In the United States, the presidential library system is a nationwide network of 13 libraries administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries, part of the National Archives and Records Administration. These are repositories for preserving and making available the papers, records and other historical materials of every President of the United States from Herbert Hoover to George W. Bush. In addition to the library services, museum exhibitions concerning the presidency are displayed. Although recognized as having historical significance, before the mid-20th century, presidential papers and effects were understood to be the private property of the president. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd president, proposed to leave his papers to the public in a building donated by him on his Hyde Park estate. Since a series of laws have established the public keeping of documents and the presidential library system. While not sanctioned and maintained by the NARA, libraries have been organized for several presidents who preceded Hoover and the official start of the Presidential Library Office.
The library planned for Barack Obama will partner with the NARA in a "new model", digitizing and making available documents, but without NARA running a new separate facility. For every president since Herbert Hoover, presidential libraries have been established in each president's home state in which documents, gifts of state and museum exhibits are maintained that relate to the former president's life and career both political and professional; each library provides an active series of public programs. When a president leaves office, the National Archives and Records Administration establishes a presidential materials project to house and index the documents until a new presidential library is built and transferred to the federal government; the first presidential library is the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, dedicated on June 30, 1941; the George W. Bush Presidential Center became the thirteenth on May 1, 2013; the presidential library system is made up of thirteen presidential libraries operated by the NARA.
Libraries and museums have been established for earlier presidents, but they are not part of the NARA presidential library system, are operated by private foundations, historical societies, or state governments, including the James K. Polk, William McKinley, Rutherford Hayes, Calvin Coolidge, Abraham Lincoln and Woodrow Wilson libraries. For example, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is owned and operated by the state of Illinois; the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace was not part of the presidential library system. While the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff, which administers the Nixon presidential materials under the terms of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act, is part of NARA, a private foundation operated the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace. In January 2004, Congress passed legislation that provided for the establishment of a federally operated Richard Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda. In March 2005, the Archivist of the United States and John Taylor, the director of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, exchanged letters on the requirements to allow the Nixon Library to become the twelfth federally funded Presidential library operated by the NARA by 2007.
On October 16, 2006, Dr. Timothy Naftali began his tenure as the first federal director of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace, in the winter of 2006 NARA began to transfer the 30,000 presidential gifts from the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff in College Park, Maryland to the facility. On July 11, 2007, the Nixon Foundation deeded the Library and Birthplace to the government of the United States. On the same day, the newly renamed federal Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum opened. In May 2012, on the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Ulysses S. Grant Foundation, it selected Mississippi State University as the permanent location for Ulysses S. Grant's presidential library. Historian John Simon edited Grant's letters into a 32-volume scholarly edition published by Southern Illinois University Press. On April 30, 2013, both chambers of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly passed a bill appropriating $12 million to Dickinson State University to award a grant to the Theodore Roosevelt Center for construction of a building to be named the Theodore Roosevelt Presidential Library.
To access these funds, the Theodore Roosevelt Center must first raise $3 million from non-state sources. Dickinson State University is home to the Theodore Roosevelt Digital Library which has formed partnerships with the Library of Congress and Harvard University, among other institutions, they have over 25,000 items online. In May 2017, it was announced that the Barack Obama Presidential Center, the planned location of the Presidential library of Barack Obama, would not be part of the NARA system, making Obama the first president since Calvin Coolidge not to have a federally funded facility. Instead, in a "new model" the nonprofit Obama Foundation will partner with the NARA on digitization and making documents available; the Chicago Park District began related construction in August and suspended it in September 2018. It was announced. All presidential papers were considered the personal property of the president; some took them at the end of their terms, others destroyed them, many papers were scattered.
Though many pre-Hoover collections now reside in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress, others are split among other libraries, historical societies, private colle
Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park
Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in central Texas about 50 miles west of Austin in the Texas Hill Country; the park protects the birthplace, home and final resting place of Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States. During Johnson's administration, the LBJ Ranch was known as the "Texas White House" because the President spent 20% of his time in office there; the park consists of the Johnson City District and the LBJ Ranch District. The Johnson City District, located in Johnson City, contains the boyhood home of President Johnson and his grandparents' log cabin settlement, as well as the National Park Visitor Center; the LBJ Ranch District is located 14 miles west of Johnson City along the north side of the Pedernales River in Gillespie County. The ranch was the Johnson family retreat during his period of greatest influence, is the site of the family cemetery; this gives the visitors a perspective of President Johnson's life. The Johnson City Unit is located on the south side of the city, with parking areas at the visitors center on Lady Bird Lane, on United States Route 290 at N Street.
