Lynchburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 75,568, estimated to have risen to 82,126 as of 2018. Located in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains along the banks of the James River, Lynchburg is known as the "City of Seven Hills" or the "Hill City". In the 1860s, Lynchburg was the only major city in Virginia, not recaptured by the Union before the end of the American Civil War. Lynchburg lies at the center of a wider metropolitan area close to the geographic center of Virginia, it is the fifth-largest MSA in Virginia, with a population of 260,320. It is the site of several institutions of higher education, including Virginia University of Lynchburg, University of Lynchburg, Randolph College, Central Virginia Community College and Liberty University. Nearby cities include Roanoke and Danville. Monacan Indian Nation and other Siouan Tutelo-speaking tribes had lived in the area since at least 1270, driving the Virginia Algonquians eastward to the coastal areas.
Explorer John Lederer visited one of the Siouan villages in 1670, on the Staunton River at Otter Creek, southwest of the present-day city, as did the Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam expedition in 1671. Siouan peoples occupied this area until about 1702; the Seneca people, who were part of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy based in New York, defeated them. The Seneca had ranged south while seeking new hunting grounds through the Shenandoah Valley to the West. At the Treaty of Albany in 1718, the Iroquois Five Nations ceded control of their land east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, including Lynchburg, to the Colony of Virginia. First settled by Anglo-Americans in 1757, Lynchburg was named for John Lynch; when about 17 years old, he started a ferry service at a ford across the James River to carry traffic to and from New London, where his parents had settled. The "City of Seven Hills" developed along the hills surrounding Lynch's Ferry. In 1786, Virginia's General Assembly recognized Lynchburg, the settlement by Lynch's Ferry on the James River.
The James River Company had been incorporated the previous year in order to "improve" the river down to Richmond, growing and was named as the new Commonwealth's capital. Shallow-draft James River bateau provided a easy means of transportation through Lynchburg down to Richmond and to the Atlantic Ocean. Rocks, downed trees, flood debris were constant hazards, so their removal became expensive ongoing maintenance. Lynchburg became a tobacco trading commercial, much an industrial center; the state built a canal and towpath along the river to make transportation by the waterway easier, to provide a water route around the falls at Richmond, which prevented through navigation by boat. By 1812, U. S. Chief Justice John Marshall, who lived in Richmond, reported on the navigation difficulties and construction problems on the canal and towpath; the General Assembly recognized the settlement's growth by incorporating Lynchburg as a town in 1805. In between, Lynch built Lynchburg's first bridge across the James River, a toll structure that replaced his ferry in 1812.
A toll turnpike to Salem, Virginia was begun in 1817. Lynch died in 1820 and was buried beside his mother in the graveyard of the South River Friends Meetinghouse. Quakers abandoned the town because of their opposition to slaveholding. Presbyterians adapted it as a church, it is now preserved as a historic site. To avoid the many visitors at Monticello, Thomas Jefferson in 1806 developed a plantation and house near Lynchburg, called Poplar Forest, he visited the town, noting, "Nothing would give me greater pleasure than to be useful to the town of Lynchburg. I consider it as the most interesting spot in the state." In 1810, Jefferson wrote, "Lynchburg is the most rising place in the U. S.... It ranks now next to Richmond in importance...."Early Lynchburg residents were not known for their religious enthusiasm. The established Church of England built a log church in 1765. In 1804, evangelist Lorenzo Dow wrote: "...where I spoke in the open air in what I conceived to be the seat of Satan's Kingdom. Lynchburg was a deadly place for the worship of God'."
