Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes. A physician, in 1887 he published A Study in Scarlet, the first of four novels about Holmes and Dr. Watson. In addition, Doyle wrote over fifty short stories featuring the famous detective; the Sherlock Holmes stories are considered milestones in the field of crime fiction. Doyle was a prolific writer. One of Doyle's early short stories, "J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement", helped to popularise the mystery of the Mary Celeste. Doyle is referred to as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle or Conan Doyle, his baptism entry in the register of St Mary's Cathedral, gives "Arthur Ignatius Conan" as his given names and "Doyle" as his surname. It names Michael Conan as his godfather; the cataloguers of the British Library and the Library of Congress treat "Doyle" alone as his surname. Steven Doyle, editor of The Baker Street Journal, wrote, "Conan was Arthur's middle name. Shortly after he graduated from high school he began using Conan as a sort of surname.
But technically his last name is simply'Doyle'." When knighted, he was gazetted as Doyle, not under the compound Conan Doyle. Doyle was born on 22 May 1859 at 11 Picardy Place, Scotland, his father, Charles Altamont Doyle, was born in England, of Irish Catholic descent, his mother, was Irish Catholic. His parents married in 1855. In 1864 the family dispersed because of Charles's growing alcoholism, the children were temporarily housed across Edinburgh. In 1867, the family lived in squalid tenement flats at 3 Sciennes Place. Doyle's father died in 1893, in the Crichton Royal, after many years of psychiatric illness. Supported by wealthy uncles, Doyle was sent to England, at the Jesuit preparatory school Hodder Place, Stonyhurst in Lancashire at the age of nine, he went on to Stonyhurst College until 1875. While Doyle was not unhappy at Stonyhurst, he did not have any fond memories since the school was run on medieval principles, with subjects covering rudiments, Euclidean geometry and the classics.
Doyle commented in his life that the academic system could only be excused "on the plea that any exercise, however stupid in itself, forms a sort of mental dumbbell by which one can improve one's mind." He found it harsh, citing that instead of compassion and warmth, it favoured the threat of corporal punishment and ritual humiliation. From 1875 to 1876, he was educated at the Jesuit school Stella Matutina in Austria, his family decided that he would spend a year there with the objective of perfecting his German and broadening his academic horizons. He rejected the Catholic faith and became an agnostic. A source attributed his drift away from religion to the time spent in the less strict Austrian school, he later became a spiritualist mystic. From 1876 to 1881, Doyle studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, including periods working in Aston and Ruyton-XI-Towns, Shropshire. During that time, he studied practical botany at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. While studying, Doyle began writing short stories.
His earliest extant fiction, "The Haunted Grange of Goresthorpe", was unsuccessfully submitted to Blackwood's Magazine. His first published piece, "The Mystery of Sasassa Valley", a story set in South Africa, was printed in Chambers's Edinburgh Journal on 6 September 1879. On 20 September 1879, he published his first academic article, "Gelsemium as a Poison" in the British Medical Journal, a study which The Daily Telegraph regarded as useful in a 21st-century murder investigation. Doyle was the doctor on the Greenland whaler Hope of Peterhead in 1880. On July 11, 1880 John Gray's Hope and David Gray's Eclipse met up with the Leigh Smith. Photographer W. J. A. Grant took a photograph aboard the Eira of Doyle along with Smith, the Gray brothers, ships surgeon William Neale; this was the Smith exploration of Franz Josef Land that on August 18th resulted in the naming of Cape Flora, Bell Island, Nightingale Sound, Gratton Island, Mabel Island. As M. B. C. M. after his graduation from university in 1881, he was ship's surgeon on the SS Mayumba during a voyage to the West African coast.
He completed his Doctor of Medicine degree on the subject of tabes dorsalis in 1885. In 1882, Doyle joined former classmate George Turnavine Budd as his partner at a medical practice in Plymouth, but their relationship proved difficult, Doyle soon left to set up an independent practice. Arriving in Portsmouth in June 1882, with less than £10 to his name, he set up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea; the practice was not successful. While waiting for patients, Doyle returned to writing fiction. Doyle was a staunch supporter of compulsory vaccination and wrote several articles advocating for the practice and denouncing the views of anti-vaccinators. In early 1891, Doyle attempted the study of ophthalmology in Vienna, he had studied at the Portsmouth Eye Hospital to qualify to perform eye tests and prescribe glasses. Vienna was suggested by his friend Vernon Morris as a place to spend six months and train to be an eye surgeon. Doyle found it too difficult to understand the German medica
The New Forest is one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land and forest in Southern England, covering southwest Hampshire and southeast Wiltshire. It was proclaimed a royal forest by William the Conqueror, featuring in the Domesday Book. Pre-existing rights of common pasture are still recognised today, being enforced by official verderers. In the 18th century, The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, it remains a habitat for mammals. Like much of England, the site of the New Forest was once deciduous woodland, recolonised by birch and beech and oak after the withdrawal of the ice sheets starting around 12,000 years ago; some areas were cleared for cultivation from the Bronze Age onwards. There was still a significant amount of woodland in this part of Britain, but this was reduced towards the end of the Middle Iron Age around 250–100 BC, most the 12th and 13th centuries, of this all that remains today is the New Forest. There are around 250 round barrows within its boundaries, scattered boiling mounds, it includes about 150 scheduled ancient monuments.
