President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. It is located in the West Wing of the White House Complex, the room features three large south-facing windows behind the presidents desk, and a fireplace at the north end. Presidents generally decorate the office to suit their taste, choosing new furniture, new drapery. Artwork is selected from the White Houses own collection, or borrowed from museums for the term in office. The Oval Office has become associated in Americans minds with the presidency itself through memorable images, such as a young John F. Kennedy, several presidents have addressed the nation from the Oval Office on occasion. George Washington never occupied the White House and he spent most of his presidency in Philadelphia, which served as the temporary national capital for 10 years, 1790–1800, while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In 1790, Washington built a large, two-story, semi-circular addition to the rear of the Presidents House in Philadelphia, Washington received his guests, standing between the windows in his back drawing-room.
The company, entering a front room and passing through a door, made their salutations to the President. The apsidal end of a room was a site of honor, for a host. President John Adams occupied the Philadelphia mansion beginning in 1797, curved foundations of Washingtons Bow Window were uncovered during a 2007 archaeological excavation of the Presidents House site. Architect James Hoban visited President Washington in Philadelphia in June 1792, the following month, he was named winner of the design competition for The White House. The elliptic salon at the center of the White House was the feature of Hobans original plan. An oval interior space was a Baroque concept that was adapted by Neoclassicism, Oval rooms became popular in eighteenth century neoclassical architecture. In November 1800, John Adams became the first President to occupy the White House, during the 19th century, a number of presidents used the White Houses second-floor Yellow Oval Room as a private office or library. The one-story Executive Office Building was intended to be a temporary structure, Building it to the west of the White House allowed the removal of a vast, dilapidated set of pre-Civil War greenhouses that had been constructed by President James Buchanan.
Roosevelt moved the offices of the branch to the newly constructed wing in 1902. His workspace was a suite of Executive Office and Cabinet Room. The furniture, including the desk, was designed by architect Charles Follen McKim and executed by A. H. Davenport and Company
Gordon Bunshaft, FAIA, was an American architect, a leading proponent of modern design in the mid-twentieth century. A partner in the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Bunshaft joined in 1937, Bunshaft was born in Buffalo, New York, to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, and attended Lafayette High School. He received both his undergraduate and his masters degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, studied in Europe on a Rotch Traveling Scholarship from 1935 to 1937, after his traveling scholarship, Bunshaft worked briefly for Edward Durell Stone and industrial designer Raymond Loewy before joining SOM. Bunshafts early influences included Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, in the 1950s, Bunshaft was hired by the State Departments Office of Foreign Building Operations as a collaborator on the design for several U. S. consulates in Germany. Bunshafts only single-family residence was the 2300 square foot Travertine House, on his death he left the house to MoMA, which sold it to Martha Stewart in 1995.
Her extensive remodelling stalled amid an acrimonious planning dispute with a neighbour, in 2005, she sold the house to textile magnate Donald Maharam, who described the house as decrepit and largely beyond repair and demolished it. Bunshaft was elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters and was the recipient of other honors. He received the Brunner Prize of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1955 and he recevied the American Institute of Architects Twenty-five Year Award for Lever House, in 1980, and the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 1988. In 1958, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, from 1963 to 1972, he was a member of the Commission of Fine Arts in Washington. It is the capstone of my life in architecture, Bunshaft was a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art. He received the Medal of Honor of the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, bunshafts personal papers are held by the Department of Drawings & Archives in the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University, his architectural drawings remain with SOM. R.
