A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians have a larval phase of their life cycle; the larva's appearance is very different from the adult form including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may be different. Larvae are adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form. In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves; some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers.
In Ropalidia marginata the males are capable of feeding larvae but they are much less efficient, spending more time and getting less food to the larvae. The larvae of some species do not develop further into the adult form; this is a type of neoteny. It is a misunderstanding; this could be the case, but the larval stage has evolved secondarily, as in insects. In these cases the larval form may differ more than the adult form from the group's common origin. Within Insects, only Endopterygotes show different types of larvae. Several classifications have been suggested by many entomologists, following classification is based on Antonio Berlese classification in 1913. There are four main types of endopterygote larvae types: Apodous larvae – no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. Based on sclerotization, three apodous forms are recognized. Eucephalous – with well sclerotized head capsule. Found in Nematocera and Cerambycidae families. Hemicephalus – with a reduced head capsule, retractable in to the thorax.
Found in Tipulidae and Brachycera families. Acephalus – without head capsule. Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae – larva have many different forms and unlike a normal insect form, they hatch from eggs which contains little yolk. Ex. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae – known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal prolegs, in addition to usual thoracic legs, they poorly sclerotized and inactive. They live in close contact with the food. Best example is caterpillars of lepidopterans. Oligopod larvae – have well developed head capsule and mouthparts are similar to the adult, but without compound eyes, they have six legs. No abdominal prolegs. Two types can be seen: Campodeiform – well sclerotized, dorso-ventrally flattened body. Long legged predators with prognathous mouthparts.. Scarabeiform – poorly sclerotized, flat thorax and abdomen. Short legged and inactive burrowing forms.. Crustacean larvae Ichthyoplankton Spawn Non-larval animal juvenile stages and other life cycle stages: In Porifera: olynthus, gemmule In Cnidaria: ephyra, strobila, hydranth, medusa In Mollusca: paralarva, young cephalopods In Platyhelminthes: hydatid cyst In Bryozoa: avicularium In Acanthocephala: cystacanth In Insecta: Nymphs and naiads, immature forms in hemimetabolous insects Subimago, a juvenile that resembles the adult in Ephemeroptera Instar, intermediate between each ecdysis Pupa and chrysalis, intermediate stages between larva and imago Protozoan life cycle stages Apicomplexan life cycle Algal life cycle stages: Codiolum-phase Conchocelis-phase Marine larval ecology Media related to Larvae at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C.
Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Feb 27, 2010 Vol.365 no.1540 653-669 Brusca, R. C. & Brusca, G. J.. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Hall, B. K. & Wake, M. H. eds.. The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. San Diego: Academic Press. Leis, J. M. & Carson-Ewart, B. M. eds.. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes. An Identification Guide to Marine Fish Larvae. Fauna Malesiana handbooks, vol. 2. Brill, Leiden. Minelli, A.. The larva. In: Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Oxford University Press. P. 160-170. Link. Shanks, A. L.. An Identification Guide to the Larval Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 256 pp. Smith, D. & Johnson, K. B.. A Guide to Marine Coastal Plankton and Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Kendall/Hunt Plublishing Company. Stanwell-Smith, D. Hood, A. & Peck, L. S.. A field guide to the pelagic invertebrates larvae of the maritime Antarctic.
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. Thyssen, P. J.. Keys for Identification of Immature Insects. In: Amendt, J. et al.. Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, chapter 2, pp. 25–42. Springer: Dordrecht
The abdomen constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the frontal part of the abdominal segment of the trunk, the dorsal part of this segment being the back of the abdomen; the region occupied by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral joint to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet; the space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity. The boundary of the abdominal cavity is the abdominal wall in the front and the peritoneal surface at the rear; the abdomen contains most of the tubelike organs of the digestive tract, as well as several solid organs. Hollow abdominal organs include the stomach, the small intestine, the colon with its attached appendix. Organs such as the liver, its attached gallbladder, the pancreas function in close association with the digestive tract and communicate with it via ducts.
The spleen and adrenal glands lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava. Anatomists may consider the urinary bladder, fallopian tubes, ovaries as either abdominal organs or as pelvic organs; the abdomen contains an extensive membrane called the peritoneum. A fold of peritoneum may cover certain organs, whereas it may cover only one side of organs that lie closer to the abdominal wall. Anatomists call the latter type of organs retroperitoneal. Digestive tract: Stomach, small intestine, large intestine with cecum and appendix Accessory organs of the digestive tract: Liver and pancreas Urinary system: Kidneys and ureters – but technically located in retroperitoneum – outside peritoneal membrane Other organs: SpleenAbdominal organs can be specialized in some animals. For example, the stomach of ruminants is divided into four chambers – rumen, reticulum and abomasum. In vertebrates, the abdomen is a large cavity enclosed by the abdominal muscles and laterally, by the vertebral column dorsally.
