Charles II, Duke of Bourbon
Charles II, Duke of Bourbon, was Archbishop of Lyon from an early age and a French diplomat under the rule of Louis XI of France. He had a 2-week tenure as Duke of Bourbon in 1488, being ousted afterward by his younger brother and successor, Peter II, Duke of Bourbon. An hereditary member of the House of Bourbon through Charles I, Duke of Bourbon and Agnes of Burgundy, Charles II, being a younger son, was appointed Canon of Lyon in 1443 and soon after, in June 6, 1444, elected Archbishop of Lyon at the age of 11; this election followed the death of Amedée de Talaru and the renunciation of John III of Bourbon, illegitimate offspring of his grandfather John I, Duke of Bourbon. His office was confirmed by Pope Eugene IV in November 14, 1446 after the death of Geoffroy Vassal, Archbishop of Vienne who the pope had first appointed in disregard of the Pragmatic Sanction in 1444. Due to his age, Charles II's archiepiscopate was administered in succession by Jean Rolin, bishop of Autun, from 1446 to 1447, Du Gué, bishop of Orléans, from 1447 to 1449, John III of Bourbon, bishop of Puy, from 1449 to 1466.
At that time, he still maintained a good relationship with the King of France Louis XI, showing greater gusto for navigating the intrigue of secular politics than displaying the piety expected of his religious position. On account of these proclivities, after the conflict surrounding the League of the Public Weal in 1465, Louis XI sent Charles II with Thibaud of Luxembourg, Bishop of Mans as ambassadors to Pope Paul II elected in 1464. In January 7, 1469 Charles II signed a royal letters patent as the king's adviser, at Plessis-lèz-Tours, the latter's main residence near Tours; as namesake, he was, along with Joan of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon and Edward of Westminster, godparent of the Dauphin Charles VIII. When Louis XI ends the Hundred Years War in 1475, the archbishop assisted him in diplomatic matters while the king lives with Charles II at the Notre-Dame-de-la-Victoire-lès-Senlis abbey near Senlis, he arrives with Louis XI and his elder brother John II of Bourbon in August 19 at Picquigny to sign the eponymous treaty.
In October 16 he signed in the abbey a letters patent to reestablish peaceable relations with Francis II, Duke of Brittany. Again, in January 8, 1476, as the head of the King's Council, Charles II signs four letters patent, among them one concerning the liberty of the Gallican Church at Château de Plessis-lèz-Tours. From 1472 to 1476, he was incumbent as the papal legate at Avignon though he only arrived there November 23, 1473. In May 23, 1474, the Pope Sixtus IV appoints his nephew Giuliano della Rovere as bishop of Avignon, 2 years as legate; this set Louis XI and the pope with the royal army and papal troops coming to bear. In June 15, 1476, to resolve this difficulty, the king welcomed Giuliano della Rovere at Lyon, so that Charles II accepted the loss of the Avignon legation; this is the reason why, in 1476, he became the administrator of the diocese of Clermont and was made a Cardinal by Sixtus IV. It seems that after leaving Avignon, Charles II followed again in the wake of Louis XI; the cardinal was present with the king at Arras in March 18, 1477, during the campaign following the death of Charles the Bold.
He was in 1486 the first commendatory abbot of the Priory Notre-Dame de La Charité-sur-Loire. He was a noted patron of the arts, lavishing money on Lyon's cathedral - the Bourbon chapel there, which he sponsored from 1486 onward was described as "one of the marvels of decorative art in the 15th century", he was Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne for a short period of time in April 1488, succeeding his elder brother, John II when the latter died in April 1. This prompted Charles II, as his brother's nearest heir, to claim the family inheritance in the Bourbonnais and Auvergne; the move was not tolerated by his younger brother and Peter's wife, Anne of France, the latter taking possession of the Bourbon lands by force on 10 April. On 15 April, members of the King's Council sent by Anne to "console the Cardinal on the occasion of his brother's death", forced him to sign a renunciation of any claims to the Bourbon lands, in exchange for a financial settlement. Charles died in the same year in mysterious circumstances, following a sudden collapse in a private house in Lyons.
His brief tenure of the title during the period 1 April-15 April would, however, be posthumously confirmed in 1505, when Charles de Montpensier acceded to the Duchy as Charles III. Charles II had with Gabrielle Bartine an illegitimate daughter, Isabelle made legitimate by Charles VIII, who married Gilbert of Chantelot, lord of La Chaise, dying in 1497. Charles II of Bourbon features in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, it evokes the titles and the parentage of Charles II in these words: "Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon and Comte of Lyon, Primate of the Gauls, was allied both to Louis XI, through his brother, Seigneur de Beaujeu, who had married the king's eldest daughter, to Charles the Bold through his mother, Agnes of Burgundy." De Commynes, Philippe. "X". Mémoires, Livre IV, tome II. Paris: GF Flammarion. Desormeaux, Joseph-Louis Ripault. Histoire de la maison de Bourbon, Tome II. Paris: Imprimerie royale. Heers, Jacques. Louis XI. Paris: Perrin. ISBN 978-2262020842. Hugo, Victor. Notre-Dame De Paris.
Translated by Isabel F. Hapgood. ISBN 978-1482664737. Louis XI. L.. Lettres de Louis XI, roi de France: publiées d'après les originaux pour la Société de l'histoire de France, vol. 4. Paris: Librai
Festival of Lights (Lyon)
The Festival of Lights in Lyon, France expresses gratitude toward Mary, mother of Jesus around December 8th of each year. This uniquely Lyonnaise tradition dictates that every house place candles along the outsides of all the windows to produce a spectacular effect throughout the streets; the festival includes other activities based on light and lasts four days, with the peak of activity occurring on the 8th. The two main focal points of activity are the Basilica of Fourvière, lit up in different colours, the Place des Terreaux, which hosts a different light show each year; the origins of the festival date to 1643. On September 8, 1643 the municipal councillors promised to pay tribute to Mary if the town was spared. Since, a solemn procession makes its way to the Basilica of Fourvière on 8 December to light candles and give offerings in the name of Mary. In part, the event thus commemorates the day. In 1852, it became a popular festival when a statue of the Virgin Mary was erected next to the Basilica, overlooking the city.
Now a focal point of the festival, the statue was created by the renowned sculptor Joseph-Hugues Fabisch and was sponsored by several notable Lyonnais Catholics. It was accepted by Maurice Cardinal de Bonald in 1850; the inauguration of the statue was due to take place on September 8, 1852, the day of celebration of the Nativity of the Virgin. However, the flooding of the Saône prevented the statue from being ready; the archbishop, with the agreement of a committee of lay people, therefore chose to move the date back to the 8 December. By 1852 in Lyon, December 8 had been a celebration for the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. Leading up to the inauguration, everything was in place for the festivities: The statue was lit up with flares, fireworks were readied for launching from the top of Fourvière Hill and marching bands were set to play in the streets; the prominent Catholics of the time suggested lighting up the façades of their homes as was traditionally done for major events such as royal processions and military victories.
However, on the morning of the big day, a storm struck Lyon. The master of ceremonies hastily decided to cancel everything and to push back the celebrations once more to the following Sunday. In the end the skies cleared and the people of Lyon, eagerly anticipating the event, spontaneously lit up their windows, descended into the streets and lit flares to illuminate the new statue and the Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Fourvière superseded by the Basilica; the people sang songs and cried "Vive Marie!" until late in the night. This celebration was repeated from year to year. Tradition now mandates that many families in Lyon keep along with their Christmas decorations, a collection of stained or clear glass in which candles are burnt on windowsills on 8 December; these stout, fluted candles can be found in shops towards the end of November. The city council puts on professionally-run performances. Lyon residents continue to participate as evidenced by numerous façades lit up in the traditional way and by the throngs of people wandering the streets on 8 December.
Historians and sociologists note the rather misinformed notions that the people of Lyon have concerning the celebration's origins: confusion over the thanks given to Mary, as well as the dates involved, leads people to think the celebration commemorates the establishment of the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière or a wish granted after a plague struck in the 19th century. The festival draws 3 to 4 million people each year. On 19 November 2015, six days after the attack on the Bataclan in Paris, Gérard Collomb announced the cancelation of the festival because a national state of emergency had been declared; the festival was limited to the traditional lumignon candles and an installation which paid tribute to the victims of the terrorist attacks, whose first names were displayed over the buildings of the quays. Because of the continuing risk of attacks, the 2016 edition of the festival took place in a smaller area than usual and lasted for three days instead of four. Security inspections were conducted at entrances to the event and additional security forces were provided by the Minister of the Interior.
This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding French Wikipedia article as of 8 June 2006. Lumiere festival Official Festival Website Het zestiende Lichtfestival van Lyon - NRC.nl
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b
Saint Pothinus was the first bishop of Lyon and the first bishop of Gaul. He is first mentioned in a letter attributed to Irenaeus of Lyon; the letter was sent from the Christian communities of Vienne to the Roman province of Asia. According to Alban Butler, by 177, a large number of the Christians in the area of Vienne and Lyons were Greeks from Asia. A violent persecution was there against them while Pothinus was bishop of Lyons, Irenæus, sent there by Polycarp out of Asia, was a priest of that city. Irenaeus, in asserting his own authority as bishop of Lyon, says that Pothinus had been his predecessor in the position, the first holder of that office. According to the letter, Pothinus was martyred along with Alexander, Espagathus and Sanctius, during persecutions by Marcus Aurelius, a Roman Emperor known for his great tolerance of faiths other than Christianity. Pothinus and several companions were taken to the magistrate; the similarity of the name Pothinus and the Old French verb foutre lead to syncretic amalgamation of Pothinus and Priapus, under the assimilated name Saint Foutin.
Persecution in Lyon Blandina Catholic Online: Pothinus
Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière
The Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière is a minor basilica in Lyon. It was built with private funds between 1884 in a dominant position overlooking the city; the site it occupies was once the Roman forum of the forum vetus, thus its name. Fourvière is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, to whom is attributed the salvation of the city of Lyon from the bubonic plague that swept Europe in 1643; each year in early December, Lyon thanks the Virgin for saving the city by lighting candles throughout the city, in what is called the Fête des Lumières or the Festival of Lights. The Virgin is credited with saving the city a number of other times, such as from a Cholera epidemic in 1832, from Prussian invasion in 1870. During the Franco-Prussian War, Prussian forces, having taken Paris, were progressing south towards Lyon, their halt and retreat were, once again, attributed by the Church to the intercession of the Virgin Mary. Speculating on the reasons for the construction of such an elaborate and expensive building, one author makes the statement that: "The reaction to the communes of Paris and Lyon were triumphalist monuments, the Sacré-Coeur of Montmartre and the basilica of Fourvière, dominating both cities.
These buildings were erected with private funds, as gigantic ex-votos, to thank God for victory over the socialists and in expiation of the sins of modern France."Perched on top of the Fourvière hill, the basilica looms impressively over the city of Lyon, from where it can be seen from many vantage points. The Basilica, which offers guided tours and contains a Museum of Sacred Art, receives 2 million visitors annually. At certain times, members of the public may access the basilica's north tower for a spectacular 180-degree view of Lyon and its suburbs. On a clear day, Mont Blanc, the highest point in Europe, can be seen in the distance; the design of the basilica, by Pierre Bossan, draws from both Romanesque and Byzantine architecture, two non-Gothic models that were unusual choices at the time. It has four main towers, a belltower topped with a gilded statue of the Virgin Mary, it features fine mosaics, superb stained glass, a crypt of Saint Joseph. Fourvière contains two churches, one on top of the other.
The upper sanctuary is ornate, while the lower is a much simpler design. Work on the triumphant basilica was begun in 1872 and finished in 1884. Finishing touches in the interior were not completed until as late as 1964. Bossan's first sketches for the basilica seem to date from 1846. At the time he was in Palermo; the basilica has acquired the local nickname of "the upside-down elephant", because the building looks like the body of an elephant and the four towers look like its legs. Les Petits Chanteurs de Saint-Marc, The Children's Choir of Saint Mark, is the official choir of the Basilica; this choir become well known after the release of the film Les Choristes. The choir's Director is Monsieur Nicolas Porte. Since 1982 the tower has housed the antennas of Radio Fourvière, the predecessor of Radios chrétiennes francophones. Fourvière has always been a popular place of pilgrimage. There has been a shrine at Fourvière dedicated to Our Lady since 1170; the chapel and parts of the building have been rebuilt at different times over the centuries, the most recent major works being in 1852 when the former steeple was replaced by a tower surmounted by a golden statue of the Virgin Mary sculpted by Joseph-Hugues Fabisch.
On 23 July 1816 twelve Marist aspirants and seminarians, climbed the hill to the shrine of Our Lady of Fourvière and placed their promise to found the Society of Mary under the corporal on the altar while Jean-Claude Courveille celebrated Mass. On 21 January 1851, Peter Julian Eymard prayed at the Shrine of Our Lady of Fourvière and was inspired to found the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament; when the city of Lyon was spared in the Franco-Prussian War, the community committed to build the present Basilica alongside the ancient chapel. Three hares - an architectural icon and religious symbol used in the basilica. Credited for architectural work within the monumental edifice is Louis Jean Perrin the father-in-law of Paul Claudel. Bossan was his père nourricier. Picture of Statue atop the Chapelle de la Vierge Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière Website
Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion by innovation and by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony; these large ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals and churches, the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration.
Buildings were at first from those intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as steel and concrete, has had an effect upon the design of churches; the history of church architecture divides itself into periods, into countries or regions and by religious affiliation. The matter is complicated by the fact that buildings put up for one purpose may have been re-used for another, that new building techniques may permit changes in style and size, that changes in liturgical practice may result in the alteration of existing buildings and that a building built by one religious group may be used by a successor group with different purposes; the simplest church building comprises a single meeting space, built of locally available material and using the same skills of construction as the local domestic buildings.
Such churches are rectangular, but in African countries where circular dwellings are the norm, vernacular churches may be circular as well. A simple church may be built of mud brick and daub, split logs or rubble, it may be roofed with thatch, corrugated iron or banana leaves. However, church congregations, from the 4th century onwards, have sought to construct church buildings that were both permanent and aesthetically pleasing; this had led to a tradition in which congregations and local leaders have invested time and personal prestige into the building and decoration of churches. Within any parish, the local church is the oldest building and is larger than any pre-19th-century structure except a barn; the church is built of the most durable material available dressed stone or brick. The requirements of liturgy have demanded that the church should extend beyond a single meeting room to two main spaces, one for the congregation and one in which the priest performs the rituals of the Mass. To the two-room structure is added aisles, a tower and vestries and sometimes transepts and mortuary chapels.
The additional chambers may be part of the original plan, but in the case of a great many old churches, the building has been extended piecemeal, its various parts testifying to its long architectural history. In the first three centuries of the Early Livia Christian Church, the practice of Christianity was illegal and few churches were constructed. In the beginning, Christians worshipped along with Jews in private houses. After the separation of Jews and Christians, the latter continued to worship in people's houses, known as house churches; these were the homes of the wealthier members of the faith. Saint Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians writes: "The churches of Asia send greetings. Aquila and Prisca, together with the church in their house, greet you warmly in the Lord."Some domestic buildings were adapted to function as churches. One of the earliest of adapted residences is at Dura Europos church, built shortly after 200 AD, where two rooms were made into one, by removing a wall, a dais was set up.
To the right of the entrance a small room was made into a baptistry. Some church buildings were built as church assemblies, such as that opposite the emperor Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia, its destruction was recorded thus: When that day dawned, in the eighth consulship of Diocletian and seventh of Maximian while it was yet hardly light, the perfect, together with chief commanders and officers of the treasury, came to the church in Nicomedia, the gates having been forced open, they searched everywhere for an idol of the Divinity. The books of the Holy Scriptures were found, they were committed to the flames; that church, situated on rising ground, was within view of the palace. The sentiment of Diocletian prevailed, who dreaded lest, so great a fire being once kindled, some part of the city might he burnt; the Pretorian Guards came in battle array, with axes and other iron instruments, having been let loose everywhere, they in a few hours leveled that lofty edifice with the ground. From the first to the early fourth centuries most Christian communities worshipped in private homes secretly.
Some Roman churches, such as the Basilica of San Clemente in Rome, are built directly over the houses where early Christians worshipped. Other early Roman churches are b