Grace Building - New York, New York 1974 - Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden - Washington, D. C.1983 - National Commercial Bank - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia In 1943, Bunshaft married Nina Wayler. They were avid collectors of art and owned many major pieces including works by Joan Miro, Giacometti, Léger. They lived in the Manhattan House Apartments in New Yorks Upper East Side, which he helped design, and at the Travertine House in East Hampton, which was his only single-family residence. He is buried next to his wife and parents in the Temple Beth El cemetery on Pine Ridge Road in Buffalo, carol Herselle Krinsky, Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, MIT Press,1988 Oral history interview with Gordon Bunshaft. Chicago Architects Oral History Project, The Art Institute of Chicago, archived from the original on May 16,2006. Discussion and links about preservation and rebuilding of the Bunshaft Residence, Gordon Bunshaft architectural drawings and papers, 1909-1990. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Gordon Bunshaft at Find a Grave
Animatronics refers to the use of robotic devices to emulate a human or an animal, or bring lifelike characteristics to an otherwise inanimate object. A robot designed to be an imitation of a human is more specifically labeled as an android. Modern animatronics have found applications in movie special effects and theme parks and have, since their inception. Animatronics is a field which integrates anatomy, mechatronics. Animatronic figures are often powered by pneumatics, and/or by electrical means, motion actuators are often used to imitate muscle movements and create realistic motions in limbs. Animatronics is portmanteau of animate and electronics The term audio-animatronics was coined by Walt Disney in 1961 when he started developing animatronics for entertainment, Audio-Animatronics does not differentiate between animatronics and androids. 1515, Leonardo da Vinci designed and built the Automata Lion,1738, The construction of automata begins in Grenoble, France by Jacques de Vaucanson. 1770, Pierre Jaquet-Droz and his son Henri-Louis Jaquet-Droz, both Swiss watchmakers, start making automata for European royalty, once completed, they had created three dolls.
One doll was able to write, the other play music,1801, Joseph Jacquard builds a loom that is controlled autonomously with punched cards. The animatronic galloping horse was on display at the 1939 Worlds Fair,1939 New York Worlds Fair 1961, Heinrich Ernst develops the MH-1, a computer-operated mechanical hand. 1961, Walt Disney coins the term audio-animatronics and begins developing modern animatronic technology,1963, The first animatronics, called Audio-Animatronics, created by Disney were the Enchanted Tiki Birds. Disneyland 1964, In the film Mary Poppins, animatronic birds are the first animatronics to be featured in a motion picture,1965, The first animatronics figure of a person is created by Disney and is Abraham Lincoln. 1968, The first animatronic character at a restaurant is created, goes by the name Golden Mario and was built by Team Built in 1968. 1977, Chuck E. Cheeses opens its doors, as the first restaurant with animatronics as an attraction,1980, ShowBiz Pizza Place opens with the Rock-afire Explosion 1982, Ben Franklin is the first animatronic figure to walk up a set of stairs.
1989, The first A-100 animatronic is developed for The Great Movie Ride attraction at the Disney-MGM Studios to represent The Wicked Witch of the West,1993, The largest animatronic figure ever built is the T. rex for the movie, Jurassic Park. 1998, Tiger Electronics begins selling Furby, a pet with over 800 English phrases or Furbish. Vernon Hills, Illinois May 11,1999, Sony releases the AIBO animatronics pet, Japan 2008, Mr. Potato Head at the Toy Story exhibit features lips with superior range of movement to any other animatronic figure previously. Disneys Hollywood Studios October 31,2008 –July 1,2009, the Hall of Presidents September 28,2009, Disney develops Otto, the first interactive figure that can hear and sense actions in the room
Lyndon B. Johnson
A Democrat from Texas, he previously served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two more as Senate Majority Whip, Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate and they went on to win a close election over Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20,1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22,1963 and he successfully ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican opponent Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. He is one of four people who have served as President, Vice President, Senator. Johnson was renowned for his personality and the Johnson treatment. Assisted in part by an economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968, American casualties soared and the peace process bogged down. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry antiwar movement based especially on university campuses in the U. S. and abroad. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots broke out in most major cities after 1965, while he began his presidency with widespread approval, support for Johnson declined as the public became upset with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as antiwar elements denounced Johnson, Republican Richard Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed.
After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, historians argue that Johnsons presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27,1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a farmhouse on the Pedernales River. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, and three sisters, Rebekah and Lucia, the nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJs cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry and he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm. It was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings, with a portfolio spanning thousands of projects across 50 countries, SOM is one of the largest architectural firms in the world. Their primary expertise is in commercial buildings, as it was SOM that led the way to the widespread use of the modern international-style or glass box skyscraper. They have designed several of the tallest buildings in the world, including the John Hancock Center, Willis Tower, due to their faithful following of Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohes ideas, Frank Lloyd Wright nicknamed them The Three Blind Mies. Notable SOM architects include, Edward Charles Bassett, Natalie de Blois, Gordon Bunshaft, David Childs, Myron Goldsmith, Bruce Graham, Gertrude Kerbis, Fazlur Rahman Khan. Lucien Lagrange, Walter Netsch, Larry Oltmanns, Brigitte Peterhans, Adrian Smith, Khan is responsible for developing the algorithms that made the Hancock building and many subsequent skyscrapers possible.
