Buffalo County, South Dakota
Buffalo County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,912, its county seat is Gann Valley which, at 14 people, is the least populous county seat in the United States. The county was created in 1864, was organized in 1871 as part of the Dakota Territory. In 2010, the center of population of South Dakota was located in eastern Buffalo County; the Crow Creek Indian Reservation, inhabited by the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe makes up the majority of Buffalo County. According to the 2013 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates of the US Census Bureau, about 41% of county residents live in poverty, making it the fifth-poorest county in South Dakota; this is a far higher poverty rate than the national poverty rate of 15.8%. Median household income in 2013 was $21,572, making it the lowest-earning county in South Dakota and the United States. In March 2015, the county unemployment rate was 8.5%. As of 2002, many homes lack indoor plumbing; the Missouri River flows southerly along the county's western boundary.
The county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills sloping to the south and east. Some area is devoted to agriculture; the south and west parts of the county are drained by Crow Creek, which discharges into the river at the county's SW corner. The county has a total area of 488 square miles, of which 471 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Bedashosha Lake Lake Francis Case Lake Sharpe As first organized, the county occupied an extensive area, bounded on the north by Canada and west by the Missouri River, having Montana for a part of its northwest boundary, comprising a large portion of the “Plateau du Coteau du Missouri,” and a part of the Miniwakan or Devil's Lake, thus its original boundary contained a portion of the future North Dakota, which became a separate unit when the Dakota Territory was admitted into the Union in 1889 as two separate states. As of the 2000 United States Census, there are 2,032 people, 526 households, 422 families in the county; the population density is 4 people per square mile.
There are 602 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county is 81.59% Native American, 16.34% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.30% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. 0.89 % of the population are Latino of any race. 8.9% were of German ancestry. There are 526 households out of which 47.10% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.60% are married couples living together, 31.40% have a female householder with no husband present, 19.80% are non-families. 16.00% of all households are made up of individuals and 5.90% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.83 and the average family size is 4.23. The county population contains 41.30% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 16.10% from 45 to 64, 6.50% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 23 years. For every 100 females there are 105.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 98 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $12,692, the median income for a family was $14,167. Males had a median income of $18,650 versus $19,554 for females; the per capita income for the county was the lowest in the nation. About 55.70% of families and 56.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 61.50% of those under age 18 and 50.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,912 people, 532 households, 407 families in the county; the population density was 4.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 609 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.0% Native American, 14.8% white, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.0% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.6% were German, 0.0% were American. Of the 532 households, 55.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.1% were married couples living together, 33.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were non-families, 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 3.59 and the average family size was 4.06. The median age was 25.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,926 and the median income for a family was $28,333. Males had a median income of $38,920 versus $18,542 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,410. About 44.4% of families and 49.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 58.2% of those under age 18 and 36.3% of those age 65 or over. Elvira In 2016, Hillary Clinton won the votes in Buffalo County due to support from Native Americans. Democratic Party nominees have won every presidential election since 1956 except the 1980 and 1984 elections which Ronald Reagan won. National Register of Historic Places listings in Buffalo County, South Dakota "Buffalo County". South Dakota Magazine. Part of a series on South Dakota counties
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
U.S. Route 183
U. S. Route 183 is a north–south United States highway. US 183 was the last U. S. Route to be paved; the 20-mile segment in Loup County, north of Taylor, was unpaved until 1967. The highway's southern terminus is in Refugio, Texas, at the southern intersection of U. S. Highway 77 and Alternate US 77, its northern terminus is in Presho, South Dakota, at an intersection with Interstate 90. US 183 and Alt US 77 overlap for their final 80 miles between Refugio. US-183 begins in Refugio, sharing a multiplex with US-77A; the two highways continue north through Goliad County. US-183 crosses I-10 south of the town of Luling; the largest city that US-183 passes through is Austin, where it is a limited access highway. Northwest of Austin, US-183 passes through the suburbs of Cedar Park and Leander, where the 183A toll road runs parallel to it. In Lampasas County, US-183 shares a multiplex with US-190 between the towns of Lometa. US-183 shares a multiplex with US-84 from Goldthwaite in Mills County to Early in Brown County.
