Alicia Margarita Kirchner is an Argentine Justicialist Party politician. She is the elder sister of the late former President Néstor Kirchner and served in his government as Minister of Social Development, a role which she held under President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, her sister-in-law, until the end of her presidential term on December 9, 2015. On December 10, 2015, she was sworn in as the governor of the Province of Santa Cruz. Kirchner worked as social worker, holding a PhD in social work. From 1975 to 1983 she served as a sub-secretary of social action in her native Santa Cruz Province. From 1987 to 1990 she was a minister in the municipality of Río Gallegos, leading on public health, culture, social action and sport. For a few months in 1990, again between 1991 and 1995 she served as provincial minister for social affairs, under her brother, elected governor of Santa Cruz, she resigned in 1995 to stand for Mayor of Río Gallegos but lost and worked in the Argentine Senate advising on education and family matters, returning to her ministerial position between 1997 and 2003.
In May 2003 Néstor Kirchner became President and appointed his sister to his cabinet in a similar position she had held under him at provincial level. In December 2005, Kirchner was elected to the Argentine Senate as senator for Santa Cruz Province for the Front for Victory faction, replacing her sister-in-law Cristina Fernández de Kirchner who stood in Buenos Aires Province. From her senate seat in a few months she steered two important social development matters through the Senate and was seen as still holding great influence in the ministry. However, in August 2006 she returned to her former position in the cabinet replacing Juan Carlos Nadalich, leaving her senate seat vacant during a leave of absence. Kirchner was touted as a Front for Victory candidate to be governor of Santa Cruz in the 2007 elections, with fellow minister Julio de Vido as the other possible candidate mentioned. President Kirchner's re-appointment of his sister to his cabinet was seen in some quarters as an initial show of support for her as candidate.
However, Kirchner remained a minister following the 2007 elections. In 2015, Kirchner ran as a FpV gubernatorial candidate again under the "Siempre Santa Cruz" slate with Pablo Gonzalez as running mate, winning the governorship with 51,797 votes, defeating the rival FpV slate "Santa Cruz Somos Todos" and other party candidates. Former president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner and her son Máximo Kirchner flew from Buenos Aires on December 10, 2015 to attend Alicia Kirchner's swearing-in ceremony. Alicia Kirchner founded La Corriente de Liberación Nacional, a national political activist organization, on July 20, 2010. KOLINA Senate profile, accessed 2006-08-24 Ministry press release on re-appointment, accessed 2006-08-24
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Santa Cruz Province, Argentina
Santa Cruz Province is a province of Argentina, located in the southern part of the country, in Patagonia. It borders Chubut Province to the north, Chile to the west and south, with an Atlantic coast on its east. Santa Cruz is the second-largest province of the country, the least densely populated in mainland Argentina; the indigenous people of the province are the Tehuelches, who despite European exploration from the 16th century onwards, retained independence until the late 19th century. Soon after the Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s, the area was organised as the Territory of Santa Cruz, named after its original capital in Puerto Santa Cruz; the capital moved to Rio Gallegos in 1888 and has remained there since. Immigrants from various European countries came to the territory in the late 19th and early 20th century during a gold rush. Santa Cruz became a province of Argentina in 1957; the Tehuelches inhabited these lands before the arrivals of the Spanish colonisation. In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan arrived to what is known as San Julián Bay.
15 years Martín de Alcazaba explored the area near the Chico River, which he named Gallegos River. Because of the attacks of British privateers, after the visit of Francis Drake in 1578, the Spaniards sent Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to fortify and map the Strait of Magellan and prevent access to Spanish posts in the Pacific. In the middle of the 18th century, the Jesuits settled in the area; when the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776, the region was set under the rule of Buenos Aires. Antonio de Biedma founded Nueva Colonia near present Puerto Deseado and Floridablanca not far from Puerto San Julián, both of them shut down by Viceroy Vertíz. Between 1825 and 1836 there were a series of explorations of the regions, including that of Charles Darwin in 1834. In 1860 commander Luis Piedrabuena established a base on Isla Pavón in the estuary of Puerto Deseado. In 1878 the Government of Patagonia was created, with capital in Viedma, but six years it was split into smaller entities, with the territory declared National Government of Santa Cruz, whose capital was the city of Santa Cruz.