Another notable SOM engineer is Bill Baker, who is best known as the engineer of Burj Khalifa, to support the towers record heights and slim footprint, he developed the buttressed core structural system, consisting of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form a Y shape. Davis Allen, a pioneer in corporate interior design, had a tenure at SOM. Throughout its history, SOM has been recognized more than 1,700 awards for quality. More than 900 of these awards have received since 1998. In 1996 and 1962, SOM received the Architecture Firm Award from the American Institute of Architects, SOM is the only firm to have received this honor twic13 R+D Awards from Architect Magazine. In addition, a collaboration between SOM and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, The Center for Architecture and Ecology, was honored with a fifth award. SOM has completed over 10,000 projects around the United States and in more than 50 other countries around the world, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Abu Dhabi. Smaller field offices supplement these in such as the Philippines.
Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 829.8 m, construction began on 21 September 2004, and the building officially opened on 4 January 2010. The towers architect and engineer was Skidmore and Merrill, george J. Efstathiou was the Managing Partner for the project. Bill Baker, the Chief Structural Engineer for the project, invented the buttressed core structural system in order to enable the tower to achieve such heights economically, Adrian Smith, who worked with Skidmore and Merrill until 2006, was the Consulting Design Partner. The primary builder is a joint venture of South Korean Samsung C&T, one World Trade Center, known as the Freedom Tower, is located in Manhattan, New York City, and is 1,776 ft high, making it the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere
Texas State Capitol
The Texas State Capitol, completed in 1888 in Downtown Austin, contains the offices and chambers of the Texas Legislature and the Office of the Governor. Designed in 1881 by architect Elijah E. Myers, it was constructed from 1882 to 1888 under the direction of civil engineer Reuben Lindsay Walker, a $75 million underground extension was completed in 1993. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, the Texas State Capitol is 302.64 feet tall, making it the sixth tallest state capitol and one of several taller than the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. The current Texas State Capitol is the building to serve that purpose. The value of the land, combined with expenses, added to a total cost of $3.7 million for the original building and it was constructed largely by convicts or migrant workers, as many as a thousand at a time. The building has been renovated several times, with air conditioning installed in 1955. The cornerstone for the building was laid on March 2,1885, Texas Independence Day, the designers originally planned for the building to be clad entirely with hill country limestone quarried in Oatmanville, about 10 miles to the southwest.
However, the iron content of the limestone led it to rapidly discolor with rust stains when exposed to the elements. Learning of the problem, the owners of Granite Mountain near Marble Falls offered to donate to the state, free of charge, while the building is mostly built of the Oak Hill limestone, most of this is hidden behind the walls and on the foundations. Red granite was used for many state government buildings in the Austin area. On February 6,1983 a fire began in the apartment of William P. Hobby, a guest of Hobbys was killed, and four firemen and a policeman were injured by the subsequent blaze. The capitol was crowded with accumulated archives, and the fire was intense and it caused severe damage to the east wing and compromised much of the framing, which was largely composed of exposed cast iron posts and beams. Restoration continued until 1993, and the took advantage of the extensive rebuilding to update the mechanical and structural systems to modern standards. Additionally, the sought to address the intensifying shortage of space in the old building, deciding that a new office wing should be added.
