Moon. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62248-6. Wlasuk, Peter T.. Observing the Moon. Springer. ISBN 978-1-85233-193-1

Doug Russell (swimmer)

Douglas Albert Russell is an American former competitive swimmer, Olympic champion, former world record-holder in three different events. Russell raised in Midland, Texas, he began swimming in high school for Midland High School, swimming in the new 50-meter "Alamo" pool built by the city in 1962. It was renamed in his honor: the "Douglas Russell Swimming Pool." He was an all-around swimmer in high school—swimming competitively in butterfly and individual medley events. Other school swimmers of the era remember him as a tough competitor, hard to beat but who brought out the best in swimmers around him, he attended The University of Texas at Arlington, where he swam for coach Don Easterling's UT Arlington Mavericks swimming and diving team in National Collegiate Athletic Association competition. Doug Russell Park, part of the southern edge of the UT Arlington campus, is named in his honor. At the 1967 Pan American Games, he won a gold medal in the 200-meter individual medley, he won an NCAA national championship in the 100-yard butterfly in 1968, Amateur Athletic Union national outdoor title in the 100-meter butterfly.

At the 1968 Summer Olympics, Russell won the first-ever gold medal awarded in the men's 100-meter butterfly—an event which made its debut at the 1968 Olympics–in an upset over teammate and favorite Mark Spitz. He won another gold medal swimming the butterfly leg for the winning U. S. team in the 4×100-meter medley relay. Russell, together with relay teammates Charlie Hickcox, Don McKenzie, Ken Walsh, set a new world record of 3:54.9 in the event final. Russell was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame as an "Honor Swimmer" in 1985, he remains involved in swimming as the head coach of the Austin Trinity Aquatic Club. List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of University of Texas at Arlington people World record progression 100 metres backstroke World record progression 100 metres butterfly World record progression 4 × 100 metres medley relay Doug Russell at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Douglas Russell – Honor Swimmer profile at International Swimming Hall of Fame