The visitors center, located in a former hospital, provides an introduction to the park and exhibitions and films about President Johnson and his wife Lady Bird. A short way north of the visitors center is the Johnson Boyhood Home, an 1880s Victorian house where he lived with his parents from age five; this house, restored by Johnson while he was president, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. West of the visitors center is the Johnson Settlement, a restored prairie in which are found the dogtrot house of Johnson's grandfather, other 19th-century agricultural buildings; the ranch is located on the north side of United States Route 290, about fourteen miles west of Johnson City, with its main access through the Lyndon B. Johnson State Park and Historic Site, which lies between the highway and the south bank of the Pedernales River; the National Park Service lands lie north of the river. Among the sites preserved at the Ranch are the President's first school, his reconstructed birthplace, the Texas White House, the Johnson Family Cemetery, where both President and Lady Bird Johnson are buried.
Visitors take a self-guided auto driving tour from State Park visitor center. The park was authorized on December 2, 1969, as Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Site and was redesignated as a National Historical Park on December 28, 1980. Present holdings are 1,570 acres, 674 acres of which are federal; the Johnson family continues to donate land to this property. List of National Historic Landmarks in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Blanco County, Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Gillespie County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Blanco County Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Gillespie County Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park travel guide from Wikivoyage Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park official site Secondary National Park Service site on Johnson National Historic Site Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park from the Handbook of Texas Online "Life Portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, broadcast from the LBJ Ranch, November 12, 1999
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government. Although its beginnings were in the House and Home Financing Agency, it was founded as a Cabinet department in 1965, as part of the "Great Society" program of President Lyndon Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises; the department was established on September 9, 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act into law, it stipulated that the department was to be created no than November 8, sixty days following the date of enactment. The actual implementation was postponed until January 13, 1966, following the completion of a special study group report on the federal role in solving urban problems. HUD is administered by the United States Secretary of Urban Development, its headquarters is located in the Robert C. Weaver Federal Building; some important milestones for HUD's development include: June 27, 1934 – The National Housing Act creates the Federal Housing Administration, which helps provide mortgage insurance on loans made by FHA-approved lenders.
September 1, 1937 – Housing Act of 1937 creates the United States Housing Authority, which helps enact slum-clearance projects and construction of low-rent housing. February 3, 1938 – The National Housing Act Amendments of 1938 is signed into law; the law creates the Federal National Mortgage Association, which provides a secondary market to the Federal Housing Administration. February 24, 1942 – Executive Order 9070, Establishing the National Housing Agency; the Federal Housing Administration, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, The Home Owners' Loan Corporation, The United States Housing Authority, defense housing under the Federal Works Agency, the War Department, the Navy Department, the Farm Security Administration, the Defense Homes Corporation, the Federal Loan Administration, the Division of Defense Housing Coordination were consolidated. The National Housing Agency would be made up of three units, each with its own commissioner; the units were the Federal Housing Administration, the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, the United States Housing Authority.
July 27, 1947 – The Housing and Home Finance Agency is established through Reorganization Plan Number 3. July 15, 1949 – The Housing Act of 1949 is enacted to help eradicate slums and promote community development and redevelopment programs. August 2, 1954 – The Housing Act of 1954 establishes comprehensive planning assistance. September 23, 1959 – The Housing Act of 1959 allows funds for elderly housing. September 2, 1964 – The Housing Act of 1964 allows rehabilitation loans for homeowners. August 10, 1965 – The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 instituted several major expansions in federal housing programs. September 1965 – HUD is created as a cabinet-level agency by the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act. April 1968 – The Fair Housing Act is passed to ban discrimination in housing. During 1968 – The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 establishes the Government National Mortgage Association. August 1969 – The Brooke Amendment establishes that low income families only pay no more than 25 percent of their income for rent.