Lower ribs can enclose ventral and lateral walls. The abdominal cavity is upper part of the pelvic cavity, it is attached to the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. Structures such as the aorta, inferior vena cava and esophagus pass through the diaphragm. Both the abdominal and pelvic cavities are lined by a serous membrane known as the parietal peritoneum; this membrane is continuous with the visceral peritoneum lining the organs. The abdomen in vertebrates contains a number of organs belonging, for instance, to the digestive tract and urinary system. There are three layers of the abdominal wall, they are, from the outside to the inside: external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominal. The first three layers extend between the vertebral column, the lower ribs, the iliac crest and pubis of the hip. All of their fibers merge towards the midline and surround the rectus abdominis in a sheath before joining up on the opposite side at the linea alba. Strength is gained by the criss-crossing of fibers, such that the external oblique are downward and forward, the internal oblique upward and forward, the transverse abdominal horizontally forward.
The transverse abdominal muscle is triangular, with its fibers running horizontally. It lies between the underlying transverse fascia, it originates from Poupart's ligament, the inner lip of the ilium, the lumbar fascia and the inner surface of the cartilages of the six lower ribs. It inserts into the linea alba behind the rectus abdominis; the rectus abdominis muscles are flat. The muscle is crossed by three fibrous bands called the tendinous intersections; the rectus abdominis is enclosed in a thick sheath formed, as described above, by fibers from each of the three muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. They originate at the pubis bone, run up the abdomen on either side of the linea alba, insert into the cartilages of the fifth and seventh ribs. In the region of the groin, the inguinal canal, a passage through the layers; this gap is where the testes can drop through the wall and where the fibrous cord from the uterus in the female runs. This is where weakness can form, cause inguinal hernias.
The pyramidalis muscle is triangular. It is located in the lower abdomen in front of the rectus abdominis, it is inserted into the linea alba halfway up to the navel. Functionally, the human abdomen is where most of the alimentary tract is placed and so most of the absorption and digestion of food occurs here; the alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Other vital organs inside the abdomen include the kidneys, the pancreas and the spleen; the abdominal wall is split into the posterior and anterior walls. The abdominal muscles have different important functions, they assist in the breathing process as accessory muscles of respiration. Moreover, these muscles serve as protection for the inner organs. Furthermore, together with the back muscles they provide postural support and are important in defining the form; when the glottis is closed and the thorax and pelvis are fixed, they are integral in the cough, defecation, childbirth and singing functions.
The yellow-tail, goldtail moth or swan moth is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is distributed throughout Europe to the Urals east across the Palearctic to Siberia, it is found in Sri Lanka. This species has a wingspan of 35–45 mm, the female noticeably larger than the male. All parts of the adults are pure white, apart from a bright yellow tip to the abdomen and a small black or brown tornal mark on the forewing of the male. White, like Euproctis chrysorrhoea, but more pure silky white, anal wool and hairs at the apex of the abdomen of the female golden yellow. Not especially in the male sex, varieties occur with small dark spots on the forewing: auriflua has three spots at the inner angle, forming an oblique transverse row, one spot in the basal area near the hindmargin, but has another spot on the costal margin opposite the subbasal inner marginal spot, while quadrimaculata ab. nov. has a fourth subapical spot. The two last-named forms are from eastern Asia, where spotted specimens of this species seem on the whole to be commoner than in Europe It flies at night in July and August and is attracted to light the males.