One such barrow in particular may represent the only known inhumation burial of the Early Iron Age and the only known Hallstatt culture burial in Britain. Following Anglo-Saxon settlement in Britain, according to Florence of Worcester, the area became the site of the Jutish kingdom of Ytene; the Jutes were one of the early Anglo-Saxon tribal groups who colonised this area of southern Hampshire. The word ytene is found locally as a synonym for giant, features in local folklore. Following the Norman Conquest, the New Forest was proclaimed a royal forest, in about 1079, by William the Conqueror, it was used for royal hunts of deer. It was created at the expense of isolated farmsteads; the New Forest was first recorded as Nova Foresta in Domesday Book in 1086, where a section devoted to it is interpolated between lands of the king's thegns and the town of Southampton. Twelfth-century chroniclers alleged that William had created the forest by evicting the inhabitants of 36 parishes, reducing a flourishing district to a wasteland.
Two of William's sons died in the forest: Prince Richard sometime between 1069 and 1075, King William II in 1100. Local folklore asserted that this was punishment for the crimes committed by William when he created his New Forest, but this wicked act did not long go unpunished. This Forest at present affordeth great variety of Game, where his Majesty oft-times withdraws himself for his divertisement; the reputed spot of Rufus's death is marked with a stone known as the Rufus Stone. John White, Bishop of Winchester, said of the forest: From God and Saint King Rufus did Churches take, From Citizens town-court, mercate place, From Farmer lands: New Forrest for to make, In Beaulew tract, where whiles the King in chase Pursues the hart, just vengeance comes apace, And King pursues. Tirrell him seing not, Unwares him flew with dint of arrow shot; the common rights were confirmed by statute in 1698. The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, plantations were created in the 18th century for this purpose.
In the Great Storm of 1703, about 4000 oak trees were lost. The naval plantations encroached on the rights of the Commoners, but the Forest gained new protection under the New Forest Act 1877, which confirmed the historic rights of the Commoners and entrenched that the total of enclosures was henceforth not to exceed 65 km2 at any time, it reconstituted the Court of Verderers as representatives of the Commoners. As of 2005 90% of the New Forest is still owned by the Crown; the Crown lands have been managed by the Forestry Commission since 1923 and most of the Crown lands now fall inside the new National Park. Felling of broadleaved trees, their replacement by conifers, began during the First World War to meet the wartime demand for wood. Further encroachments were made during the Second World War; this process is today being reversed in places, with some plantations being returned to heathland or broadleaved woodland. Rhododendron remains a problem. During the Second World War, an area of the forest, Ashley Range, was used as a bombing range.
Further New Forest Acts followed in 1949, 1964 and 1970. The New Forest became a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1971, was granted special status as the New Forest Heritag
Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical and classical subject matter. Leighton was bearer of the shortest-lived peerage in history. Leighton was born in Scarborough to Dr. Frederic Septimus Leighton, he had two sisters including Alexandra, Robert Browning's biographer. He was educated at London, he received his artistic training on the European continent, first from Eduard von Steinle and from Giovanni Costa. At age 17, in the summer of 1847, he met the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in Frankfurt and drew his portrait, in graphite and gouache on paper — the only known full-length study of Schopenhauer done from life; when he was 24 he was in Florence. From 1855 to 1859 he lived in Paris, where he met Ingres, Delacroix and Millet. In 1860, he moved to London, he designed Elizabeth Barrett Browning's tomb for Robert Browning in the English Cemetery, Florence in 1861. In 1864 he became an associate of the Royal Academy and in 1878 he became its President.