In 1901 the capital was moved to its current location at the city of Río Gallegos. At the beginning of the 20th century, a large European immigration began to arrive to the uninhabited zone, they came to escape the growing conflicts of World War I, were attracted by the wool industry of the area. The end of the war meant a sharp reduction in the amount of exports, bringing a serious economic crisis to Santa Cruz; the ideals of progressivism, brought by the Spanish immigrants, grew among the workers who, working in Santa Cruz's harsh environment under sub-human conditions, decided to strike in 1922. The strike was and harshly repressed by the government, culminating in the events of the Patagonia Trágica, the execution of dozens of strikers. In 1944, the Military zone of Comodoro Rivadavia was created, which encompassed the northern part of the National Government of Santa Cruz and the southern part of Chubut Province; this jurisdiction lasted until the abolition of the measures in 1955. The Territory of Santa Cruz acquired province status in 1957.
In 1973, voters in Santa Cruz elected a Peronist. An advocate of labor rights, Gov. Cepernic worked with film maker Osvaldo Bayer to make La Patagonia Rebelde, a documentary drama on the ill-fated 1922 sheep ranch laborers' strike. For this, Gov. Cepernic was imprisoned following the March 1976 coup; the return to democracy in Argentina in 1983 brought new young leadership to Santa Cruz's elected posts, among them a well-known local country lawyer named Néstor Kirchner, elected that year to the Río Gallegos City Council. Elected mayor in 1987 and governor in 1991, Kirchner helped negotiate a US$535 million payout for his province following the 1993 privatization of the state-owned oil concern YPF. Earning plaudits for his careful administration of the funds, Kirchner was elected president of Argentina in April 2003, following the withdrawal of Carlos Menem from a runoff which Kirchner was projected to win handily. Presiding over four years of expansion totalling 42%, Pres. Kirchner steered record spending into public works.
The province is divided into 2 distinct regions: The Andes in the west and the plateaus in the centre and east. In the Andes, there are numerous lakes such as Buenos Aires Lake, Cardiel Lake, Viedma Lake, Argentino Lake, Pueyrredón Lake, Belgrano Lake and San Martín Lake. One characteristic of the Andean region is the presence of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field that covers the central part of the Andes. From the centre to the Atlantic coast in the east, the landscape is dominated by plateaus. There are isolated pockets of depressions within this region. In Gran Bajo de San Julián, the Laguna del Carbón is 105 meters below sea level, is the lowest point in the Western and Southern Hemispheres. On the Atlantic coast, it is characterised by cliffs; the main rivers in the province are the Deseado River, Chico River, Santa Cruz River, Coig River, the Gallegos River. These rivers all originate from the Andes which drain into the lakes before moving eastwards to empty into the A
La Cámpora is an Argentinepolitical youth organization supporting the governments of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. It is named after former peronist president Héctor José Cámpora, it was established by Máximo Kirchner in 2003 and became politically notorious after the death of former president Néstor Kirchner. La Cámpora was created by son of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández, its origins can be traced back to the 2003 Argentine general election, in order to support Néstor Kirchner, has extended said support to Cristina Fernández de Kirchner during the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector, to counter the opposing demonstrations. The group vindicates the actions of the guerilla group Montoneros, thus was named after Héctor José Cámpora, who had favored them. La Cámpora's methodology bears no similarity to Montoneros though, aiming instead to confront the discourse implemented by the political right wing through what it perceives as their dominance of the Argentine media that opposes any and all changes implemented by the Kirchner administration.
They use new technologies, including blogs, Facebook and other social networks on the internet, La Cámpora confronts the media conglomerates that control the vast majority of Argentine media and work, according to La Cámpora, to undermine the Kirchner administration. The group had the usual low profile of most youth wings. After the death of Néstor Kirchner in 2010, the organization became one of the three factions struggling for power within the Kirchner administration, the others being the General Confederation of Labour and the traditional structure of the Justicialist Party. Cristina Fernández instructed that the lists of candidates for provincial legislators included at least two or three members of the Cámpora among the first eight. In the aftermath of the 2013 Argentina floods, the group sent 1,500 members into the affected areas of La Plata to participate in relief efforts. A violent clash broke out between the group's members and those of the construction workers union UOCRA. Kirchnerism Official site Corruption in La Campora.