Larva black, with sparse black grey hairs, a brick-red divided longitudinal dorsal stripe, white lateral stripes and black head, segment 1 black streaked with yellow, the tubercles on segments 4 and 11 black. It feeds on trees and shrubs such as alder, birch, blackthorn, chestnut, oak and sallow, it has been recorded on monkshood, a herbaceous plant. This species overwinters as a larva; the larvae disperse soon after emerging from the eggs, which are covered with the anal wool of the female, hibernate singly and pupate at the beginning of June. Pupa blackish brown in a whitish cocoon, it is common everywhere in the distribution area, but not in such numbers as the similar Euproctis chrysorrhoea, not noxious. The moth comes to the light and when at rest folds the wings steeply in roof-shape. Yellowtail moth – a moth from South America ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles; this may vary in other parts of the range. Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Yellow-tail at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera pages Fauna Europaea Lepiforum.de Vlindernet.nl
The black arches or nun moth is a small Palaearctic moth. It is considered a forest pest; the moths of Lymantria monacha have a wingspan of 40 to 50 mm. They have white forewings with black connected wavy arches; the light brown hindwings have white fringes having black spots. They have a characteristic biscuit-coloured abdomen with a black band. Females have elongated wings; the eggs are oval, light light red. Larvae are whitish grey to blackish, with grey hairs and blue warts, a dark longitudinal dorsal line, interrupted or broadened into spots in places. Pupa is golden glossy red-brown or dark brown, with reddish hairs dorsally and rather long anal point. White forewing with black basal spots and four angulate black transverse lines, the second of, the broadest. Abdomen light rosepink; the species varies and has received the following aberrational names, nigra Fr.: The two central bands are confluent at the costal and posterior margins, forming black spots, or the whole median area is dark, the red of the abdomen weaker, eremita G.: Forewing and abdomen smoke-brown or blackish grey, the former with black markings, atra Linst.: Forewing uniformly black, without markings, hindwing greyish brown, abdomen black, lutea Anel is a light form in which the central bands are interrupted.
All these names were given to European specimens. This moth can be found in most of Europe including Great Britain and in temperate regions of the Palearctic East to Japan; the larvae hibernate when young, are fullgrown in June. The larvae feed preferentially on pine, they feed on silver fir, European larch, hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak, sycamore and bogberry. In spring the larvae consume the first buds later the needles. A single caterpillar eats about 200 pine, or 1000 spruce needles and twice as many are damaged by biting off. Spruces die at pine at 90 percent. There is a danger increased of secondary infections by longhorn beetles, bark beetles, fungi or other pathogens. Therefore, outbreaks can cause major damage in forestry. Forest protection Lepidoptera Lymantriidae Carter, David Butterflies and Moths. Dorling Kindersley Handbooks, London. ISBN 0-7513-2707-7. Black arches on UKmoths Lepiforum.de
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km east of Australia and 20,000 km from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, a few remote islets; the Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou. New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2, its population of 268,767 consists of a mix of Kanak people, people of European descent, Polynesian people, Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa; the earliest traces of human presence in New Caledonia date back to the Lapita period c. 1600 BC to c. 500 AD. The Lapita were skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific. British explorer Captain James Cook was the first European to sight New Caledonia, on 4 September 1774, during his second voyage.
He named it "New Caledonia". The west coast of Grande Terre was approached by the Comte de Lapérouse in 1788, shortly before his disappearance, the Loyalty Islands were first visited between 1793 and 1796 when Mare, Lifou and Ouvea were mapped by William Raven; the English whaler encountered the island named Britania, today known as Maré, in November 1793. From 1796 until 1840, only a few sporadic contacts with the archipelago were recorded. About fifty American whalers have been recorded in the region between 1793 and 1887. Contacts became more frequent because of the interest in sandalwood; as trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new business enterprise, "blackbirding", a euphemism for taking Melanesian or Western Pacific Islanders from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands into indentured or forced labour in the sugar cane plantations in Fiji and Queensland by various methods of trickery and deception. Blackbirding was practiced by both French and British-Australian traders, but in New Caledonia's case, the trade in the early decades of the twentieth century involved relocating children from the Loyalty Islands to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture.
New Caledonia's primary experience with blackbirding revolved around a trade from the New Hebrides to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture, mines, as well as guards over convicts and in some public works. The historian Dorothy Shineberg's milestone study, The People Trade, discusses this'migration'. In the early years of the trade, coercion was used to lure Melanesian islanders onto ships. In years indenture systems were developed; this represented a departure from the British experience, since increased regulations were developed to mitigate the abuses of blackbirding and'recruitment' strategies on the coastlines. The first missionaries from the London Missionary Society and the Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the American ship Cutter was eaten by the Pouma clan. Cannibalism was widespread throughout New Caledonia. On 24 September 1853, under orders from Emperor Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia. Captain Louis-Marie-François Tardy de Montravel founded Port-de-France on 25 June 1854.
A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years. New Caledonia became a penal colony in 1864, from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, France sent about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners to New Caledonia; the Bulletin de la Société générale des prisons for 1888 indicates that 10,428 convicts, including 2,329 freed ones, were on the island as of 1 May 1888, by far the largest number of convicts detained in French overseas penitentiaries. The convicts included many Communards, arrested after the failed Paris Commune of 1871, including Henri de Rochefort and Louise Michel. Between 1873 and 1876, 4,200 political prisoners were "relegated" to New Caledonia. Only 40 of them settled in the colony. In 1864 nickel was discovered on the banks of the Diahot River. To work the mines the French imported labourers from neighbouring islands and from the New Hebrides, from Japan, the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina; the French government attempted to encourage European immigration, without much success.
The indigenous population or Kanak people were excluded from the French economy and from mining work, confined to reservations. This sparked a violent reaction in 1878, when High Chief Atal of La Foa managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla war that killed 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks. A second guerrilla war took place in 1917, with Catholic missionaries like Maurice Leenhardt functioning as witnesses to the events of this war. Leenhardt would pen a number of ethnographic works on the Kanak of New Caledonia. Noel of Tiamou led the 1917 rebellion, which resulted in a number of orphaned children, one of whom was taken into th
The white-marked tussock moth is a moth in the family Erebidae. The caterpillar is common in late summer in eastern North America, extending as far west as Texas and Alberta. Found in Europe and Taiwan. Two or more generations occur per year in eastern North America, they overwinter in the egg stage. Eggs are laid in a single mass over the cocoon of the female, covered in a froth. Up to 300 eggs are laid at a time; the larvae are brightly coloured, with tufts of hair-like setae. The head is bright red and the body has yellow or white stripes, with a black stripe along the middle of the back. Bright red defensive glands are seen on the hind end of the back. Four white toothbrush-like tufts stand out from the back, a grey-brown hair pencil is at the hind end. Touching the hairs sets off an allergic reaction in many humans. Young larvae skeletonize the surface of the leaf, while older larvae eat everything except the larger veins, they grow to about 35 mm long. The caterpillars incorporate setae in it.
The moths emerge after 2 weeks. The females do not leave the vicinity of the cocoon; the males are grey with wavy black lines and a white spot on the forewings The antennae are feathery. Moths are found from June to October; the caterpillars may be found feeding on an wide variety of trees, both deciduous and coniferous, including apple, black locust, elm, hackberry, hickory, oak, spruce and willow. Defoliating outbreaks are reported on Manitoba maple and elm in urban areas. Outbreaks are ended by viral disease; the fungus Entomophaga maimaiga was introduced to North America to control the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. The fungus infects O. leucostigma and could have an impact in years when E. maimaiga is abundant. Large larvae are attacked by birds, small larvae disappear during dispersal. O. l. leucostigma O. l. intermedia Fitch, 1856 O. l. plagiata O. l. oslari Barnes, 1900 O. l. sablensis Niel, 1979 Images of adults and larvae
Orgyia is a genus of tussock moths of the Erebidae family. The species are cosmopolitan, except neotropical region. Orgyia albofasciata Orgyia amphideta Orgyia anartoides Orgyia antiqua – rusty tussock moth, vapourer moth Orgyia antiquoides Orgyia araea Orgyia ariadne Orgyia athlophora Turner, 1921 Orgyia aurolimbata Guenée, 1835 Orgyia australis Walker, 1855 Orgyia basinigra Orgyia cana H. Edwards, 1881 Orgyia chionitis Orgyia corsica Orgyia definita Packard, – definite tussock moth Orgyia detrita Guérin-Méneville, – fir tussock moth Orgyia dewara Swinhoe, 1903 Orgyia diplosticta Orgyia dubia Orgyia falcata Schaus, 1896 Orgyia fulviceps Orgyia josephina Austaut, 1880 Orgyia leptotypa Orgyia leucostigma – white-marked tussock moth Orgyia leuschneri Riotte, 1972 Orgyia magna Ferguson, 1978 Orgyia osseana Walker, 1862 Orgyia papuana Riotte, 1976 Orgyia pelodes Orgyia postica Orgyia pseudotsugata – Douglas-fir tussock moth Orgyia recens – scarce vapourer moth Orgyia rupestris Rambur, 1832 Orgyia sarramea Holloway Orgyia semiochrea Orgyia splendida Orgyia thyellina Butler, 1881 Orgyia trigotephras Boisduval, 1829 Orgyia turbata Butler, 1879 Orgyia vetusta Boisduval, 1852 – western tussock moth