It crosses I-20 in Texas. US-183 enters a multiplex with US-283 in Throckmorton County, both highways share a multiplex with US-277 and US-82 in Baylor County from Seymour to Mabelle. In Wilbarger County, US-183 exits the multiplex with US-283 and turns east with US-70 to share a wrong way concurrency with US-287 between the towns of Vernon and Oklaunion. US-183 continues north sharing a multiplex with US-70. US 183/US 70 enters Oklahoma by crossing the Red River 3 miles south of Davidson, OK. In Davidson, US 70 splits from US 183; this continues as US 183 passes US 62 and BUS 62 in Snyder, OK. About 62 miles north of Snyder, US 183 crosses Interstate 40 at Interstate 40's exit 66. Another 47 miles US 183 co-signs with US 270 near Seiling, OK. US 183/US 270 continue in a northwesterly direction for 32 miles before picking up US 412 in Woodward, OK. US 183/US 270/US 412 leave Woodward in a due west fashion for a short time, until heading northwest again for 15 miles, at which time US 270 and US 412 leave US 183 near Fort Supply, OK to form their own duplex through the panhandle of Oklahoma as US 270/US 412.
US 183 continues north from the southern Harper County line to the Oklahoma/Kansas state line for a total of about 31 miles before leaving the state. US-183 enters Kansas in Clark County and turns east at Sitka, where it begins a multiplex with US-160, entering Comanche County, where it passes through Protection; the highways stay paired as it turns north to pass through Coldwater. At Coldwater, US-160 turns back to the east, US-183 continues its northerly track. Entering Kiowa County, US-183 reaches a junction with the multiplexed east–west route, US-54 and US-400, where it passes through Greensburg. In southern Edwards County, the highway makes a brief turn to the west before meeting up with US-56 in Kinsley, the Edwards County seat. US-56 and US-183 turn northeast before the highways split after entering Pawnee County. US-56 continues northeast toward Larned, US-183 straightens out to pass through unpopulated areas in Edwards County. In Rush County, US-183 intersects two primary east–west Kansas state highways, K-96 in Rush Center and K-4 in LaCrosse.
US-183 reaches the largest city along its route in Kansas, where a western bypass of the highway provides direct access to Gross Memorial Coliseum and Fort Hays State University. US-183 contains numerous businesses. US-183 runs through town for three miles before crossing Interstate 70, traveled in Hays with traffic between Denver and Kansas City; the interchange of US-183 and I-70 has been designated as the CW2 Bryan J. Nichols Fallen Veterans Memorial Interchange. North of Hays, the highway has been resurfaced and realigned for 23 miles to Plainville, one of two towns in Rooks County US-183 serves. At Plainville, US-183 has a junction with K-18. US-183 continues 15 miles north to the Rooks County seat, where US-24 crosses; the highway enters Phillips County 12 miles north of Stockton. US-183 meets US-36 west, the highways join for a multiplex through the city of Phillipsburg; the highways split in downtown Phillipsburg, US-183 has one last junction with K-383 before exiting the state south of Alma, Nebraska.
US-183 is two-laned throughout Kansas, except for the portion. U. S. Highway 183 enters Nebraska south of Alma, it enters Alma after crossing Harlan County Lake and the Republican River and runs concurrent with U. S. Highway 136 north out of Alma. After separating from US 136, US 183 continues north to Holdrege, where it intersects U. S. Highway 6 and U. S. Highway 34. US 183 continues north from Holdrege and intersects Interstate 80 south of Elm Creek shortly after crossing the Platte River, it proceeds north into Elm Creek and meets U. S. Highway 30. US 183 intersects Nebraska Highway 2 at Ansley, it continues north from Ansley through Sargent and Rose before meeting U. S. Highway 20 in Bassett. At Bassett, US 183 turns west with US 20 before turning north again near Long Pine. US 183 continues north through Springview before entering South Dakota. U. S. Highway 183 enters South Dakota just south of Wewela, it goes north to Colome, where it intersects U. S. Highway 18. US 183 and US 18 go northwest through Winner together US 183 turns north west of Winner.
It goes north to Presho, where it ends. The South Dakota section of U. S. 183, with the exception of a concurrency with U. S. 18, is
White River (Missouri River tributary)
The White River is a Missouri River tributary that flows 580 miles through the U. S. states of South Dakota. The name stems from the water's white-gray color, a function of eroded sand and volcanic ash carried by the river from its source near the Badlands. Draining a basin of about 10,200 square miles, about 8,500 square miles of, in South Dakota, the stream flows through a region of sparsely populated hills and badlands; the White River rises in northwestern Nebraska, in the Pine Ridge escarpment north of Harrison, at an elevation of 4,861 feet above sea level. It flows southeast northeast past Fort Robinson and north of Crawford, it crosses into southwestern South Dakota and flows north across the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation northeast, receiving Wounded Knee Creek and flowing between units of Badlands National Park. It flows east-northeast and southeast at the northern edge of the reservation, forming the northern boundary of the reservation and the southern boundary of Buffalo Gap National Grassland.
