Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group. It is most used to characterize informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, convicted transgressor, or to intimidate a group, it can be an extreme form of informal group social control, it is conducted with the display of a public spectacle for maximum intimidation. Instances of lynchings and similar mob violence can be found in every society. In the United States, lynchings of African Americans became frequent in the South during the period after the Reconstruction era into the 20th century. Lynchings are common in many contemporary societies in countries with high crime rates such as Brazil and South Africa; the origins of the word "lynch" are obscure, but it originated during the American revolution. The verb comes from the phrase "Lynch Law", a term for a punishment without trial. Two Americans during this era are credited for coining the phrase: Charles Lynch and William Lynch, who both lived in Virginia in the 1780s.

Charles Lynch is more to have coined the phrase, as he was known to have used the term in 1782, while William Lynch is not known to have used the term until much later. There is no evidence. In 1782, Charles Lynch wrote that his assistant had administered "Lynchs law" to Tories "for Dealing with the negroes &c."Charles Lynch was a Virginia Quaker and American Revolutionary who headed a county court in Virginia which imprisoned Loyalist supporters of the British for up to one year during the war. Although he lacked proper jurisdiction for detaining these persons, he claimed this right by arguing wartime necessity. Subsequently, he prevailed upon his friends in the Congress of the Confederation to pass a law that exonerated him and his associates from wrongdoing, he was concerned that he might face legal action from one or more of those he had imprisoned, notwithstanding the American Colonies had won the war. This action by the Congress provoked controversy, it was in connection with this that the term "Lynch law", meaning the assumption of extrajudicial authority, came into common parlance in the United States.

Lynch was not accused of racist bias. He acquitted blacks accused of murder on three separate occasions, he was accused, however, of ethnic prejudice in his abuse of Welsh miners. William Lynch from Virginia claimed that the phrase was first used in a 1780 compact signed by him and his neighbors in Pittsylvania County. While Edgar Allan Poe claimed that he found this document, it was a hoax. A 17th-century legend of James Lynch fitz Stephen, Mayor of Galway in Ireland in 1493, says that when his son was convicted of murder, the mayor hanged him from his own house; the story was proposed by 1904 as the origin of the word "lynch". It is dismissed by etymologists, both because of the distance in time and place from the alleged event to the word's emergence, because the incident did not constitute a lynching in the modern sense; the archaic verb linch, to beat with a pliable instrument, to chastise or to maltreat, has been proposed as the etymological source. Every society has had forms including murder.

The legal and cultural antecedents of American lynching were carried across the Atlantic by migrants from the British Isles to colonial North America. Collective violence was a familiar aspect of the early modern Anglo-American legal landscape. Group violence in the British Atlantic was nonlethal in intention and result. In the seventeenth century, in the context of political turmoil in England and unsettled social and political conditions in the American colonies, there arose rebellions and riots that took multiple lives. In the United States, during the decades before the Civil War, free Blacks, Mexicans in the South West, runaways were the objects of racial lynching, but lynching attacks on U. S. blacks in the South, increased in the aftermath of Reconstruction, after slavery had been abolished and freed men gained the right to vote. The peak of lynchings occurred in 1892, after white Southern Democrats had regained control of state legislatures. Many incidents were related to economic troubles and competition.

At the turn of the 20th century, southern states passed new constitutions or legislation which disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, established segregation of public facilities by race, separated blacks from common public life and facilities through Jim Crow rules. Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968. Lynching in the British Empire during the 19th century coincided with a period of violence which denied people participation in white-dominated society on the basis of race after the Emancipation Act of 1833. Lynchings took place in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, most in Southern states and Western frontier settlements and most in the late 19th century, they were performed without due process of law by self-appointed commissions, mobs, or vigilantes as a form of punishment for presumed criminal offences. At the first recorded lynching, in St. Louis in 1835, a black man named McIntosh who killed a deputy sheriff while being taken to jail was captured, chained to a tree, burned to death on a corner lot downtown in front of a crowd of over 1,000 people.

In the South in the antebellum era, members of the abolitionist movement or other people who opposed slavery we

Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry

The Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen is a research institute of the Max Planck Society. 850 people work at the institute, about half of them are scientists. The Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry is the only one of the institutes within the Max Planck Society which combines the three classical scientific disciplines – biology and chemistry. Founded in 1971, its initial focus was set on chemical problems, it has since undergone a continuous evolution manifested by an expanding range of core subjects and work areas such as neurobiology and molecular biology. To date, four researchers working in the institute have been awarded by Nobel Prize; the history of the Institute goes back to the year 1949. At that time, the Max Planck Society established the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in Göttingen as follow-up of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin. Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer, who worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, became the founding director of the new institute.