His 1877 sculpture, Athlete Wrestling with a Python, was considered at its time to inaugurate a renaissance in contemporary British sculpture, referred to as the New Sculpture. American art critic Earl Shinn claimed at the time that "Except Leighton, there is scarce any one capable of putting up a correct frescoed figure in the archway of the Kensington Museum." His paintings represented Britain at the great 1900 Paris Exhibition. Leighton was knighted at Windsor in 1878, was created a baronet, of Holland Park Road in the Parish of St Mary Abbots, Kensington, in the County of Middlesex, eight years later, he was the first painter to be given a peerage, in the 1896 New Year Honours. The patent creating him Baron Leighton, of Stretton in the County of Shropshire, was issued on 24 January 1896. Leighton remained a bachelor, he enjoyed an intense and romantically tinged relationship with the poet Henry William Greville whom he met in Florence in 1856. The older man showered Leighton in letters, but the romantic affection seems not to have been reciprocated.
Enquiry is furthermore hindered by the fact that Leighton left no diaries and his letters are telling in their lack of reference to his personal circumstances. No definite primary evidence has yet come to light that dispels the secrecy that Leighton built up around himself, although it is clear that he did court a circle of younger men around his artistic studio. On his death his barony was extinguished after existing for only a day, his house in Holland Park, London has been turned into the Leighton House Museum. It contains many of his drawings and paintings, as well as some of his former art collection including works by Old Masters and his contemporaries such as a painting dedicated to Leighton by Sir John Everett Millais; the house features many of Leighton's inspirations, including his collection of Iznik tiles. Its centrepiece is the magnificent Arab Hall; the Hall is featured in issue ten of Cornucopia. A blue plaque commemorates Leighton at Leighton House Museum. Leighton was an enthusiastic volunteer soldier, enrolling with the first group to join the 38th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer Corps on 5 October 1860.
His qualities of leadership were identified, he was promoted to command a Company within a few months. On 6 January 1869 Captain Leighton was elected to command the Artists Rifles by a general meeting of the corps. In the same year he was promoted in 1875 to lieutenant colonel. Leighton resigned as commanding officer in 1883; the painter James Whistler famously described the Sir Frederic Leighton, the commanding officer of the Artists Rifles, as the: “Colonel of the Royal Academy and the President of the Artists Rifles – aye, he paints a little!" At his funeral, on 3 February 1896, his coffin was carried into St Paul's Cathedral, past a guard of honour formed by the Artists Rifles. 1864 – Associate of the Royal Academy 1868 – Royal Academy Academician 1878 – President of the Royal Academy 1878 – Légion d'honneur Officer 1878 – Knight Bachelor 1886 – Created a baronet in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom 1889 – Associate member of the Institute of France 1896 – Created a baron in the Peerage of the United Kingdom Death of Brunelleschi, oil on canvas The Fisherman and the Siren, c.
1856–58 Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna is carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence, oil on canvas. The Discovery of Juliet Apparently Lifeless The Villa Malta, oil on canvas The Painter's Honeymoon, c. 1864 Mother and Child, c. 1865, the Nymph of the Shore, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. Daedalus and Icarus, c. 1869, Hercules Wrestling with Death for the Body of Alcestis After Vespers 1871, Princeton University Art Museum Greek Girls Picking up Pebbles by the Sea, 1871 Teresina Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, New Zealand Music Lesson, c. 1877, An Athlete Wrestlin
Henry III of England
Henry III known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons, his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church. Following the revolt, Henry ruled England rather than governing through senior ministers.
He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities, he extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England crippling their ability to do business, as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money, he was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony. By 1258, Henry's rule was unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts.
A coalition of his barons probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony; the baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued. In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry mobilised an army; the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth.
Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death. Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207, he was the eldest son of King Isabella of Angoulême. Little is known of Henry's early life, he was looked after by a wet nurse called Ellen in the south of England, away from John's itinerant court, had close ties to his mother. Henry had four legitimate younger brothers and sisters – Richard, Joan and Eleanor – and various older illegitimate siblings. In 1212 his education was entrusted to the Bishop of Winchester. Little is known about Henry's appearance. Henry grew up to show flashes of a fierce temper, but as historian David Carpenter describes, he had an "amiable, easy-going, sympathetic" personality.