Corruption in La Campora
Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003. Ideologically a Peronist and social democrat, he served as President of the Justicialist Party from 2008 to 2010, with his political approach being characterised as Kirchnerism. Born in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Kirchner studied law at the National University of La Plata, he met and married Cristina Fernández at this time, returned with her to Río Gallegos at graduation, opened a law firm. Commentators have criticized him for a lack of legal activism during the Dirty War, an issue he would involve himself in as president. Kirchner ran for mayor of Río Gallegos in 1987 and for governor of Santa Cruz in 1991, he was reelected governor in 1999 due to an amendment of the provincial constitution. Kirchner sided with Buenos Aires provincial governor Eduardo Duhalde against President Carlos Menem. Although Duhalde lost the 1999 presidential election, he was appointed president by the Congress when previous presidents Fernando de la Rúa and Adolfo Rodríguez Saá resigned during the December 2001 riots.
Duhalde suggested that Kirchner run for president in 2003 in a bid to prevent Menem's return to the presidency. Menem won a plurality in the first round of the presidential election but, fearing that he would lose in the required runoff election, he resigned. Kirchner took office on 25 May 2003. Roberto Lavagna, credited with the economic recovery during Duhalde's presidency, was retained as minister of economy and continued his economic policies. Argentina repaid the International Monetary Fund; the National Institute of Statistics and Census intervened to underestimate growing inflation. Several Supreme Court judges resigned while fearing impeachment, new justices were appointed; the amnesty for crimes committed during the Dirty War in enforcing the full-stop and due-obedience laws and the presidential pardons were repealed and declared unconstitutional. This led to new trials for the military. Argentina increased its integration with other Latin American countries, discontinuing its automatic alignment with the United States dating to the 1990s.
The 2005 midterm elections were a victory for Kirchner, signaled the end of Duhalde's supremacy in Buenos Aires Province. Instead of seeking reelection, Kirchner stepped aside in 2007 in support of his wife, Cristina Fernández, elected president, he participated in the unsuccessful Operation Emmanuel to release FARC hostages, was narrowly defeated in the 2009 midterm election for deputy of Buenos Aires Province. Kirchner was appointed Secretary General of UNASUR in 2010, he and his wife were involved in the 2013 political scandal known as the Route of the K-Money. Kirchner died of cardiac arrest on 27 October 2010, received a state funeral. Kirchner was born Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. on 25 February 1950, in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, a federal territory at the time. His father, Néstor Carlos Kirchner Sr. met the Chilean María Juana Ostoić by telegraphy. They had three children: Néstor and María Cristina. Néstor was part of the third generation of Kirchners living in the city; as a result of pertussis, he developed strabismus at an early age.
When Kirchner was in high school he considered becoming a teacher, but poor diction hampered him. Kirchner moved to La Plata in 1969 to study law at the National University. During this period, the decline of the Argentine Revolution, the return of former president Juan Perón from exile, the election of Héctor Cámpora as president, his resignation and the election of Perón, the beginning of the Dirty War had led to severe political turmoil. Kirchner joined the University Federation for the National Revolution, a political student group whose relationship with the Montoneros guerrillas is a matter of debate. Kirchner was not a leader of the group, he was present at the Ezeiza massacre, in which right-wing Peronist snipers opened fire on a celebration of Juan Perón's return at the Ezeiza International Airport. He was present at the expulsion of Montoneros from Plaza de Mayo. Although Kirchner met many members of the Montoneros, he was not a member of the group. By the time the Montoneros were outlawed by Perón, he had left FURN.
In 1974 Kirchner met Cristina Fernández, three years his junior, they fell in love. They were married after a courtship limited to six months by the political turmoil in the country. At the civil ceremony, Kirchner's friends sang the Peronist song "Los Muchachos Peronistas", he graduated a year returned to Patagonia with Cristina, established a law firm with fellow attorney Domingo Ortiz de Zarate. Cristina joined the firm in 1979. By the time of Kirchner's graduation and move to the Patagonia, Juan Perón had died, his vice president and wife Isabel Martínez de Perón had become president. Isabel Perón had been unseated by a coup d'état; the Kirchners worked for banks and financial groups which filed foreclosures, since the Central Bank's 1050 ruling had raised mortgage loan interest rates. And acquired 21 real-estate lots for a low price when they were about to be auctioned, their law firm defended. Forced disappearances were common during the Dirty War, but unlike other lawyers of the time the Kirchners never signed a habeas corpus.