That referred to the lack of churches, corrected the following year. Itinerant Methodist Francis Asbury visited the town. Lynchburg hosted the last Virginia Methodist Conference; as Lynchburg grew and other "rowdy" activities became part of the urban mix of the river town. They were ignored, if not accepted in a downtown area referred to as the "Buzzard's Roost." Methodist preacher and bishop John Early became one of Lynchburg's civic leaders. On December 3, 1840, the James River and Kanawha Canal from Richmond reached Lynchburg, it was extended as far as Buchanan, Virginia in 1851, but never reached a tributary of the Ohio River as planned. Lynchburg's population exceeded 6,000 by 1840, a water works system was built. Floods in 1842 and 1847 wreaked havoc with the towpath. Both were repaired. Town businessmen began to lobby for a railroad, but Virginia's General Assembly refused to fund such construction. In 1848 civic
The National Art Center is a museum in Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan. A joint project of the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the National Museums Independent Administrative Institution, it stands on a site occupied by a research facility of the University of Tokyo; the building has been designed by Kisho Kurokawa. It is one of the largest exhibition spaces in the country. Access is from Nogizaka Station on the Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line. Unlike Japan's other national art museums, NACT is an'empty museum', without a collection, permanent display, curators. Like Kunsthalle in German-speaking regions, it accommodates temporary exhibitions sponsored and curated by other organizations; the policy has been successful. In its first fiscal year in 2007, it had 69 exhibitions organized by arts groups and 10 organized by NACT, its Monet exhibition, held between 7 April and 2 July 2007, was the second most visited exhibition of the year, not only in Japan but in the world. ＜国立新美術館＞東京・六本木に２１日オープン 「国立新美術館」２１日開館 The National Art Center, Tokyo website in English
The 1932 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 10th Grand Prix of Endurance that took place at the Circuit de la Sarthe on 18 and 19 June 1932. A significant year for the Automobile Club de l'Ouest with the biggest changes to the circuit in the race's history. A new section bypassing Pontlieue suburb was built starting with a long right turn after the pits, going over a hill down to the Esses, a left-right combination, before rejoining the Hunaudières straight at the new right-hand corner of Tertre Rouge; this shortened the track by 3 km down to 13.491 km. On paper it looked like it would be a race between the seven 2.3-litre supercharged Alfa Romeos and the two powered Bugatti T55 four-seaters. But from the start it was the Alfa Romeos that set the pace, led by the two works cars in a furious duel, but a first-lap accident by a privateer Bentley at the tricky White House corners caused much disruption for drivers who would not slow down. First Minoia went off at the same place, taking Brisson's Stutz with him Marinoni smacked the Bentley trying to make up for an hour lost digging himself out from the Arnage sandbank after an another excursion.
After the first pit stops around 6pm, the works Alfa of Franco Cortese held the lead. But when that car had to pit around 10pm to get its windscreen fixed, it was the similar car of 1931 winners, Earl Howe and Birkin that took its place, their chance of a repeat win ended with a blown gasket at 3am, whereupon Raymond Sommer took the lead. He was forced to drive most of the race himself as his co-driver, Italian ex-pat Luigi Chinetti, had got a fever after working long hours to prepare their short-wheelbase Alfa Romeo for the race. Having driven one 3-hour shift Chinetti was unable to do any more; as dawn broke, Cortese/Guidotti were closing on him, but their challenge wilted as they had to make repeated stops to secure loose and broken parts of their car. Their delays allowed the remaining Bugatti of Czaykowski / Friderich, now running third seven laps back, to start chasing them down; that chase came to an end though after midday, when the Bugatti came to a halt on the track having got down to four laps in arrears.
This took the pressure off the two Alfa Romeos. Meanwhile, behind the race for outright victory was the quest for winning the Biennial Cup; the initial six eligible cars from the 1931 race had been whittled down to just three: the 3-litre Talbot, versus the smaller 1.5-litre Aston Martin and 1.1-litre Caban. For most of the race, the three cars were running closely to their designated target distances. Just as one would start building a lead over the others it would be stymied by mechanical delays; as the main race ran down to a predictable finish, it was only on the Sunday afternoon that the Aston Martin of "Bert" Bertelli / Pat Driscoll got enough reliability to pull out a sufficient gap to claim the Biennial Cup. In the end Sommer won by two laps. In a remarkable drive he had been at the wheel for over twenty hours, during the Sunday, the exhaust pipe had broken that left it pumping its noxious fumes into the cockpit, his distance covered won the Index of Performance, going over 20% beyond the designated target.