August 1974 – Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 allows community development block grants and help for urban homesteading. October 1977 – The Housing and Community Act of 1977 sets up Urban Development Grants and continues elderly and handicapped assistance. July 1987 – The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act gives help to communities to deal with homelessness, it includes the creation of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness of which HUD is a member. February 1988 – The Housing and Community Development Act provides for the sale of public housing to resident management corporations. October 1992 – The HOPE VI program starts to revitalize public housing and how it works. October 1992 – The Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 codifies within its language the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 that creates the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight, mandates HUD to set goals for lower income and underserved housing areas for the GSEs Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
1992 – Federal Housing Enterprises' Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 creates HUD Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight to provide public oversight of FNMA and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. 1993 – Henry G. Cisneros is named Secretary of HUD by President William J. Clinton, January 22. Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program becomes law as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993. 1995 – "Blueprint for Reinvention of HUD" proposes sweeping changes in public housing reform and FHA, consolidation of other programs into three block grants. 1996 – Homeownership totals 66.3 million American households, the largest number ever. 1997 – Andrew M. Cuomo is named by President Clinton to be Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the first appointment from within the Department. 1998 – HUD opens Enforcement Center to take action against HUD-assisted multifamily property owners and other HUD fund recipients who violate laws and regulations. Congress approves Public Housing reforms to reduce segregation by race and income and reward work, bring more working families into public housing, increase the availability of subsidized housing for poor families.
2000 – America's homeownership rate reaches a new record-high of 67.7 percent in the third quarter of 2000. A total of 71.6 million American families own their homes - more than at any time in American history. 2001 – Mel Martinez, named by President George W. Bush to be Secretary o
Lady Bird Johnson
Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Johnson was an American socialite and the First Lady of the United States as the wife of the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, she served as the Second Lady of the United States from 1961 until President John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963. Notably well-educated for a woman of her era, she proved a shrewd investor. After marrying Lyndon B. Johnson in 1934 when he was a political hopeful in Austin, she used a modest inheritance to bankroll his congressional campaign, ran his office while he served in the Navy, she bought a radio station, a television station which generated revenues that made the Johnsons into millionaires. As First Lady, she broke new ground by interacting directly with Congress, employing her own press secretary, making a solo electioneering tour. Johnson was an advocate for beautifying highways; the Highway Beautification Act was informally known as "Lady Bird's Bill." She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest honors bestowed upon a US civilian.
Claudia Alta Taylor was born on December 22, 1912, in Karnack, Texas, a town in Harrison County, near the eastern state line with Louisiana. Her birthplace was "The Brick House," an antebellum plantation house on the outskirts of town, which her father had purchased shortly before her birth, she is a descendant of English Protestant martyr Rowland Taylor through his grandson Captain Thomas J. Taylor, II, she was named for her mother's brother Claud. During her infancy, her nursemaid, Alice Tittle, said that she was as "purty as a ladybird". Opinions differ about whether the name refers to a bird or a ladybird beetle, the latter of, referred to as a "ladybug" in North America; the nickname replaced her first name for the rest of her life. Her father and siblings called her Lady, her husband called her Bird—the name she used on her marriage license. During her teenage years, some classmates would call her Bird to provoke her, since she was not fond of the name. Nearly all of her maternal and paternal immigrant ancestors arrived in the Virginia Colony during the late 17th and early 18th centuries as indentured servants, as were most early settlers in the colony.
A native of Alabama, her father had English ancestry, some Welsh and Danish. Her mother was a native of Alabama, of English and Scottish descent, her father, Thomas Jefferson Taylor, was a sharecropper's son. He became a wealthy businessman, owned 15,000 acres of cotton and two general stores. "My father was a strong character, to put it mildly," his daughter once said. "He lived by his own rules. It was a whole feudal way of life, really."Born Minnie Lee Pattillo, her mother loved opera and felt out of place in Karnack. When Lady Bird was five years old, Minnie fell down a flight of stairs while pregnant and died of complications of miscarriage. In a profile of Lady Bird Johnson, Time magazine described Lady Bird's mother as "a tall, eccentric woman from an old and aristocratic Alabama family, liked to wear long white dresses and heavy veils scandalized people for miles around by entertaining Negroes in her home, once started to write a book about Negro religious practices, called Bio Baptism."
Her husband, tended to see blacks as "hewers of wood and drawers of water," according to his younger son. Lady Bird had two elder brothers, Thomas Jefferson Jr. and Antonio known as Tony. Her widowed father married twice more, his second wife was a bookkeeper at a general store. His third wife was Ruth Scroggins, whom he married in 1937. Lady Bird was raised by her maternal aunt Effie Pattillo, who moved to Karnack after her sister's death, she visited her Pattillo relatives in Autauga County, every summer until she was a young woman. As she explained, "Until I was about 20, summertime always meant Alabama to me. With Aunt Effie we would board the train in Marshall and ride to the part of the world that meant watermelon cuttings, picnics at the creek, a lot of company every Sunday." According to Lady Bird, her Aunt Effie "opened my spirit to beauty, but she neglected to give me any insight into the practical matters a girl should know about, such as how to dress or choose one's friends or learning to dance."Lady Bird was a shy and quiet girl who spent much of her youth alone outdoors.
"People always look back at it now and assume it was lonely," she once said about her childhood. "To me it was not.... I spent a lot of time just walking and fishing and swimming." She developed her lifelong love of the outdoors as a child growing up in the tall pines and bayous of East Texas, where she watched the wildflowers bloom each spring. When it came time to enter high school, Lady Bird had to move away and live with another family during weekdays in the town of Jefferson, since there was no high school in the Karnack area.. She graduated third in her class at the age of 15 from Marshall Senior High School in the nearby county seat. Despite her young age, her father gave her a car so that she could drive herself to school, a distance of 15 miles each way, she said of that time, "t was an awful chore for my daddy to delegate some person from his business to take me in and out." During her senior year, when she realized that she had the highest grades in her class, she "purposely allowed her grades to slip" so that she would not have to gi
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. The 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people. Born in a farmhouse in Stonewall, Johnson was a high school teacher and worked as a congressional aide before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1937, he won election to the Senate in 1948 and was appointed to the position of Senate Majority Whip in 1951. He became the Senate Minority Leader in 1953 and the Senate Majority Leader in 1955, he became known for his domineering personality and the "Johnson treatment", his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation. Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election.
Although unsuccessful, he accepted the invitation of then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate, they went on to win a close election over the Republican ticket of Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated and Johnson succeeded him as president; the following year, Johnson won in a landslide. With 61.1 percent of the popular vote, Johnson won the largest share of the popular vote of any candidate since the uncontested 1820 election. In domestic policy, Johnson designed the "Great Society" legislation to expand civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicaid, aid to education, the arts and rural development, public services and his "War on Poverty". Assisted in part by a growing economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration. Civil rights bills that he signed into law banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace and housing.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed, encouraging greater emigration from regions other than Europe. Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism after the New Deal era. In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use military force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war; the number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 525,000 in 1967, many in combat roles. American casualties soared and the peace process stagnated. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry anti-war movement based chiefly among draft-age students on university campuses. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots began in major cities in 1965 and crime rates soared, as his opponents raised demands for "law and order" policies.
While Johnson began his presidency with widespread approval, support for him declined as the public became frustrated with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized. Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, where he died of a heart attack at age 64, on January 22, 1973. Johnson is ranked favorably by many historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws that affected civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, Social Security, although he has drawn substantial criticism for his escalation of the Vietnam War. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River, he was the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Rebekah Baines. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, three sisters.
The nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJ's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry, he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana. Baines, the grandfather of Johnson's mother, was the president of Baylor University during the American Civil War. Johnson's grandfather, Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. was raised as a Baptist and for a time was a member of the Christian Church. In his years the grandfather became a Christadelphian; as a politician, Johnson was influenced in his positive attitude toward Jews by the religious beliefs that his family his grandfather, had shared with him. Johnson's favorite Bible verse came from the King James Version of Isaiah 1:18. "Come now, let us reason together..." In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth, elected president of his 11th-grade class.
