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Lyre

The lyre is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and periods. The lyre is similar in appearance with distinct differences. In organology, lyre is defined as a "yoke lute", being a lute in which the strings are attached to a yoke that lies in the same plane as the sound-table and consists of two arms and a cross-bar. In Ancient Greece, recitations of lyric poetry were accompanied by lyre playing; the earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada. The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete; the lyre of classical antiquity was ordinarily played by being strummed with a plectrum, like a guitar or a zither, rather than being plucked with the fingers as with a harp. The fingers of the free hand silenced the unwanted strings in the chord. Other instruments called "lyres", were played with a bow in Europe and parts of the Middle East, namely the Arabic rebab and its descendants, including the Byzantine lyra.

The earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B script. In classical Greek, the word "lyre" could either refer to an amateur instrument, a smaller version of the professional cithara and eastern-Aegean barbiton, or "lyre" can refer to all three instruments as a family; the English word comes via Latin from the Greek. The term is used metaphorically to refer to the work or skill of a poet, as in Shelley's "Make me thy lyre as the forest is" or Byron's "I wish to tune my quivering lyre, / To deeds of fame, notes of fire". A classical lyre has a hollow body or sound-chest, which, in ancient Greek tradition, was made out of turtle shell. Extending from this sound-chest are two raised arms, which are sometimes hollow, are curved both outward and forward, they are connected near the top by a yoke. An additional crossbar, fixed to the sound-chest, makes the bridge, which transmits the vibrations of the strings; the deepest note was that farthest from the player's body.

The strings were of gut. They were stretched to a tailpiece below the bridge. There were two ways of tuning: one was to fasten the strings to pegs that might be turned, while the other was to change the placement of the string on the crossbar. According to ancient Greek mythology, the young god Hermes stole a herd of sacred cows from Apollo. In order not to be followed, he made shoes for the cows. Apollo, following the trails, could not follow. Along the way, Hermes offered all but the entrails to the gods. From the entrails and a tortoise/turtle shell, he created the Lyre. Apollo, figuring out it was Hermes. Apollo was furious. Apollo offered to trade the herd of cattle for the lyre. Hence, the creation of the lyre is attributed to Hermes. Other sources credit it to Apollo himself. Locales in southern Europe, western Asia, or north Africa have been proposed as the historic birthplace of the genus; the instrument is still played in north-eastern parts of Africa. Some of the cultures using and developing the lyre were the Aeolian and Ionian Greek colonies on the coasts of Asia bordering the Lydian empire.

Some mythic masters like Musaeus, Thamyris were believed to have been born in Thrace, another place of extensive Greek colonization. The name kissar given by the ancient Greeks to Egyptian box instruments reveals the apparent similarities recognized by Greeks themselves; the cultural peak of ancient Egypt, thus the possible age of the earliest instruments of this type, predates the 5th century classic Greece. This indicates the possibility that the lyre might have existed in one of Greece's neighboring countries, either Thrace, Lydia, or Egypt, was introduced into Greece at pre-classic times; the number of strings on the classical lyre varied at different epochs and in different localities—four and ten having been favorite numbers. They were used without a fingerboard, no Greek description or representation having been met with that can be construed as referring to one. Nor was a bow possible, the flat sound-board being an insuperable impediment; the pick, or plectrum, was in constant use. It was held in the right hand to set the upper strings in vibration.

The fingers of the left hand touched the lower strings. There is no evidence as to the stringing of the Greek lyre in the heroic age. Plutarch says that Terpander used but three strings to accompany their recitation; as the four strings led to seven and eight by doubling the tetrachord, or series of four tones filling in the interval of a perfect fourth, so the trichord is connected with the hexachord or six-stringed lyre depicted on many archaic Greek vases. The accuracy of this representation cannot be insisted upon, the vase painters being little mindful of the complete expression of details, it was their constant practice to represent the strings as being damped by the fingers of the left hand of the player, after

Pandanus

Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species. They are palm-like, dioecious shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics. Common names include pandan, screw palm, screw pine, they are classified in family Pandanaceae. Called pandanus palms, these plants are not related to palm trees; the species vary in size from small shrubs less than 1 m tall, to medium-sized trees 20 m tall with a broad canopy, heavy fruit, moderate growth rate. The trunk is stout, wide-branching, ringed with many leaf scars. Mature plants can have branches. Depending on the species, the trunk can be rough, or warty; the roots form a pyramidal tract to hold the trunk. They have many thick stilt roots near the base, which provide support as the tree grows top-heavy with leaves and branches; these roots are adventitious and branched. The top of the plant has one or more crowns of strap-shaped leaves that may be spiny, varying between species from 30 cm to 2 m or longer, from 1.5 cm up to 10 cm broad. They are dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on different plants.