Cortese and Guidotti were second in the works Alfa Romeo. After many tribulations, the Talbot of Lewis / Rose-Richards had pushed hard enough to finish third, albeit 36 laps behind. Fourth was Odette Siko’s privateer Bugatti entry – still the best overall finish by a female driver at Le Mans; this was a watershed year for the Automobile Club de l'Ouest with a number of major changes happening all at once. It saw the end, after nine years, of the partnership with founding-sponsor Rudge-Whitworth, as money problems drastically affected the British wheel-parts company; the Cup was thus renamed the Biennial Cup of the Automobile Club de l'Ouest. The suburban growth of the city of Le Mans caused the second major change: residents’ complaints had forced the removal of the Pontlieue hairpin in 1929. So, in 1931 the ACO acquired 75 hectares of land beyond the start-finish straight and set about constructing a new section of track to bypass the transit into the city's southern suburbs. Bounded by earth banking and wattle fencing, the new section started with a sweeping right-hand turn after the finish-line, cresting a low hill before dropping into a technical left-right series of corners.
The track rejoined the main road to Tours - the Hunaudières Straight – at the new corner of Tertre Rouge named after the major rise the new track traversed. This shortened the circuit by 3 km down to 13.491 km. The new track set the basis for the iconic layout and has remained the same since aside from periodic deviations added to improve safety and surfacing. New viewing and camping areas on the ACO land increased the official capacity to around 60000 spectators. Which saw the start of an extensive new public entertainment “village”. There were two footbridges built over the new section to allow pedestrian access to the infield The reduced track demanded an overhaul of all the lap-distance scaling needed for the Index of Performance and the restrictions on fluid replenishment; the ACO gave handsome distance reductions to the smaller engines, while the premier 3-litre class had its required distance raised. The minimum refuelling distance of 320 km / 200 miles was recalculated from 20 laps on the old 16.4 km circuit to 24 laps of the new 13.5 km one.
Recognising the current trend to put bigger engines in popular runabout models, the 2-seater eligibility was extended from 1.0 up to include 1.5-litre cars as well. The ACO removed the longstanding requirement for each car to carry ballast representing passenge
Franklin Van Valkenburgh was an American naval officer who served as the last captain of the USS Arizona. He was killed when the Arizona sank during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Born in Minneapolis, Van Valkenburgh moved to Milwaukee, his father was a prominent lawyer named Franklin Van Valkenburgh, who served as Milwaukee assistant city attorney and a U. S. attorney for Wisconsin. His great-grandmother's brother was Daniel Wells Jr. who represented Wisconsin's 1st Congressional District in the 1850s. He grew up on Milwaukee's east side, attending Cass Elementary School and graduating from East Side High School renamed Riverside High School. Franklin Van Valkenburgh was appointed a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy on September 15, 1905, graduated on June 4, 1909. After service in the battleship USS Vermont and in USS South Carolina, Van Valkenburgh was commissioned ensign on June 5, 1911. Traveling to the Asiatic Station soon thereafter, he joined the submarine tender USS Rainbow at Olongapo, Philippine Islands, on September 11.
He reported to the gunboat USS Pampanga as executive officer on June 23, 1914, for a short tour in the southern Philippines before his detachment on August 4. After returning to the United States, Lt. Van Valkenburgh joined USS Connecticut on November 11. Following postgraduate work in steam engineering at the Naval Academy in September 1915, he took further instruction in that field at Columbia University before reporting to USS Rhode Island on March 2, 1917; the entry of the United States into World War I found Van Valkenburgh serving as the battleship's engineering officer. Subsequent temporary duty in the receiving ship at New York preceded his first tour as an instructor at the Naval Academy. On June 1, 1920, Van Valkenburgh reported on board USS Minnesota for duty as engineer officer, he held that post until the battleship was decommissioned in November 1921, he again served as an instructor at the Naval Academy—until May 15, 1925—before he joined USS Maryland on June 26. Commissioned commander on June 2, 1927, while in Maryland, he soon reported for duty in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations on May 21, 1928, served there during the administrations of Admirals Charles F. Hughes and William V. Pratt.