He graduated in 1924 from Johnson City High School, where he participated in public speaking and baseball. At age 15, Johnson was the youngest member of his class. Pressured by his parents to attend college, he en
First inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson
The first inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson as the 36th President of the United States was held on Friday, November 22, 1963, aboard Air Force One at Love Field, following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy earlier that day; the inauguration marked the commencement of the first term of Lyndon B. Johnson as President; this was the eighth non-scheduled, extraordinary inauguration to take place since the presidency was established in 1789. At 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on November 22, Kennedy was shot in Dallas while riding with his wife, Jacqueline, in the presidential motorcade. Vice President Johnson was riding in a car behind the president with his wife, Lady Bird Johnson, Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough. After shots were fired, Johnson was thrown down and sat on by Secret Service agent Rufus Youngblood, the President's and Vice President's cars sped to Parkland Memorial Hospital. There were initial reports that Johnson might have been shot wounded in the arm or that he had suffered another heart attack.
Mrs. Johnson confirmed to reporters that he was fine and did not suffer any injury or illness other than being shaken at what he'd seen. In the hospital, Johnson was surrounded by Secret Service agents, who encouraged him to return to Washington in case he too was targeted for assassination. Johnson wished to wait. At this point arrangements were made to provide Secret Service protection of the two Johnson daughters, it was decided that the new president would leave on the presidential aircraft because it had better communications equipment. Johnson was driven by an unmarked police car to Love Field, kept below the car's window level throughout the journey; the President waited for Jacqueline Kennedy, who in turn would not leave Dallas without her husband's body, to arrive aboard Air Force One. Kennedy's casket was brought to the aircraft, but takeoff was delayed until Johnson took the oath of office. There was concern that since the Secret Service had taken the body of Kennedy from Parkland Hospital against the wishes of the Dallas medical examiner, Earl Rose, who had insisted an autopsy was required, the Dallas Police Department would seek to prevent Air Force One taking off.
Assassination of the President was not yet a federal crime. President Johnson chose federal district Judge Sarah T. Hughes, a long-standing friend, to swear him in, he had sought her appointment to a federal judgeship, which Robert Kennedy rejected on advice from the Justice Department on account of her age. When the Justice Department reversed its decision a few weeks and appointed Hughes, Johnson was outraged at having not been consulted. For the inauguration twenty-seven people squeezed into the sixteen-foot square stateroom of Air Force One for the proceedings. Adding to the discomfort was the lack of air conditioning as the aircraft had been disconnected from the external power supply, in order to take off promptly; as the inauguration proceeded the four jet engines of Air Force One were being powered up. The Warren Commission's report detailed the inauguration: From the Presidential airplane, the new President telephoned Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, who advised that Mr. Johnson take the Presidential oath of office before the plane left Dallas.
Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes hastened to the plane to administer the oath. Members of the Presidential and Vice-Presidential parties filled the central compartment of the plane to witness the swearing in. At 2:38 p.m. CST, Lyndon Baines Johnson took the oath of office as the 36th President of the United States. Mrs. Kennedy and Mrs. Johnson stood at the side of the new President. Nine minutes the Presidential airplane departed for Washington, D. C; the swearing-in ceremony administered by Judge Hughes in an Air Force One conference room represented the first time that a woman administered the presidential oath of office as well as the only time it was conducted on an airplane. Instead of the usual Bible, Johnson was sworn in upon a missal found on a side table in Kennedy's Air Force One bedroom. After the oath had been taken, Johnson kissed his wife on the forehead. Mrs. Johnson took Jackie Kennedy's hand and told her, "The whole nation mourns your husband." At exactly the same time as the ceremony, CBS anchor Walter Cronkite read aloud on the air wire copy from the Associated Press confirming Kennedy's death, subsequently adding that Johnson would be sworn in as president.
According to the Museum of Broadcast Communications's Encyclopedia of Television, during their frantic afternoon coverage of the unfolding events, American broadcasters made a "determined effort" to refer to him as "President Johnson". The famous photograph of the inauguration was taken by Cecil Stoughton, John F. Kennedy's official photographer. On Stoughton's suggestion Johnson was flanked by his wife and Jacqueline Kennedy, facing away from the camera so that blood stains on her pink Chanel suit would not be visible; the photograph was taken using a Hasselblad camera. The inauguration was sound recorded by White House press secretary Malcolm Kilduff using Air Force One's dictaphone. During the flight back to Andrews Air Force Base, Johnson made several phone calls on the radio telephone, including to Rose Kennedy and Nellie Connally. In addition, he made the decision to request all cabinet members to stay in their posts and asked to meet both parties' leaders in Congress soon. Johnson asked J