He was one of the first researchers who applied physical-chemical methods in biological research and thus combined different disciplines of natural sciences in research. The Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry was created in 1971 by merging the Max Planck Institutes for Physical Chemistry and for Spectroscopy in Göttingen; this was initiated by Nobel Prize laureate Manfred Eigen, at that time director of the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry. His vision of an interdisciplinary approach to biological research was decisive and the creative impulse for the development of the institute. In honour of Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer, the new institute was named after him. Although the institute is dedicated to basic research – by virtue of the charter of the Max Planck Society – its policy has been to encourage the transfer of numerous technological innovations to the marketplace; as a consequence, many licensing agreements and start-up firms have arisen from research conducted at the institute, e. g.

Lambda Physik, DeveloGen and Evotec. Research at the institute focuses on the fundamental mechanisms that regulate and control life processes: How is genetic information translated into proteins? How do nerve cells communicate with each other? How is cellular logistics controlled? On the organismal level, researchers at the Institute study the circadian rhythms of the vertebrate, or differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. To obtain deeper insights into the nanocosmos of living cells, the institute employs ultra-high resolution microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and tomography, mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, or atomistic computer simulations. At the same time the Institute concentrates on developing novel measurement and analysis methods to provide a closer look into the world of molecules; the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry encompasses 12 departments: Prof. Patrick Cramer - Molecular Biology Prof. Gregor Eichele - Genes and Behavior Prof. Dirk Görlich - Cellular Logistics Prof. Christian Griesinger - NMR-based Structural Biology Prof.

Helmut Grubmüller - Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Prof. Peter Gruss - Molecular Cell Biology Prof. Stefan W. Hell - NanoBiophotonics Prof. Herbert Jäckle - Molecular Developmental Biology Prof. Reinhard Jahn - Neurobiology Prof. Reinhard Lührmann - Cellular Biochemistry Prof. Marina Rodnina - Physical Biochemistry Prof. Alec M. Wodtke - Dynamics at Surfaces The Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry is engaged in the support of junior scientists. 20 independent research groups pursue their own research goals. Loren B. Andreas - Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Gopalakrishnan Balasubramanian - Nanoscale Spin Imaging Marina Bennati - Electron-Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Bert L. de Groot - Computational Biomolecular Dynamics Alex Faesen - Biochemistry of Signal Dynamics Jens Frahm - Biomedical NMR Stefan Glöggler - NMR Signal Enhancement Aljaz Godec - Mathematical Biophysics Stefan Jakobs - Structure and Dynamics of Mitochondria Peter Lenart - Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Oocytes Juliane Liepe - Quantitative and Systems Biology Grazvydas Lukinavicinus - Chromatin Labeling and Imaging Samuel Meek - Precision Infrared Spectroscopy on Small Molecules Vladimir Pena - Macromolecular Crystallography Reinhard Schuh - Molecular Organogenesis Johannes Söding - Quantitative and Computational Biology Alexander Stein - Membrane Protein Biochemistry Henning Urlaub - Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry Wolfgang Wintermeyer - Ribosome Dynamics Markus Zweckstetter - Structure Determination of Proteins Using NMR After retiring, directors of the Institute can continue their research for a couple of years.

Herbert Jäckle - Molecular Developmental Biology Reinhard Jahn - Laboratory of Neurobiology Thomas Jovin - Laboratory of Cellular Dynamics Reinhard Lührmann - Cellular Biochemistry Erwin Neher - Membrane Biophysics Jürgen Troe - Spectroscopy and Photochemical Kinetics The Institute has undergone a permanent change in research with the closing of departments after their heads have retired and by continuously establishing new departments. Some of the former directors pursue their research after their Emeritus Group has expired and can still be contacted at the institute. Prof. Otto D. Creutzfeldt - Neurobiology Prof. Manfred Eigen - Biochemical Kinetics Prof. Dieter Gallwitz - Molecular Genetics Prof. Manfred Kahlweit - Kinetics of Phase Transformations Prof. Hans Kuhn - Molecular Systems Prof. Leo d

List of Chilean submissions for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film

Chile has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film since 1990. The award is handed out annually by the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains non-English dialogue. Chile has submitted twenty-four films for Oscar consideration, with their first film being nominated for an Academy Award in 2013. Chile won its first Foreign Language Oscar in 2018, with A Fantastic Woman; the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has invited the film industries of various countries to submit their best film for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since 1956. The Foreign Language Film Award Committee reviews all the submitted films. Following this, they vote via secret ballot to determine the five nominees for the award. Below is a list of the films that have been submitted by Chile for review by the Academy for the award by year and the respective Academy Awards ceremony.

The Chilean submission is selected annually by the Consejo del Arte y la Industria Audiovisual, which chooses a nominee for the Spanish Goya Awards at the same time. The Goya nominee is the same film as the Oscar nominee but not always. All films were made in Spanish The 2009 race was controversial in Chile when La Nana, one of the most awarded films in Chile's cinematic history, was passed over in favor of a historical drama Dawson, Isla 10 by Miguel Littin; the Chilean Cultural Council released a statement in November 2009. List of Chilean Academy Award winners and nominees List of Academy Award winners and nominees for Best Foreign Language Film List of Academy Award-winning foreign language films The Official Academy Awards Database The Motion Picture Credits Database IMDb Academy Awards Page