It receives the Little White River about 15 miles south of Murdo, flows east to join the Missouri in Lake Francis Case about 15 miles southwest of Chamberlain. The river sometimes has no surface flow due to the dry climate surrounding its badlands and prairie basin, though thunderstorms can cause brief intense flow; the river near Chamberlain flows year-round. The White River has good-quality water. White River Fauna List of rivers of Nebraska List of rivers of South Dakota Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed.. "Chapter 10: Missouri River Basin" in Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America. Rising in the Rocky Mountains of western Montana, the Missouri flows east and south for 2,341 miles before entering the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri; the river takes drainage from a sparsely populated, semi-arid watershed of more than half a million square miles, which includes parts of ten U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. When combined with the lower Mississippi River, it forms the world's fourth longest river system. For over 12,000 years, people have depended on the Missouri River and its tributaries as a source of sustenance and transportation. More than ten major groups of Native Americans populated the watershed, most leading a nomadic lifestyle and dependent on enormous bison herds that roamed through the Great Plains; the first Europeans encountered the river in the late seventeenth century, the region passed through Spanish and French hands before becoming part of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase.
The Missouri River was one of the main routes for the westward expansion of the United States during the 19th century. The growth of the fur trade in the early 19th century laid much of the groundwork as trappers explored the region and blazed trails. Pioneers headed west en masse beginning in the 1830s, first by covered wagon by the growing numbers of steamboats that entered service on the river. Settlers took over former Native American lands in the watershed, leading to some of the most longstanding and violent wars against indigenous peoples in American history. During the 20th century, the Missouri River basin was extensively developed for irrigation, flood control and the generation of hydroelectric power. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Meanders have been cut and the river channelized to improve navigation, reducing its length by 200 miles from pre-development times. Although the lower Missouri valley is now a populous and productive agricultural and industrial region, heavy development has taken its toll on wildlife and fish populations as well as water quality.
From the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, three streams rise to form the headwaters of the Missouri River: the longest begins near Brower's Spring, 9,100 feet above sea level on the southeastern slopes of Mount Jefferson in the Centennial Mountains. From there it flows west north, it passes through Canyon Ferry Lake, a reservoir west of the Big Belt Mountains. Issuing from the mountains near Cascade, the river flows northeast to the city of Great Falls, where it drops over the Great Falls of the Missouri, a series of five substantial waterfalls, it winds east through a scenic region of canyons and badlands known as the Missouri Breaks, receiving the Marias River from the west widening into the Fort Peck Lake reservoir a few miles above the confluence with the Musselshell River. Farther on, the river passes through the Fort Peck Dam, downstream, the Milk River joins from the north. Flowing eastward through the plains of eastern Montana, the Missouri receives the Poplar River from the north before crossing into North Dakota where the Yellowstone River, its greatest tributary by volume, joins from the southwest.
At the confluence, the Yellowstone is the larger river. The Missouri meanders east past Williston and into Lake Sakakawea, the reservoir formed by Garrison Dam. Below the dam the Missouri receives the Knife River from the west and flows south to Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota, where the Heart River joins from the west, it slows into the Lake Oahe reservoir just before the Cannonball River confluence. While it continues south reaching Oahe Dam in South Dakota, the Grand and Cheyenne Rivers all join the Missouri from the west; the Missouri makes a bend to the southeast as it winds through the Great Plains, receiving the Niobrara River and many smaller tributaries from the southwest. It proceeds to form the boundary of South Dakota and Nebraska after being joined by the James River from the north, forms the Iowa–Nebraska boundary. At Sioux City the Big Sioux River comes in from the north; the Missouri flows south to the city of Omaha where it receives its longest tributary, the Platte River, from the west.
Downstream, it begins to define the Nebraska–Missouri border flows between Missouri and Kansas. The Missouri swings east at Kansas City, where the Kansas River enters from the west, so on into north-central Missouri. To the east of Kansas City, the Missouri receives, on the left side, the Grand River, it passes south of Columbia and receives the Osage and Gasconade Rivers from the south downstream of Jefferson City. The river rounds the northern side of St. Louis to join the Mississippi River on the border between Missouri and Illinois. With a drainage basin spanning 529,350 square miles, the Missouri River's catchment encompasses nearly one-sixth of the area of the United States or just over five percent of the continent of North America. Comparable to the size of the Canadian province of Quebec, the watershed encompasses most of the central Great Plains, stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Lower Brule Indian Reservation
The Lower Brulé Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation that belongs to the Lower Brulé Lakota Tribe. It is located on the west bank of the Missouri River in Lyman and Stanley counties in central South Dakota in the United States, it is adjacent to the Crow Creek Indian Reservation on the east bank of the river. The Kul Wicasa Oyate, the Lower Brulé Sioux, are members of the Sicangu, one of the bands of the Lakota Tribe. Tribal headquarters is in Lower Brule; the Sioux consist of a group of self-governing tribes speaking one of three dialects of the Siouan language: Dakota and Lakota. The Dakota or Santee, who identify as by the autonymns of Mdewakantonwan, Wahpekute, or Sisseton, range in territory from the Ohio River valley to South Dakota; the Dakota or Nakota, known as the Ihanktonwan/Yankton or Yanktonai/Ihanktonwanna, range from eastern Minnesota to the Missouri River valley. The Lakota, or Western Teton/Tituwan Sioux, consisting of the Oglala, Sicangu, Oohenunpa and Itazipco, traditionally ranged from lands east of the Missouri River valley to the Rocky Mountains.
A common history and language, a strong respect for the land and nature, the common use of Pipestone and the reverence held for the stone, ceremonies such as the Sun Dance, Sweat lodge, Vision Quest, bind these peoples together. The name'Brule' comes from the French word brûlé, the name French fur traders used for the Sicangu in the late 17th century; the Sicangu divided into the Lower Brulé and the Heyata Wicasa, or Upper Brulé, in the late 18th century. The Lower Brulé favored lands at the confluence of the White River and the Missouri River, while the Upper Brulé lived further south and west; the tribe has been working to improve the environment of the reservation and to protect its sacred places. In 2013, the tribe requested that the KELO-TV station find a new site for a transmission tower on Medicine Butte that had fallen. Medicine Butte rises about 200 feet above the prairie and is sacred to the Brulé; the town of Reliance developed nearby. KELO-TV placed a new tower elsewhere. Major employers are the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, its Golden Buffalo Casino, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service.
The gaming casino has generated new revenue for the tribe. The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a sovereign nation defined by its government-to-government relationship with the United States; as part of the Great Sioux Nation, the Tribe signed treaties in 1824, 1851, 1865 and 1868 with the federal government that constitute the legal documents establishing boundaries and recognizing the rights of sovereign tribal governments. The Tribe was chartered under the Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, its constitution was ratified on July 11, 1936, bylaws were approved in 1960. The Tribe has contracted several aspects of self-government under the 1975 Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act, PL 93-638. On June 17, 1974, the constitution and bylaws were amended, on September 2, 1986, they were again amended and a code of ethics adopted. Tribal affairs are conducted by a six-member Tribal Council. Council offices include the chairman, vice-chairman, secretary/treasurer, three Council members.
The Tribal Council Chairman serves as the Chief Executive Officer and Administrative head of the Tribe. The Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary-Treasurer, the three Council Member positions are elected at-large. A general election is held on the first Tuesday of September in numbered years. Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer are elected at-large; the tribal council appoints, a Sergeant at Arms, a Chaplain, other officers as necessary. Offices are held for two years. Elections consist of a Primary and General Election; the Primaries are held in August and the General is held in September, with Officials being seated during the October regular meeting. Council members serve as officers or council representatives on various boards and committees. Meetings are held the first Wednesday of each month with a quorum of five members; the Lower Brule Sioux Tribal courts are established under a quasi-separation of power relationship with the Tribal Government. The 1986 Constitution/By-law amendments created the Chief Judge as an elected position, with a 4-year term.
While the Tribal Council is the final authority on the Reservation, it has formally acknowledged the legal authority vested in the Tribal Courts. The Lower Brule Sioux Court system has established an appellate court and attendant processes; the Court hears all civil and minor criminal cases, while the federal courts hear all major felony cases. As part of the Pick-Sloan Missouri River Basin program, authorized by Congress in 1944 for flood control, two major dams and other flood control projects were built in this area by the federal government, it acquired property on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation for two dam projects: 7,997 acres of Indian land for the Fort Randall Dam project and 14,299 acres for the Big Bend Dam project. In 1963, the Big Bend Dam on the Missouri River was completed by the Army Corps of Engineers; the operation of the dam caused flooding of the Lower Brule community and surrounding bottomlands in the heart of the reservation. The waters inundated miles of roadways and a significant amount of the most productive and fertile farmland of the Reservation.
By Public Law 87-734, the Secretary of the Army was to provide mitigation for such damages, including replacing roads and facilities. The government failed to carry out its obligations under the