Detached on June 28, 1931, Van Valkenburgh received command of the destroyer USS Talbot on July 10, commanded Destroyer Squadron 5 from March 31, 1932. After attending the Naval War College, Newport, R. I. and completing the senior course in May 1934, Comdr. Van Valkenburgh next served as inspector of naval materiel at the New York Navy Yard before going to sea again as commanding officer of USS Melville from June 8, 1936, to June 11, 1938. Promoted to captain while commanding Melville—on December 23, 1937—he served as inspector of material for the 3d Naval District from August 6, 1938, to January 22, 1941. On February 5, 1941, Van Valkenburgh relieved Capt. Harold C. Train as commanding officer of USS Arizona. Newly refitted at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Arizona served as flagship of Battleship Division 1 for the remainder of the year, based at Pearl Harbor with two trips to the west coast. In a letter to a relative, Faith Van Valkenburgh Vilas, dated November 4, 1941, Captain Van Valkenburgh wrote: "We are training, maneuvering, doing everything we can do to be ready.
The work is intensive and planned. We never go to sea without being ready to move on to Singapore if need be, without further preparation. Most of our work we are not allowed to talk about off of the ship. I have spent 16 to 20 hours a day on the bridge for a week at a time a week of rest at it again. "Our eyes are trained Westward, we keep the guns ready for instant use against aircraft or submarines whenever we are at sea. We have no intention of being caught napping."On December 4, the battleship went to sea in company with USS Nevada and USS Oklahoma for night surface practice and, after conducting these gunnery exercises, returned to Pearl Harbor independently on the 6th to moor at berth F-7 alongside Ford Island. Both Captain Van Valkenburgh and the embarked division commander, Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, spent the next Saturday evening, December 6, on board. Shortly before 08:00 on December 7, Japanese planes initiated their attack on Pearl Harbor. Captain Van Valkenburgh ran from his cabin and arrived on the navigation bridge, where he began to direct his ship's defense.
A quartermaster in the pilot house asked if the captain wanted to go to the conning tower—a less-exposed position in view of the Japanese strafing—but Captain Van Valkenburgh adamantly refused and continued to man a telephone. A violent explosion shook the ship, throwing the three occupants of the bridge—Captain Van Valkenburgh, an ensign, the quartermaster, to the deck, blowing out all of the bridge windows completely; the ensign managed to escape, but Captain Van Valkenburgh and the quartermaster were never seen again. A continuing fire, fed by ammunition and oil, raged for two days until being extinguished on December 9. Despite a thorough search, Captain Van Valkenburgh's body was never found. Captain Van Valkenburgh posthumously received the Medal of Honor—the citation reading in part: "for devotion to duty... extraordinary courage, the complete disregard of his own life." In 1943, the destroyer USS Van Valkenburgh was named in his honor. Citation:For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his own life, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor
The 1956 Preakness Stakes was the 81st running of the $135,000 Preakness Stakes thoroughbred horse race. The race took place on May 19, 1956, was televised in the United States on the CBS television network. Fabius, jockeyed by William Hartack, won the race by one and three quarter lengths over runner-up Needles. Approximate post time was 5:46 p.m. Eastern Time; the race was run on a fast track in a final time of 1:582/5 The Maryland Jockey Club reported total attendance of 30,714, this is recorded as second highest on the list of American thoroughbred racing top attended events for North America in 1956. It was the first year that Pimlico Race Course began recording attendance figures; the 81st Preakness Stakes Payout Schedule Winning Breeder: Calumet Farm.
Zaine Griff is a singer-songwriter, part of the English new wave and new romantics scene of the early 1980s. Raised in New Zealand, he moved to England in the 1970s, where he continued with his artistic and musical career, becoming a solo artist, he worked with Lindsay Kemp, in arts, The Human Instinct, The Kinks, David Bowie, Kate Bush, Gary Numan and Hans Zimmer, in music. Brought up in New Zealand and Tahiti by his Danish parents, Griff learned to play guitar at an early age. Aged 16, he joined rock band The Human Instinct as their bassist, taking the stage name of Glenn Mikkelson. During his time with the band, they recorded two albums: The Hustler and Peg Leg -, recorded in 1975 but not released until 2002. Despite his youth, Griff was lead vocalist on five. In 1975, he moved to London, England, to continue his musical career. There he became the vocalist and bassist of a band called Baby Face and began studying mime and movement alongside Kate Bush, Adam Darius and Lindsay Kemp. At the time, he joined Kemp's production of Flowers, a play written by Jean Genet, but quit when the company went on tour to Australia, as he wanted to stay in London to continue with music.
After leaving the Kemp company, Griff joined a band called Screemer, with whom he released two singles: "Interplanetary Twist", in 1976, "In The City", in 1977. Griff played bass guitar with The Kinks on their album, Misfits. In 1979 Griff started his solo career, using various musicians for his band, including future film music composer Hans Zimmer, Ultravox drummer Warren Cann, he released two albums and Diamonds and Figvres. Ashes and Diamonds was produced by Tony Visconti. On both albums, Zimmer worked the computers. On the album Figvres, Zimmer's influence was more present in the musical arrangements of the songs. For Zimmer, the album "Figvres" was an inspiration for his work in making soundtracks for films. Zimmer is now a well-known film music composer. During the sessions for his first solo-album Griff worked with David Bowie; as recalled by Griff himself - in an April 2013 interview on New Zealand radio - producer Tony Visconti had just returned from working with David Bowie in Berlin, when they started to record Griff's album in autumn 1979.
During the sessions Bowie walked in, saw Griff recording and asked him and his band to record three new versions of his songs. One of them was the acoustic "Space Oddity", the other one a different version of "Panic in Detroit", added to Bowie's next album Scary Monsters. Tony Visconti has confirmed he brought Griff together in the studio; the songs were produced by Tony Visconti and intended for use in a new year's eve TV-show in 1979. In the end, only the new "Space Oddity" was broadcast and released as B-side of the maxi-single "Moon of Alabama"; the meeting of Bowie and Griff is described in David Bowie: An Illustrated Record by Roy Carr and Charles Shaar Murray. In the book Bowie is quoted, telling he was amazed to see the resemblance between him and Griff when they first met. On the second album Figvres, Kate Bush sang backing vocals for the song "Flowers", dedicated to the pair's mime and dance teacher Lindsay Kemp. Yukihiro Takahashi, of Japanese electronic band YMO, joined the musicians.
The single "Tonight" peaked at #54 in the UK Singles Chart in February 1980, whilst "Ashes and Diamonds" reached #68 in the same listing in June that year. In 1982, Griff had an art exhibition in Ebury Gallery, London, to which the London artist Mark Wardel contributed work, inspired by Griff's music. In 1983 Griff was involved in Hans Warren Cann's Helden Project. Griff sang on six of the songs on the recorded album Spies; the album, was never released. Only the single "Holding On" - a duet of Griff and singer Linda Allan - was released on ZiCa Records. In 1984, Griff returned to New Zealand, he has written newer songs in more recent times. In January 2010, Griff started to record his third album Child Who Wants The Moon, released in August 2011. Griff's first two albums Ashes and Diamonds and Figvres were re-released both on CD and on iTunes in June 2012. In November 2012 they were released in a special Japanese release with bonus songs. In 2011 Griff returned to live music. After a series of live concerts in his homeland New Zealand, he returned to the London stage in October 2012, when he was a guest in Toyah's live show "Resurrection" in O2 Islington.
In September 2014, Griff did two live concerts in Japan. In April 2013, Griff released his fourth album The Visitor in Auckland, produced by Eddie Rayner of Split Enz; that year, Griff found a box of old studio demo recordings he thought were long lost. They were recorded in London between 1978 and 1983, consisted of three early versions of songs he re-recorded years for his album Figvres. There were nine songs which were unknown until they were released. In an Auckland studio, he had the tapes repaired and the demos remastered before he released them as his fifth album Immersed in May 2014. In January 2016 Griff released his sixth solo album Mood Swings, which has a more European sound that reminds his early eighties albums. A new and special rerelease of Zaine Griff's early albums Ashes and Diamonds and Figvres was released in August 2017 on a 2CD pack in MIG Records Collectors Series. It’s a special release as beside the remastere