The flowers of the male tree are 2 -- 3 cm fragrant, surrounded by narrow, white bracts. The female tree produces flowers with round fruits that are bract-surrounded; the individual fruit is a drupe, these merge to varying degrees forming multiple fruit, a globule structure, 10–20 cm in diameter and have many prism-like sections, resembling the fruit of the pineapple. The fruit changes from green to bright orange or red as it matures; the fruits can stay on the tree for more than 12 months. These plants grow from sea level to 3,300 m. Pandanus trees are of cultural and economic importance in the Pacific, second only to the coconut on atolls, they grow wild in semi-natural vegetation in littoral habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific, where they can withstand drought, strong winds, salt spray. They propagate from seed, but popular cultivars are widely propagated from branch cuttings by local people. Species growing on exposed coastal headlands and along beaches have thick'stilt roots' as anchors in the loose sand.

Those stilt roots emerge from the stem close to but above the ground, which helps to keep the plants upright and secure them to the ground. While pandanus are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical islands and coastlines of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, they are most numerous on the low islands and barren atolls of Polynesia and Micronesia. Other species are adapted to mountain habitats and riverine forests; the tree is propagated from shoots that form spontaneously in the axils of lower leaves. Pandanus fruits are eaten by animals including bats, rats and elephants, but the vast majority of species are dispersed by water, its fruit can spread to other islands without help from humans. Pandanus has multiple uses - dependent in part on location; some Pandanus are a source of food while others provide raw material for clothing, basket weaving and shelter. Pandanus leaves are used for handicrafts. Artisans collect the leaves from plants in the wild, cutting only mature leaves so that the plant will regenerate.

The leaves are sorted for further processing. Weavers produce basic pandan mats of standard size or roll the leaves into pandan ropes for other designs; this is followed by a coloring process, in which pandan mats are placed in drums with water-based colors. After drying, the colored mats are shaped into final products, such as placemats or jewelry boxes. Final color touch-ups may be applied. Pandan leaves from Pandanus amaryllifolius are used in Southeast Asian and South Asian cuisines to add a distinct aroma to various dishes and to complement flavors like chocolate; because of their similarity in usage, pandan leaves are sometimes referred to as the "vanilla of Asia." Fresh leaves are torn into strips, tied in a knot to facilitate removal, placed in the cooking liquid removed at the end of cooking. Dried leaves and bottled extract may be bought in some places. Pandan leaves are known as daun pandan in Malay. In Southeast Asia, pandan leaves are used in sweets such as coconut jam and pandan cake.

In Indonesia and Malaysia, pandan is added to rice and curry dishes such as nasi lemak. In the Philippines, pandan leaves are paired with coconut meat in various desserts and drinks like maja blanca and gulaman. In Indian cooking, the leaf is added whole to biryani, a kind of rice pilaf, made with ordinary rice; the basis for this use is that both basmati and pandan leaf contains the same aromatic flavoring ingredient, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. In Sri Lanka, pandan leaves are a major ingredient used in the country's cuisine. Kewra is an extract distilled from the pandan flower, used to flavor drinks and desserts in Indian cuisine. Kewra or kevada is used in religious worship, the leaves are used to make hair ornaments worn for their fragrance as well as decorative purpose in western India. Species with large and medium fruit are edible, notably the many cultivated forms of P. tectorius and P. utilis. The fruit is cooked. Small-fruited pandanus may be astringent. Karuka nuts

Top Rank Suite

Top Rank Suite was the name given to a chain of nightclubs in the United Kingdom owned by the Rank Organisation. They were sometimes known as Top Rank Ballrooms; the Brighton Top Rank Suite opened in October 1965. It was called KingsWest, it was refurbished in 1990 and renamed the Event, refurbished and renamed Event II in 1996. In 2007 another refurbishment led to it reopening as Oceana. Located at Queen Street in Cardiff, Wales, it opened in 1963 and hosted acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin and U2. After a series of name changes the venue closed in 1982 and was demolished in 2005; the 1960s saw the Top Rank active in the major UK town of Croydon. During the following decade it was rebranded as Cinatra's, an popular venue for many years; the reputation of the club began to decline in the 1990s, so did its trade. Cinatra's closed its doors for the final time in 2004 & has been vacant & boarded up since; the Reading Top Rank Ballroom opened in October 1967, with the building being demolished in 2015 to make way for the Station Hill redevelopment.

It opened in the mid 1960s, was renamed The Mayfair, closed in the late 1980s. The Watford Top Rank Suite still operates as a nightclub, it was subsequently renamed Bailey's Paradise Lost, Destiny and most Pryzm. Althea & Donna's 1977 single "Uptown Top Ranking". Derek and Clive's "Top Rank" sketch on Clive; the Moody Blues track "Top Rank Suite" on their 1978 album Octave