Julio César Strassera, prosecutor in the
La Plata is the capital city of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. According to the 2001 census, it has a population of 765,378 and its metropolitan area has 899,523 inhabitants. La Plata was planned and developed to serve as the provincial capital after the city of Buenos Aires was federalized in 1880, it was founded by Governor Dardo Rocha on 19 November 1882. Its construction is documented in photographs by Tomás Bradley Sutton. La Plata was known as Ciudad Eva Perón between 1952 and 1955; the city is home to two important first division football teams: Estudiantes de La Plata and Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata. Rocha decided to erect a new city to host the provincial government institutions and a university, planned. Urban planner Pedro Benoit designed a city layout based on a rationalist conception of urban centers; the city has the shape of a square with a central park and two main diagonal avenues, north to south and east to west. In addition, there are numerous other shorter diagonal streets.
This design is copied in a self-similar manner in small blocks of six by six blocks in length. For every six blocks, there is square. Other than the diagonal streets, all streets are on a rectangular grid and are numbered consecutively. Thus, La Plata is nicknamed "la ciudad de las diagonales", it is called "la ciudad de los tilos", because of the large number of linden trees lining the many streets and squares. The linden tree is one of a number of deciduous Northern Hemisphere tree species which dominate La Plata's parks and streets. Palms and subtropical broadleaf evergreen trees are comparatively infrequent; the city design and its buildings are noted to possess a strong Freemason symbolism. This is said to be a consequence of both Benoit being Freemasons; the designs for the government buildings were chosen in an international architectural competition. Thus, the Governor Palace was designed by the City Hall by Germans, etc.. Electric street lighting was installed in 1884, was the first of its kind in Latin America.
The neo-Gothic cathedral of La Plata is the largest church in Argentina. The Teatro Argentino de La Plata is one of the most important opera houses in Argentina, second to the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires; the theatre was built on 51st and 53rd Avenue. It was opened on 19 November 1890, it was designed by Leopoldo Rochi in Renaissance style. The work was funded by the first inhabitants of La Plata, but as maintenance was expensive, it was donated to the Province of Buenos Aires. In the foyer, entering through the majestic doors, there was a beautiful white Carrara marble staircase. In the concert hall, hangs a huge chandelier with trimmings suspended from the ceiling; the easy chairs were tapestried in blue velveteen and the Bordeaux curtain was embroidered in gold. It had marvelous acoustics. In those years, the students of the Verdi Conservatory of Music performed in the theatre, their annual show of classical Spanish and folklore dances with the teachers Carmen de Toledo, Mrs Schubert and Nelly Rossotti respectively.
Surrounding the theatre was the "Peace Garden," containing flags and national flowers of several countries. People strolled and children played along its stony paths. However, fate decreed; this has been noted as one of the largest losses to La Plata's historical heritage. It was replaced by a new building, which houses the theatre's orchestra and ballet, boasting several halls; the Curutchet House is one of the two buildings by Le Corbusier built in the Americas. The University of La Plata was founded in 1897 and nationalized in 1905, it is well known for natural history museum. Ernesto Sabato graduated in Physics at this university. Doctor René Favaloro was another famous alumnus. During its early years, the university attracted a number of renowned intellectuals from the Spanish-speaking world, such as Dominican Pedro Henríquez Ureña. San Ponciano church is situated on the corner of 5th Streets, it was the first chapel in La Plata, inaugurated on 19 November 1883, on the first anniversary of the foundation of the city.
The project belongs to Pedro Benoit, the designer of the city plan. Its neogothic style has been well kept and the inner paintings are now being restored; the founder of the city, Dardo Rocha, named it "San Ponciano" in memory of Ponciano. St. Ponciano was born in Rome. In 230 he was elected as Bishop of Pope; because of the Christian Persecution he was forced into exile to the unhealthy Sardinia Island. In 235 he resigned his position as pope because he did not want to leave the Church in a difficult situation during his absence, he was buried in the catacombs of Saint Callixtus among eight other Popes. Inside the church, you can see the authentic "Virgen de Luján" niche, moved here in 1904.- Under Alvear's administration, Enrique Mosconi, the president of the oil state company Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales, created the distillery of La Plata, the tenth largest in the world. On 10 December 1945, in the Parish church of St. Francis of Assisi in this city, Juan Domingo Perón and Eva Duarte got married.
The city was renamed in 1952 as Eva Perón, though its original name was restored in 1955. Several daily newspapers are published there, the most prominent of, El Día. In October 1998, UNESCO approved the city's bid to gain recogni
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous