Holly Marie Willoughby is an English television presenter and brand ambassador. She is the co-presenter of This Morning and Dancing on Ice alongside Phillip Schofield. Since 2008, Willoughby has been a team captain on ITV2's Celebrity Juice alongside Fearne Cotton. From 2012 to 2015, she presented the revived television series Surprise Surprise, replacing original presenter Cilla Black. Other TV work Play to the Whistle and The Xtra Factor. In November 2018, Willoughby co-presented the eighteenth series of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! Alongside Declan Donnelly. Willoughby was born the younger of two daughters of Brian R. Willoughby, a sales manager of a double-glazing company, Linda J. Willoughby, an air stewardess, she was educated at the independent Burgess Hill Girls in the town of Burgess Hill in West Sussex, The College of Richard Collyer in Horsham. In 1995, at the age of 14, Willoughby was spotted by talent scouts at The Clothes Show Live exhibition. Storm Model Management signed her up.
She appeared in teen magazines for girls such as Mizz, Just Seventeen and More!. From 1998, at the age of 17, Willoughby started modelling underwear for clients including Pretty Polly, appearing in advertisements and posters. In 2000, Willoughby won an audition for a show on CITV featuring S Club 7 called S Club TV. In this show actors represented an alternative S Club, she appeared in a show called S Club 7: Artistic Differences playing a character called Zoe with the regular members of the band. Willoughby worked as a receptionist for a while and as a runner for the defunct shopping channel Auction World TV. Willoughby took on menial jobs and started an Open University course in psychotherapy, she found work as assistant manager during which time she persuaded a friend to make a showreel of her. This secured her an agent who contacted the BBC. In 2000, Willoughby presented a factual entertainment programme for children called Xchange and went on to host several other children's shows for CBBC: X-perimental and CBBC at the Fame Academy.
Willoughby's first role as a children's entertainer came when she rejoined CITV in 2004 to co-present their entertainment show Ministry of Mayhem which aired on Saturday mornings. On this programme she met one of the show's producers. In 2006, the show's title was changed to Holly & Stephen's Saturday Showdown in order to reflect the popularity of its co-presenters and Stephen Mulhern. In 2005, Willoughby presented Feel the Fear, a children's entertainment programme in which the presenters are set unnerving challenges, she has had a number of minor appearances on other children's programmes. Willoughby presented CD:UK for a short while in the spring of 2005, replacing Cat Deeley before Myleene Klass, Lauren Laverne and Johny Pitts became the regular presenters. In recognition of work as a children's television presenter, Willoughby won a BAFTA in 2006. In 2006 she was chosen to co-present, with Phillip Schofield, the television show Dancing on Ice, in which celebrities are partnered with professional dancers to learn ice-dancing routines which are judged by a panel of experts and voted on by audiences.
Willoughby remained in the role until 2011 due to new commitments. She was replaced by Christine Lampard. Willoughby has presented a number of other ITV programmes, including spin-off shows such as Celebrity Wrestling: Bring It On in 2005, Greased Lightnin' in 2007 and The Xtra Factor for two years in 2008 and 2009. In 2007, she took over from Davina McCall as the presenter of Streetmate, a dating game show during its transition from Channel 4 to ITV2. Willoughby hosted the show for its final series. In the same year, Willoughby co-presented Fearne Go Dating with Fearne Cotton; the show saw the two hosts attempt to find dates for single people that they meet around the UK. Since 2008, Willoughby has appeared as a team captain on Celebrity Juice, presenting series 1–11 and 13 hosted by Keith Lemon and stars fellow team captain Fearne Cotton. Willoughby has co-presented ITV's This Morning with Phillip Schofield since September 2009 replacing Fern Britton. Willoughby and Schofield present the programme from Monday to Thursday mornings with Ruth Langsford and Eamonn Holmes co-hosting on Fridays.
In 2011, Willoughby co-presented charity telethon Text Santa with Dec.. She returned to co-host the show with Phillip Schofield in 2012, 2013 and 2015. On 24 March 2012, Willoughby began presenting The Voice UK with Reggie Yates, she decided to leave the show after the second series and was replaced by Emma Willis in 2014. In 2012, Willoughby began hosting a revived version of Surprise Surprise. A second series began airing on 15 September 2013, a third on 22 October 2014 and a fourth on 21 June 2015. Willoughby has written a series of children's books with her sister Kelly, their debut book School for Stars: First Term at L'Etoile became the UK's highest-selling children's book of 2013. Since 2015, Willoughby has presented sports-based panel show Play to the Whistle on ITV; the first series aired for seven episodes beginning on 11 April 2015. A second series aired for six episodes, beginning in April 2016 and a third series aired in 2017; the show has since been axed. In 2016, Willoughby presented primetime Saturday night dating show Meet the Parents for ITV.
The show has been compared to Blind Date. In October 2016, Willoughby admitted to taking part in a special Halloween episode of Celebrity Juice dressed as Harley Quinn while intoxicated. In August 2017, it was reported Willoughby had
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet o
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane. It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, with the Royal Opera House, known as "Covent Garden"; the district is divided by the main thoroughfare of Long Acre, north of, given over to independent shops centred on Neal's Yard and Seven Dials, while the south contains the central square with its street performers and most of the historical buildings and entertainment facilities, including the London Transport Museum and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The area was settled in the 7th century when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic, abandoned at the end of the 9th century. By 1200, part of it had been walled off by Westminster Abbey for use as arable land and orchards. Referred to as "the garden of the Abbey and Convent", "the Covent Garden", it was seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552.
The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build some fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Paul's; the design of the square was new to London and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for new estates as London grew. By 1654 a small open-air fruit-and-vegetable market had developed on the south side of the fashionable square. Both the market and the surrounding area fell into disrepute, as taverns, coffee-houses and brothels opened up. By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district. An Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, Charles Fowler's neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market; the market grew and further buildings were added: the Floral Hall, Charter Market, in 1904 the Jubilee Market. By the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden Market about three miles south-west at Nine Elms.
The central building re-opened as a shopping centre in 1980 and is now a tourist location containing cafes, small shops, a craft market called the Apple Market, along with another market held in the Jubilee Hall. Covent Garden falls within the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden and the parliamentary constituencies of Cities of London and Westminster and Holborn and St Pancras; the area has been served by the Piccadilly line at Covent Garden Underground station since 1907. What would become the Strand on the southern boundary of the future Covent Garden was used during the Roman period as part of a route to Silchester, known as Iter VII on the Antonine Itinerary. Excavations in 2006 at St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a late Roman grave, suggesting the locale had been a sacred site; the area to the north of the Strand was long thought to have remained as unsettled fields until the 16th century, but theories by Alan Vince and Martin Biddle that there had been an Anglo-Saxon settlement to the west of the old Roman town of Londinium were borne out by excavations in 1985 and 2005.
These revealed Covent Garden as the centre of a trading town called Lundenwic, developed around 600 AD, which stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great shifted the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the site returned to fields. A document from 1200 AD mentions a walled garden owned by the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of St Peter, Westminster. A document, dated between 1250 and 1283, refers to "the garden of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster". By the 13th century this had become a 40-acre quadrangle of mixed orchard, meadow and arable land, lying between modern-day St Martin's Lane and Drury Lane, Floral Street and Maiden Lane; the use of the name "Covent"—an Anglo-French term for a religious community, equivalent to "monastery" or "convent"—appears in a document in 1515, when the Abbey, letting out parcels of land along the north side of the Strand for inns and market gardens, granted a lease of the walled garden, referring to it as "a garden called Covent Garden".
This is how it was recorded from on. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, Henry VIII took the land belonging to Westminster Abbey for himself, his son, Edward VI, granted it to the John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1552. The Russell family, who in 1694 were advanced in their peerage from Earl to Duke of Bedford, held the land until 1918. Russell built Bedford House and garden on part of the land, with an entrance on the Strand, the large garden stretching back along the south side of the old walled-off convent garden. In 1630, 4th Earl of Bedford, Francis Russell commissioned Inigo Jones to design and build a church and three terraces of fine houses around a large square or piazza; this had been prompted by Charles I taking offence at the condition of the road and houses along Long Acre, which were the responsibility of Russell and Henry Carey, 2nd Earl of Monmouth. Russell and Carey complained that under the 1625 Proclamation concerning Buildings, which restricted building in and around London, they could not build new houses.
For a fee of £2,000, the King granted Russell a licence to build as many new houses on his land as he "shall thinke fitt and convenient". The houses attracted the wealthy, though they moved out when a market developed on the south side of the square around 1654, coffee houses and prostitutes moved in; the Bedford Estate was expanded in 1669 to include Bloomsbury, when L
Hawick is a town in the Scottish Borders council area and historic county of Roxburghshire in the east Southern Uplands of Scotland. It is 10.0 miles south-west of Jedburgh and 8.9 miles south-southeast of Selkirk. It is one of the farthest towns from the sea in Scotland, in the heart of Teviotdale, the biggest town in the former county of Roxburghshire. Hawick's architecture is distinctive in; the town is at the confluence of the Slitrig Water with the River Teviot. Hawick is known for its yearly Common Riding, for its rugby team Hawick Rugby Football Club and for its knitwear industry. At the 2001 census Hawick had a resident population of 14,801. By 2011, this had reduced to 14,294; the west end of the town contains "the Mote", the remains of a Norman motte-and-bailey. In the centre of the High Street is the Scots baronial style town hall, built in 1886, the east end has an equestrian statue, known as "the Horse", erected in 1914. Drumlanrig's Tower, now a museum, dates from the mid-16th century.
In 2009 another monument the "Turning of the Bull" was unveiled in Hawick. This monument depicts William Rule turning the wild bull as it was charging King Robert the Bruce, thus saving the king's life and beginning the Scottish Clan of Turnbull. A poem written by John Leyden commemorates this historical event. "His arms robust the hardy hunter flung around his bending horns, upward wrung, with writhing force his neck retorted round, rolled the panting monster to the ground, with enormous strength, his bony skull. Companies: Hawick Cashmere, Hawick Knitwear, Johnstons of Elgin, Lyle & Scott, Peter Scott, Pringle of Scotland, Scott and Charters, have had and in many cases still have manufacturing plants in Hawick, producing luxury cashmere and merino wool knitwear; the first knitting machine was brought to Hawick in 1771 by John Hardie, building on an existing carpet manufacturing trade. Based on linen, this moved to wool and factories multiplied, driving the growth of the town. Engineering firm Turnbull and Scott had their headquarters in an Elizabethan-style listed building on Commercial Road before moving to Burnfoot.
In recent times, unemployment has been an issue in Hawick, the unemployment claimant rate remained ahead of the overall Scottish Borders between 2014 and 2017. The closure of once significant employers including mills like Peter Scott and Pringle have impacted job availability in the town over the last few decades, the population has declined because of this, at 13,730 in 2016, the lowest level since the 1800s. Despite efforts to improve the economic situation and poverty remain important in the context of the Scottish Borders, with the number of children living in poverty in the town 10% higher than the average for the region in 2017. Developments such as a new central business hub, Aldi supermarket, distillery, all set for opening in 2018/19, are expected to benefit Hawick. Despite this, continued business closures, for example Homebase and the Original Factory Store in 2018, suggest continued economic decline for the town. Hawick lies in the centre of the valley of the Teviot; the A7 Edinburgh to Carlisle road passes through the town, with main roads leading to Berwick-upon-Tweed and Newcastle upon Tyne.
The town lost its rail service in 1969, when as part of the Beeching Axe the'Waverley Route' from Carlisle to Edinburgh via Hawick was closed. It was said to be the farthest large town from a railway station in the United Kingdom, but this changed as a result of the opening of the Borders Railway, which in 2015 reopened part of the former Waverley Route to Tweedbank, near Galashiels. Regular buses serve the railway station at Carlisle, 42 miles away. Reconnecting Hawick to the Borders Railway would require reinstatement of a further 17 miles of the former Waverley Route from Hawick to Tweedbank station via Hassendean, St Boswells, Melrose, refurbishment of the four arch Ale Water viaduct near New Belses. Hawick station was on the north bank of the river Teviot, below Wilton Hill Terrace, with a now demolished viaduct carrying the route south towards Carlisle. Waverley Walk in Hawick is footpath along the former railway route, north-eastward from the former station site near Teviotdale Leisure Centre.
The nearest major airports are at Edinburgh, 57 miles away, Newcastle, 56 miles away. The town hosts the annual Common Riding, which combines the annual riding of the boundaries of the town's common land with the commemoration of a victory of local youths over an English raiding party in 1514. In March 2007, this was described by the Rough Guide publication World Party as one of the best parties in the world. People from Hawick call themselves "Teries", after a traditional song which includes the line "Teribus ye teri odin". Many Hawick residents speak the local dialect of Border Scots, informally known as "Teri Talk", it is similar to the dialects spoken in surrounding towns Jedburgh and Selkirk. The speech of this general area was described in Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland by James Murray, considered the first systematic study of any dialect; the Hawick tongue retains many elements of Old English, together with particular vocabulary and pronunciation. Its distinctiveness arose from the relative isolation of the town.
The town is the home of Hawick Rugby Football Club an
DAKS is a British luxury fashion house, founded in 1894 by Simeon Simpson in London. DAKS holds royal warrants granted from three members of one of 15 firms to do so. Granted to DAKS' Simpson Piccadilly store in 1956 was the royal warrant of HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, followed by that of HM The Queen in 1962 and HRH The Prince of Wales in 1982. Worldwide, DAKS is exported to 30 countries and sold in over 2,000 specialty shops, major stores and concessions; the name is a combination of the initials of Alexander Simpson and an initial and final letter of his business associate Dudley Beck. In 1894 Simeon Simpson, aged 16, rented a room on Middlesex Street, East London, with the intention of setting up a business in bespoke tailoring, focused on high standard craftsmanship. Several innovations of technology at the time were being introduced with machinery capable of making buttonholes and electric powered saws to cut many layers of fabric at once – Simpson saw the potential for such equipment for producing garments in higher quantities while still upholding quality tailoring techniques, aiming to improve ready-to-wear standards as no male or female professionals considered ready-to-wear for suitable attire at the time.
Simpson's methods proved successful in speeding up the process and he set up several factories within London, which soon required expansion in its early years through popularity of the label. Alexander Simpson, his second son, joined the business aged 15 in 1917, by 1929 had planned and opened a larger factory in Stoke Newington where production could be centralised, this again had to be enlarged a few years later. With the continued growth of the company Alexander Simpson began to take more control of the business, in 1935 DAKS gained further fame for the S Simpson brand as an innovation in the tailoring world of the first self-supporting trouser, he went about to invent a way to support his trousers that wouldn't need braces as these interrupted his swing whilst playing golf and caused his shirt to become untucked. The DAKS trouser was invented – it had a channel within the waistband at the back wherein an elasticated strip was attached at the sides with tabs attached to one of two buttons for adjustment.
On the inside of the waistband were sewn-on rubber pads that gripped the shirt and stopped it from becoming loose. This happened in a world where to buy a pair of trousers of high quality one would have to have a bespoke pair made by a tailor, thus this new design allowed the ease of ready-to-wear trousers. Simpson was so sure of his new design that he had 100,000 pairs made before being introduced to the public at a high price of 30 shillings in a time when a whole bespoke suit would cost 50 shillings; the trousers were available in many colours and fabrics that weren't associated with menswear. They became so popular that the trousers were incorporated into suits and soon after a DAKS womenswear line was released, using the patented waistband for skirting; the inception of the DAKS name was aiming to be something short and eye catching and is an arrangement of initials from the two men involved in its development –'AS' for Alexander Simpson and'DK' for his business associate Dudley Beck hence why the name is capitalised.
The advertising agent involved for the promotion of these new trousers, Sir William Crawford of WS Crawford Ltd thought up the idea to market them as'Dad's Slacks' as it had connotations of reliability and comfort whilst sounding similar to the name DAKS. At the turn of the 21st century when the company was acquired by Japanese group Sankyo Seiko Co. Limited in 1991, the S Simpson name was dropped and DAKS became the new brand name; the ease-of-wear of the trousers and how they allowed movement, as intended from Simpson's invention, led to DAKS being popular in sporting wear – kitting tennis, motor racing, football players, for the British Olympic team in 1960. The quality of S Simpson tailoring was such that the company was commissioned by the British Government at the time of the Second World War to produce military uniforms for officers in the Army, Royal Airforce and Women's Services despite the semi-destruction of the Stoke Newington factory due to bomb damage and loss of electricity – with about seven million garments made for military services being produced.
After the war when DAKS clothes were announced to start selling to the public again queues of people would form down Piccadilly, to which Simpson tailors would measure them in line and present suitable pairs of trousers to them when they got into the Simpsons of Piccadilly store. Simeon Simpson's son Alexander Simpson, owner of the company, decided he wanted to find a'window' for Simpson clothes in the heart of London, he founded Simpsons of Piccadilly when the Geological Museum had closed and the site to be auctioned. The new building was designed by architect Joseph Emberton as a new and revolutionary retail establishment, the shop front windows exhibited the first curved glass display in Great Britain and the largest in the world at the time, these were designed so that no reflection would be cast to obscure the displays inside; the outstanding feature of the shop's interior was the travertine staircase that ran up through the centre of the store lit by a continuous window up the height of the building.
The current lighting structure suspended through the staircase centre is the original from the 1930s as the building has since become a listed building. The store opened in April 1936 by the world-famous motor-racing driver, and was famed for its visual merchandising and window displays by László Moholy-Nagy, a former director from the Bauhaus school. Opening the s
Cadbury Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International since 2010. It is the second-largest confectionery brand in the world after Mars. Cadbury is internationally headquartered in Uxbridge, West London, operates in more than 50 countries worldwide, it is known for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in 2013 The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports. Cadbury was established in Birmingham, England in 1824, by John Cadbury who sold tea and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons George. George developed the Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the chocolate was the company's best-selling product.
Cadbury, alongside Rowntree's and Fry, were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Cadbury was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in 1854, it has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Elizabeth II since 1955. Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons in 1919, Schweppes in 1969, known as Cadbury Schweppes until 2008, when the American beverage business was split as Dr Pepper Snapple Group. Cadbury was a constant constituent of the FTSE 100 on the London Stock Exchange from the index's 1984 inception until the company was bought by Kraft Foods in 2010. In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers".
In 1847, Cadbury's competitor Fry's of Bristol produced the first chocolate bar. Cadbury introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849, that same year and Fry's chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham; the Cadbury brothers opened an office in London, in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s. John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, the company was losing money. By 1866, Cadbury was profitable again; the brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, by increasing the quality of their products. The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean.
The firm began exporting its products in the 1850s. In 1861, the company created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — and in 1868 they were sold in boxes in the shape of a heart for Valentine's Day. Boxes of filled chocolates became associated with the holiday. In 1878, the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham; the move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk, inward shipped by canal, cocoa, brought in by rail from London and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres of countryside 5 miles south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year. In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'.
By 1900 the estate included 314 houses set on 330 acres of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate. In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company. In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper, it was a great sales success, became the company's best selling product by 1914. The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War.
More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male employees joined the British Armed Forces, to support the British war effort, Cadbury provided chocolate and clothing to the troops. George Cadbury handed over two com
Gregory John Norman AO is an Australian professional golfer and entrepreneur who spent 331 weeks as the world's Number 1 Official World Golf Rankings ranked golfer in the 1980s and 1990s. He has won 91 international tournaments, including 20 PGA Tour tournaments and two majors: The Open Championships in 1986 and 1993. Norman earned thirty top-10 finishes and was the runner-up 8 times in majors throughout his career, he was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2001 with the highest percentage of votes of any golfer to date. In a reference to his blond hair, aggressive golf style and his birthplace's native coastal animal, Norman's nickname is "The Great White Shark", which he earned after his play at the 1981 Masters. During and after his playing career, Norman engaged in numerous entrepreneurial and philanthropic endeavors, he serves as the chairman and CEO of the Greg Norman Company, a global corporation with a portfolio of companies in fields like apparel, interior design, real estate, private equity, golf course design, more.
Norman has donated to and established numerous charities and charity events like the QBE Shootout which benefits the CureSearch for Children's Cancer fund. He became a Trustee of the Environmental Institute for Golf in 2004 and received the Golf Writers Association of America's Bartlett Award in 2008 for his philanthropic endeavors. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, Greg Norman was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for his role as a "sports legend". Norman was born in Mount Isa, Australia to Mervin and Toini Norman, his mother was the daughter of a Finnish carpenter, his father an electrical engineer. As a youth, he aspired to be a professional surfer, his mother Toini, who had a single-figure handicap, taught the 15-year-old Norman how to golf and allowed him to caddy for her at the Virginia Golf Club in Brisbane. Within about eighteen months, Norman went from a 27 handicap to a scratch handicap. Norman attended Townsville Grammar School in Townsville, Queensland moved on to Aspley State High School on the north side of Brisbane.
In 1975, at the age of 20, Norman served as assistant professional under Billy McWilliam OAM at Beverley Park Golf Club in Sydney, New South Wales. Shortly thereafter, in the same year, Norman started work as Charlie Earp's trainee in the Royal Queensland Golf Club pro shop, earning A$38 a week. In 1976, six years after he first began to golf, Norman turned professional as a tournament player; that year he earned his first victory at the West Lakes Classic at The Grange Golf Club in Adelaide, South Australia. He joined the European Tour in 1977, had his first victory in a European event that same season, the Martini International, at the Blairgowrie Club in Scotland. In 1980, Norman earned a sizable victory in the French Open, he won the Scandinavian Enterprise Open in Sweden with a course record of 64 in the final round. In 1980, Norman won the Suntory World Match Play Championship. Norman won his first Australian Open that year, his first of five wins in that event. In 1981, Norman finished in 4th place on his debut at the Masters in Augusta, finishing just three strokes behind the winner Tom Watson.
Norman had a victory in the 1981 British Masters and he won his third Martini International tournament that year as well. In 1982, Norman was the leading money winner on the European Tour, he won three European events that year, including defending his British Masters title. The following year, Norman joined the U. S. PGA Tour. In June 1984, Norman won his maiden PGA Tour victory at the Kemper Open, he gained worldwide prominence a week at the 1984 U. S. Open. Norman holed a dramatic 45-foot putt on the 72nd hole to force a playoff with former Masters champion Fuzzy Zoeller. At the next day's 18-hole playoff, Zoeller would earn a 67-75 victory over Norman, he was able to put the defeat behind him with a victory at the Canadian Open the next month in July for his second win of the year. In 1985, Norman won the Toshiba Australian PGA Championship and the National Panasonic Australian Open, he had two runner-up finishes in the U. S. PGA Tour that year, finishing tied for second place at the Canadian Open and at the Bank of Boston Classic.
In 1986, Norman's 11 worldwide victories that year included four wins in Australia and two regular PGA Tour events. Norman held the lead for all four majors through 54 holes; this meant he played in the final group for every major and had the best chance in history of winning the single season Grand Slam. However, the only major victory Norman earned that year was in the 1986 Open Championship at Turnberry. At the 1986 Masters, Norman started with the lead. After making four consecutive birdies on holes 14 to 17, Norman was tied with Jack Nicklaus going to the 18th. Norman missed a par putt on the 18th. At the 1986 U. S. Open at Shinnecock Hills, Norman again led after 54 holes. However, Norman faltered on the final day, finishing with a final round 75 placing him six strokes behind the winner, Raymond Floyd. Norman broke through at the 1986 Open Championship for his first major title. Norman shot a second round of 63 on Friday at Turnberry, tying the record for the lowest round at the Open. Only 15 players broke par in the second round.
Tom Watson described Norman's feat as "the greatest round played in a tournament in which I was a competitor." Norman survived the weeke