Instead, an expansion to the capitol was built beneath the north plaza, in 1993, the $75 million, four-story, underground Capitol Extension was completed to the north, doubling the square footage available to Capitol occupants and providing much improved functionality. In 1995, an interior and exterior restoration of the original building was completed at a cost of approximately $98 million. Finally, in 1997, the grounds surrounding the Capitol received an $8 million renovation and restoration. The capitol building and grounds are located in downtown Austin, with the entrance facing onto the Congress Avenue Historic District to the south
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs
The Lyndon B. D. in Public Policy. The school offers a Ph. D. in Public Policy, as of 2011-2012, the LBJ School has graduated 3,508 masters degree students since its first inaugural class of 1972, as well as 56 Ph. D. students from 1992 to August 2013. The school offers a Portfolio Program in Arts and Cultural Management and Entrepreneurship, the school sponsors a variety of non-degree programs for public affairs professionals. In 2013, the LBJ School launched a new Executive Master in Public Leadership for mid-career professionals, the first of its kind in Texas, the EMPL at the LBJ School of Public Affairs is a blending of rigorous academic studies and practical learning. The Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs is committed to improving the quality of service in the United States and abroad at all levels of governance. Many of the Schools centers sponsor a range of activities, including conferences, workshops. The Center partners with a range of stakeholders to conduct timely, relevant research and to translate research into effective policies.
The Centers research addresses pressing issues in philanthropy, nonprofit management, social entrepreneurship, the Great Society Fund was created by the class of 2005 to finance innovative social entrepreneurship projects started by LBJ students and alumni. The Baines Report is the student publication of the LBJ School of Public Affairs. Led by students, the Baines Report publishes student opinion pieces and these are the schools alumni chapters, Austin Alumni Association http, //www. lbjalumni. org Association Webpage] Washington, D. C. Alumni Chapter 1972 Allen E. Pritchard, Jr. incoming Vice President, National League of Cities 1973 J. J. Jake Pickle, congressman from Texas, member of the House Ways and Means Committee 1974 Richard W. Bolling, U. S. Senator from Colorado 1987 James C, wright, Jr. Speaker, U. S. House of Representatives 1988 Yvonne B. Steinberg, Deputy Secretary of State, U. S. Department of State 2011 Kathleen A. Merrigan, news & World Report, down from 9th in 2004, 7th in 2002 and 5th in 1998, but up from 16th in 2012.
Cannon Alan K. Campbell Elspeth Rostow Max Sherman Edwin Dorn Bobby Ray Inman James B. Steinberg Bobby Ray Inman Robert Hutchings Angela Evans James Kumar Aiyer,1992 Houston Community College trustee Kenneth S. Apfel, M. P. Aff. 1978, Commissioner of the Social Security Administration from 1997 until his term ended in January 2001 Robert N. Campbell,1973, vice chairman of Deloitte & Touche USA LLP. 2003, Speechwriter for Mexicos President Felipe Calderón Rafael Fernández de Castro, Academic Dean of the Department of International Studies,1993, Tourism Secretary, Mendoza Province, Argentina. 1994, Lewis-Sebring Director, Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute Andrea Kane,1996, Secretary of Postgraduate Studies, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina. 1990, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Bill Owens,1975, Governor of Colorado from 1999–2007 Michael Reyna, M. P. Aff
Carl Milton Levin is a former United States Senator from Michigan, having served from 1979 to 2015. He was the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services and is a member of the Democratic Party, born in Detroit, Levin is a graduate of Swarthmore College and Harvard Law School. He worked as the General Counsel of the Michigan Civil Rights Commission from 1964 to 1967, Levin was elected to the Detroit City Council in 1968, serving from 1969 to 1977, and was president of the City Council from 1973 to 1977. In 1978, Levin ran for the United States Senate, defeating incumbent Republican Senator Robert P. Griffin, Levin was re-elected in 1984,1990,1996,2002 and 2008. On March 7,2013, Levin announced that he would not seek a seventh term to the Senate, Levin became Michigans senior senator in 1995. He is the senator in the states history, and was ultimately the fourth longest-serving incumbent in the U. S. Senate. Levin was born in Detroit, and is the son of Jewish parents, Saul served on the Michigan Corrections Commission.
He graduated from Detroit Central High School in 1952, and worked as a taxi driver and he attended Swarthmore College, graduating with his Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1956. He attended Harvard Law School, where he earned his Juris Doctor in 1959 and he received honorary degrees from Michigan State University in 2004, Wayne State University in 2005, and Michigan Technological University in 2008. After earning his law degree, he was admitted to the State Bar of Michigan and he entered private practice as a lawyer for Grossman and Grossman and taught law at Wayne State University and the University of Detroit Mercy. He served as an assistant attorney general for the state of Michigan. Levin was elected to the Detroit City Council in 1969, serving two terms from 1970 to 1977. Levin served as president of the City Council throughout his second term. He was close to Detroit Mayor Coleman Young, the citys first African-American Mayor, during his time on the City Council, Levin practiced law part-time, working as a counsel for the Schlussel, Simon and Kaufman law firm from 1971 to 1973.
He served as the counsel at Jaffe, Raitt and Heuer. Levin was elected to the United States Senate in 1978, defeating incumbent Republican Senator Robert P. Griffin, Committee on Armed Services As Chairman of the full committee, Sen. The bill would designate as wilderness about 32,500 acres of the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in the state of Michigan, the newly designated lands and inland waterways would comprise the Sleeping Bear Dunes Wilderness, a new component of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Levin was formerly the chairman of the Armed Services Committee and he has served as the Democratic ranking member on the committee since January 7,1997
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. It is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. and it is the fastest growing large city in the United States and the second most populous capital city after Phoenix, Arizona. As of the U. S. Census Bureaus July 1,2015 estimate and it is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 2,056,405 as of July 1,2016. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River, in 1839, the site was officially chosen to replace Houston as the new capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name Waterloo. Shortly thereafter, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the Father of Texas and the republics first secretary of state. The city subsequently grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.
After a lull in growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its development into a city and, by the 1980s, it emerged as a center for technology. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including Amazon. com, cisco, eBay, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, Texas Instruments, 3M, and Whole Foods Market. Dells worldwide headquarters is located in nearby Round Rock, a suburb of Austin, residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers. The city adopted Silicon Hills as a nickname in the 1990s due to an influx of technology. In the late 1800s, Austin was known as the City of the Violet Crown because of the glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Even today, many Austin businesses use the term Violet Crown in their name, Austin is known as a clean-air city for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars.
The FBI ranked Austin as the second-safest major city in the U. S. for the year 2012, U. S. News & World Report named Austin the best place to live in the U. S. in 2017. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of habitation since at least 9200 BC. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area, the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, in 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in area for only about seven months
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
United States Public Law 88-452, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, authorized the formation of local Community Action Agencies as part of the War on Poverty. These agencies are regulated by the federal government. It is the purpose of The Economic Opportunity Act to strengthen, Johnson in his State of the Union Address on January 8,1964, This administration today here and now declares unconditional war on poverty in America. I urge this Congress and all Americans to join me in that effort, Poverty is a national problem, requiring improved national organization and support. But this attack, to be effective, must be organized at the State, for the war against poverty will not be won here in Washington. It must be won in the field, in private home, in every public office. Very often, a lack of jobs and money is not the cause of poverty and our aim is not only to relieve the symptoms of poverty but to cure it–and above all, to prevent it. No single piece of legislation, however, is going to suffice, W.
Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, was a major proponent of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. We realize that by itself prosperity is not going to get rid of poverty, second, to begin the process of planning and organizing that will bring the entire resources of a community to bear on the specific problem of breaking up the cycle of poverty in that community. The War on Poverty attacked the roots and consequences of poverty by creating job opportunities, increasing productivity, the aim was not to end poverty but to eradicate the principal causes of it. On March 16,1964, President Johnson called for the act in his Special Message to Congress that presented his proposal for a war on the sources of poverty. The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was passed as a part of LBJ’s War on Poverty. To everyone… the opportunity for education and training, the opportunity to work, and it strikes at the causes of poverty…Not just the consequences of poverty.
It can be a milestone in our 180-year search for a life for your people. ”In January 1964. The bill was presented to Congress in March,1964 and it was introduced in the House by Representative Phil M. Landrum, and in the Senate by Senator Pat McNamara. In the Senate, the bill was debated for two days and passed on July 23,1964, with 46 Senators in favor,44 opposed. In the House, the Senate-passed bill was debated for four days and passed by a vote of 226 to 185, the debate and voting in both the House and Senate was highly partisan with Republicans questioning states rights and southern Democrats the racial integration provisions. The Senate adopted the House-passed bill that day and twelve days on August 20,1964