He was unaffected and honest, showed his emotions easily being moved to tears by religious sermons. At the start of the 13th century, the Kingdom of England formed part of the Angevin Empire spreading across Western Europe. Henry was named after his grandfather, Henry II, who had built up this vast network of lands stretching from Scotland and Wales, through England, across the English Channel to the territories of Normandy, Brittany and Anjou in north-west France, onto Poitou and Gascony in the south-west. For many years the French Crown was weak, enabling first Henry II, his sons Richard and John, to dominate France. In 1204, John lost Normandy, Brittany and Anjou to Philip II of France, leaving English power on the continent limited to Gascony and Poitou. John raised taxes to pay for military campaigns to regain his lands, but unrest grew among many of the English
Earl of Arundel
Earl of Arundel is an earldom and the oldest extant peerage in the Peerage of England. It is held by the Duke of Norfolk, is used by his heir apparent as a courtesy title, it was created c. 1138 for the Norman baron Sir William d'Aubigny. Its origin was the earlier grant by Henry I to his second wife Adeliza of the forfeited "honour" of Arundel, which included the castle and a large portion of Sussex. After his death she married William, who thus became master of the lands, who from about the year 1141 is variously styled earl of Sussex, of Chichester, or of Arundel, his first known appearance as earl is at Christmas 1141. Until the mid-13th century, the earls were frequently known as Earl of Sussex, until this title fell into disuse. At about the same time, the earldom fell to the Breton FitzAlan Family, a younger branch of which went on to become the Stuart Family, which ruled Scotland. A tradition arose that the holder of Arundel Castle should automatically be Earl of Arundel, this was formally confirmed by King Henry VI.
An Act of Parliament in 1627 confirmed this designation, retrospectively applied the earldom to the Lords of Arundel, some authorities holding that the earldom stretched back to the reign of Richard I. However, this designation was not always followed; some of the Lords of Arundel were never addressed as earl during their lifetime, but are counted and numbered as earls here. Other sources may not include some of the earls listed below, may consider the earldom to have been created more than once. In his 1834 book on the Earls of Arundel, M. A. Tierney maintains that the first incarnation of the earldom was with the House of Montgomery. Roger of Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury was one of William the Conqueror's top generals, William bestowed on him, amongst several hundred other manors, the property at Arundel, with the charge to fortify it with a castle. Montgomery is believed to have built the motte that survives to this day, is thought to have built a wooden keep on it, overlooking the river Arun.
Montgomery and two of his sons are counted by many as being the first incarnation of the earldom, but are not counted amongst the earls. In 1580 the 12th Earl, last FitzAlan to hold the title, died without a male heir, his daughter Mary FitzAlan had married the attainted 4th Duke of Norfolk, the title passed to their son, Philip Howard, The dukedom was restored to his son following the accession of King James I. The 5th Earl of Arundel, the 5th Howard to hold the title, was restored to the principal Howard title of Duke of Norfolk in 1660, the title has descended with that Dukedom since. In 1842, by Royal Warrant, Henry Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk and 13th Earl of Arundel, his siblings, assumed the surname FitzAlan-Howard, used by the family line to today. William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel William d'Aubigny, 2nd Earl of Arundel William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel William d'Aubigny, 4th Earl of Arundel Hugh d'Aubigny, 5th Earl of Arundel John FitzAlan 6th Earl of Arundel John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, received a writ in 1289, at his majority, summoning him to Parliament.
Richard FitzAlan, 1st or 8th Earl of Arundel Edmund FitzAlan, 2nd or 9th Earl of Arundel Richard FitzAlan, 3rd or 10th Earl of Arundel Richard FitzAlan, 4th or 11th Earl of Arundel Thomas FitzAlan, 5th or 12th Earl of Arundel John FitzAlan, 6th or 13th Earl of Arundel John FitzAlan, 7th or 14th Earl of Arundel Humphrey FitzAlan, 8th or 15th Earl of Arundel William FitzAlan, 9th or 16th Earl of Arundel Thomas FitzAlan, 10th or 17th Earl of Arundel William FitzAlan, 11th or 18th Earl of Arundel Henry FitzAlan, 12th or 19th Earl of Arundel Philip Howard, 13th or 20th Earl of Arundel Thomas Howard, 14th or 21st Earl of Arundel Henry Howard, 15th or 22nd Earl of Arundel Thomas Howard, 16th or 23rd Earl of Arundel Thereafter the Earldom of Arundel has been held by the Dukes of Norfolk. The 18th Duke of Norfolk is the current holder. Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk Miles Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk The heir apparent is Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey.
Next in line of succession are Arundel's brothers, Lords Thomas and Philip Fitzalan-Howard
Charles Eamer Kempe
Charles Eamer Kempe was a Victorian designer and manufacturer of stained glass. His studios produced over 4,000 windows and designs for altars and altar frontals and furnishings, lichgates and memorials that helped to define a nineteenth-century Anglican style; the list of English cathedrals containing examples of his work includes: Chester, Hereford, Wells and York. Kempe's networks of patrons and influence stretched from the Royal Family and the Church of England hierarchy to the literary and artistic beau monde. Charles Kempe was born at Ovingdean Hall, near Brighton, East Sussex in 1837, he was the youngest son of Nathaniel Kemp, a cousin of Thomas Read Kemp, a politician and property developer responsible for the Kemptown area of Brighton and the maternal grandson of Sir John Eamer, who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1801. After attending Twyford School and Rugby, he attended Pembroke College, Oxford where he was influenced by the Anglo-Catholic Tractarian revival and considered a vocation to the priesthood.
It was at Oxford that Kempe was inspired by seeing William Morris design the Debating Chamber at the Oxford Union. When it became clear that his severe stammer would be an impediment to preaching Kempe decided that "if I was not permitted to minister in the Sanctuary I would use my talents to adorn it", subsequently went to study architecture with the firm of a leading ecclesiastical architect George Frederick Bodley, his first task, on leaving Oxford, was to gain some work experience. With the help of his well-connected father, Kempe was able to persuade Bodley to take him on as an assistant, thus he found himself in Cambridge just at the time when Bodley was beginning the building and decoration of All Saints, Jesus Lane, Cambridge. Here he was able to learn from both Bodley and Morris and to develop his sense of how to colour a church. With Morris and Bodley, Kempe learned the aesthetic principles of medieval church art stained glass. During the 1860s Kempe collaborated with Bodley on the internal painting of two churches, All Saints, Jesus Lane in Cambridge and St John’s, Tuebrook in Liverpool.
In 1892, Bodley and Kempe would work together once more on All Saints at Danehill, East Sussex. In 1866 he opened a studio of his own in London and creating stained glass and furnishings and vestments; the firm prospered and by 1899 he had over fifty employees. As a trademark, the firm used a golden wheatsheaf, taken from Kempe's own coat of arms; the mid-Victorian period were important years in the history of the design of English churches and Kempe’s influence is found in numerous examples, many in his home county of Sussex which has 116 examples of his work. The works at St Mark’s, Staplefield near Horsham, West Sussex dating from 1869 are regarded as important, representing the earliest of three known examples of Kempe’s wall painting, they contain key elements of Kempe’s figurative work. The angels holding the scroll are magnificently apparelled and the borders of their cloaks are embellished with pearls, each individually highlighted although they do not contain a design of peacock feathers, a well used embellishment in works.
Rosalie Glynn Grylls, Lady Mander, whose home Wightwick Manor, near Wolverhampton, contains many pieces of Kempe's stained glass, wrote in 1973: "Kempe's work has a unique charm. Above all, the prevailing yellow wash is translucent, for it lets through the rays of the full or the setting sun..." Kempe's stained glass remained much in demand in England until the turn of the 20th century. On Kempe’s death in 1907 in accordance with his will the firm was reformed as C. E Kempe & Co. Ltd and Kempe's distant cousin, Walter Earnest Tower, was appointed Chairman. Tower thenceforth used a black tower above the golden garb. A lack of orders caused by the Great Depression ended the firm's life in 1934. Kempe was a rather shy person, he continued to live in Sussex most of his life and in 1875 he bought and renovated an Elizabethan house at Lindfield, near Haywards Heath in West Sussex. Kempe would entertain his clients and professional colleagues from his home enjoying the role of a country squire. Kempe died on 28 April 1907 aged 69, at 28 Nottingham Place, refusing to get medical help after catching a cold that led to congestion of the lung.
He is buried in the churchyard at Ovingdean. Most of Kempe's records were disposed of after the firm shut in 1934. Charles Eamer Kempe remains a studied designer and artist. Author Adrian Barlow produced two books in 2018 and 2019 which discuss Kempe's life and the artists that surrounded him: Kempe: The Life and Legacy of Charles Eamer Kempe published by The Lutterworth Press in August 2018 and Espying Heaven: The Stained Glass of Charles Eamer Kempe and his Artists in January 2019. British and Irish stained glass Victorian Era Gothic Revival'Kempe' by Adrian Barlow, published by The Lutterworth Press'Espying Heaven' by Adrian Barlow, published by The Lutterworth Press The Kempe Society Monmouth Group of Parishes: Charles Eamer Kempe The Parish Church of St Mary Magdalene: Charles Eamer Kempe - Stained Glass Windows Victorian Wolverhampton: A Town Through Its Buildings - Architects and Craftsmen of Wolverhampton's Buildings
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm