Pankow is the most populous and the second-largest borough of Berlin. In Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it was merged with the former boroughs of Prenzlauer Berg and Weißensee; the borough, named after the Panke river, covers the northeast of the city region, including the inner city locality of Prenzlauer Berg. It borders Mitte and Reinickendorf in the west, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg in the south, Lichtenberg in the east. Pankow is the second largest by area. Between 1945 and 1960, Schönhausen Palace and the nearby Majakowskiring street in the Niederschönhausen locality of Pankow was the home to many members of the East German government. Western writers therefore referred to Pankow as a metonym for the East German regime—as reflected by Udo Lindenberg's song Sonderzug nach Pankow; the Rykestrasse Synagogue, Germany's largest synagogue, is located in the Prenzlauer Berg locality. The Weißensee Cemetery is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. In northern Prenzlauer Berg, the Wohnstadt Carl Legien is part of the Berlin Modernist Housing Estates UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Weißer See is the borough's largest natural body of water. The Pankow borough consists of 13 localities: At the 2016 elections for the parliament of the borough the following parties were elected: The Left 13 SPD 13 Alliance'90/The Greens 12 CDU 8 AfD 8 FDP 2 The Pankow locality is served by the U2 line of the Berlin U-Bahn at the stations Vinetastraße and Pankow. S-Bahn service is available at the Berlin-Pankow, Pankow-Heinersdorf and Wollankstraße railway stations. Another connection to Berlin's inner city is provided by the M1 line of the Berlin Straßenbahn; the Bundesstraße 96a federal highway from Berlin toward Oranienburg runs through the locality along Mühlenstraße and Schönholzer Straße. Furthermore, Pankow can be reached via the Bundesautobahn 114 from the Berliner Ring at the Prenzlauer Promenade junction. Ashkelon, Israel since 1994 Kołobrzeg, Poland since 1994 Yalta, Ukraine since 2000 Koekelberg, Belgium Berlin Pankow Berlin Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg – Prenzlauer Berg East Karpfenteich Official homepage Official homepage of Berlin tic-berlin: tourist & historical information about Pankow district
Kurfürstenstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Kurfürstenstraße is part of the Berlin U-Bahn network in Germany. It is on the U1 and U3; the station opened on 24 October 1926 and it is located in Berlin Mitte borough. It lies just to the north of Bülowstraße, the corresponding station on the U2, in the southeast corner of Tiergarten; the area has a rather seedy reputation due to prostitution. Potsdamer Straße is a major thoroughfare
The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe is the main public transport company of Berlin, the capital city of Germany. It manages the city's U-Bahn underground railway, bus, replacement services and ferry networks, but not the S-Bahn urban rail system; the used abbreviation, BVG, has been retained from the company's original name, Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft. Subsequently, the company was renamed Berliner Verkehrs-Betriebe. During the division of Berlin, the BVG was split between BVG and BVB. After reunification, the current formal name was adopted; the Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft was formed in 1928, by the merger of the Allgemeine Berliner Omnibus AG, the Gesellschaft für Elektrische Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen and the Berliner Straßenbahn-Betriebs-GmbH. On 1 January 1938, the company was renamed Berliner Verkehrs-Betriebe, but the acronym BVG was retained. From 1 August 1949, the BVG networks in East Berlin were operated separately; the two operators were known as BVG and BVG, but from 1 January 1969 the eastern operator was renamed as the Kombinat Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe or BVB.
After the reunification of Berlin, the two operators were recombined into the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe on 1 January 1992. Prior to the division of Berlin, tram lines existed throughout the city, but BVG abandoned all the tram lines in its part of the city, replacing them all by buses by 1967; however BVG retained its tram lines, on the reunification of Berlin the BVG inherited a considerable network of routes in the eastern half of Berlin. On 9 January 1984, BVG took over the responsibility for operation of the S-Bahn services in West Berlin; this urban rail network had been operated in both halves of Berlin by the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the state rail operator of East Germany, but had been subject to a boycott in the west after the building of the Berlin Wall. With the reunification of Berlin, responsibility for the S-Bahn reverted to Deutsche Bahn AG, the state rail operator of Germany; the S-Bahn is managed by the S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary company of DBAG. BVG took part in the Berlin M-Bahn project, an urban maglev system, in the period between 1984 and 1992.
The project used a section of the U-Bahn right of way, out of service due to the building of the Berlin Wall, was dropped with the fall of that wall. The BVG launched the MetroNetz on 12 December 2004 which remodeled the tram and bus network to create 24 tram and bus lines covering parts of the city that weren't served by S-Bahn or U-Bahn. BVG operates an urban rapid transit rail system; the U-Bahn now comprises a total length of 147 kilometres. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening and on Sunday. U-Bahn service is provided by 1266 carriages, of which 500 are used on the earlier small-profile lines and 766 are used on the large-profile lines; these cars travel 132 million km, carrying 400 million passengers, over the year. BVG operates a tram network comprising 22 tram lines with 377 stops and measuring 293.78 km in length. Of these, nine are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provide a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn.
These MetroTram tram lines are recognisable by an M prefix to their route number, are the only tram routes to operate 24 hours a day. Tram service is provided by 391 carriages, of which 154 are modern low floor carriages and 237 are older carriages. All of the remaining network is within the confines of the former East Berlin, as all the routes in the former West Berlin were abandoned during the period of the city's partition. However, there have been some extensions of routes across the former border since reunification, most remarkably to the city’s new main railway station Berlin Hauptbahnhof. BVG operates a network of 149 daytime bus routes serving 2634 stops and a total route length of 1,675 kilometres, together with a night bus network of 63 bus routes serving 1508 stops and a total route length of 795 kilometres. Seventeen of BVG's bus routes are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provides a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn. Like the MetroTram tram routes, these MetroBus routes can be recognised by an M prefix to their route number.
A further 13 BVG-operated bus routes are express routes with an X prefix to their route number. BVG bus service is provided by a fleet of 1349 buses, of which no fewer than 407 are double-decker buses. Whilst such buses are common in Ireland and the United Kingdom, their use elsewhere in Europe is uncommon. Route 218 is operated by ex-BVG vintage vehicles now in preservation but used in revenue-earning service; the services depart from Theodor-Heuss Platz every two hours from 11:15 to 19:15 and return from Pfaueninsel from 10:00 to 20:00. Berlin has an extensive network of waterways within its city boundaries, including the Havel and Dahme rivers, many linked lakes and canals; these are crossed by six passenger ferry routes that are operated by the BVG. The BVG is a member of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg, the transport association run by public transport providers in the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg; this body
History of Berlin
The history of Berlin starts with its foundation in the 13th century. It became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1417, of Brandenburg-Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia grew in the 18th and 19th century, formed the basis of the German Empire in 1871. After 1900 Berlin became a major world city, known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, museums, higher education, government and military affairs, it had a role in manufacturing and finance. During World War II, it was destroyed by bombing and ferocious street-by-street fighting, it was split between the victors, lost its world leadership roles. With the reunification of Germany in 1990, Berlin was restored as a capital and as a major world city; the origin of the name Berlin is uncertain. It may have roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Folk etymology connects the name to the German word for Bär. A bear appears in the coat of arms of the city.
Albrecht der Bär may have given its name. The oldest human traces arrowheads, in the area of Berlin are dating to the 9th millennium BC. During neolithic times a large number of villages existed in the area. During the Bronze Age it belonged to the Lusatian culture. For the time around 500 BC the presence of Germanic tribes can be evidenced for the first time in form of a number of villages in the higher situated areas of today's Berlin. After the Semnones left around 200 AD, the Burgundians followed. A large part of the Germanic tribes left the region around 500 AD. In the 6th century Slavic tribes, the known Hevelli and Sprevane, reached the region. Today their traces can be found at plateaus or next to waters, their main settlements were today's Köpenick. No Slavic traces could be found in the city center of Berlin. In the 12th century the region came under German rule as part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, founded by Albert the Bear in 1157. At the end of the 12th century German merchants founded the first settlements in today's city center, called Berlin around modern Nikolaiviertel and Cölln, on the island in the Spree now known as the Spreeinsel or Museum Island.
It is not clear when they got German town rights. Berlin is mentioned as a town for the first time in 1251 and Cölln in 1261; the year 1237 was taken as the year of founding. Afterwards the two settlements merged into the town of Berlin-Cölln. Albert the Bear bequeathed to Berlin the emblem of the bear, which has appeared on its coat of arms since. By the year 1400 Berlin and Cölln had 8,000 inhabitants. A great town center fire in 1380 damaged most written records of those early years, as did the great devastation of the Thirty Years War 1618-1648. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. Subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled until 1918 in Berlin, first as electors of Brandenburg as kings of Prussia, as German emperors; when Berlin became the residence of the Hohenzollerns, it had to give up its Hanseatic League free city status. Its main economical activity changed from trade to the production of luxurious goods for the court.
1443 to 1451: The first Berliner Stadtschloss was built on the embankment of the river Spree. At that time Berlin-Cölln had about 8,000 inhabitants. Population figures rose fast. 1448: The inhabitants of Berlin rebelled in the "Berlin Indignation" against the construction of a new royal palace by Elector Frederick II Irontooth. This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. 1451: Berlin became the royal residence of the Brandenburg electors, Berlin had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1510 100 Jews were accused of desecrating hosts. 38 of them were burned to death. 1530: The Tiergarten park began when Elector Joachim I donated the property for use as a royal game preserve. 1539: The electors and Berlin became Lutheran. 1540: Joachim II introduced the Protestant Reformation in Brandenburg and secularized church possessions. He used the money to pay for his projects, like building an avenue, the Kurfürstendamm, between his hunting castle Grunewald and his palace, the Berliner Stadtschloss.
1576, Bubonic plague killed about 6,000 people in the city. Around 1600: Berlin-Cölln had 12,000 inhabitants. 1618 to 1648: The Thirty Years' War had devastating consequences for Berlin. A third of the houses were damaged, the city lost half of its population. 1640: Frederick William, known as the “Great Elector”, succeeded his father George William as Elector of Brandenburg. He initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious toleration. Over the following decades, Berlin expanded in area and population with the founding of the new suburbs of Friedrichswerder and Dorotheenstadt. During his government Berlin reached 20,000 inhabitants and became significant among the cities in Central Europe for the first time, he developed a standing army 1647: The boulevard Unter den Linden with six rows of trees was laid down between the Tiergarten park and the Palace. 1671: Fifty Jewish families from Austria were given a home in Berlin. With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William invited the French Calvinist Huguenots to Brandenburg.
More than 15,000 Huguenots came, of whom 6,000
U2 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U2 is a line of the Berlin U-Bahn. The U2 line starts at Pankow S-Bahn station, runs through the eastern city centre to Potsdamer Platz, the western city centre and to the Ruhleben terminal station; the U2 has a length of 20.7 kilometers. Together with the U1, U3, U4 lines, it was part of the early Berlin metro network built before 1914; the route between Potsdamer Platz and Zoologischer Garten was the western section of the Stammstrecke, Berlin's first metro inaugurated in 1902. The line starts in what was West Berlin at Ruhleben and runs on a causeway between Rominter Allee and the railway line to Spandau. On the bend approaching Olympischen Straße, the line descends into tunnel to run beneath that road. Subsequently, the U2 pivots towards the national highway to Theodor-Heuss-Platz, where it runs in a curve to Kaiserdamm. Under Kaiserdamm, which becomes Bismarckstraße at Sophie Charlotte-Platz, the tunnel leads straight to Ernst-Reuter-Platz. Here again, it swings to the southeast, following the course of Hardenberger Straße towards Zoologischer Garten station.
In the tunnel, it passes the foundations of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church in a tight arc follows Tauentzienstraße where the track emerges via a ramp to the elevated railway section after Wittenbergplatz - east of the intersection Kleist-Courbierestraße. The elevated railway reaches its full height at Nollendorfplatz station where all four lines of the small-profile network meet. In the underground part of the station, there are four more lines; the U2 continues above ground to the east of the Bülowstraße. After that U2 makes a curves over a long viaduct on the southernmost point of the route, passes through Gleisdreieck station and runs straight across the Landwehrkanal and returns into tunnel between Mendelssohn Bartholdy-Park and Potsdamer Platz stations. While the railway company intended it to continue along Leipziger Straße, this route was not built and it continues instead along Mohrenstraße, Markgrafenstraße and Niederwallstraße to the River Spree in Berlin Mitte. After passing the Märkisches Museum station, it goes under the River Spree in a tunnel, runs through Klosterstraße to Alexanderplatz station.
After leaving Alexanderplatz, the track turns under Rosa-Luxemburg-Straße and through the station of the same name. The line runs north underneath Schönhauser Allee and through Senefelderplatz station. Before reaching Eberswalder Straße station, the line emerges from tunnel and on to an elevated viaduct through to the Schönhauser Allee station, an S-Bahn interchange. From there the line runs beyond the former city limits and the elevated railway descends again into a tunnel to Vinetastraße and before reaching the terminus at Pankow. Since the introduction of the schematic line network plans at the Berlin subway, at least parts of today's line U2 always had the color red; when letters were introduced as a line name after the First World War, the small profile network received the letters "A" and "B". The inner city route, more important than the older route through Kreuzberg, became Line A, as did the two western branches to Charlottenburg and Dahlem; the routes from Kurfürstendamm and Schöneberg through Kreuzberg to the Warsaw Bridge were given the letter "B" and the color code green.
To distinguish the branches in the western part of the route, the letters were supplemented by Roman numbers, the Charlottenburg route was thus the line AI. From 1966, the designation of the lines operated by the Berlin public transport companies in West Berlin was converted to Arabic numbers; each line should be operated independently and without branching. The line 1 drove now from Ruhleben through Charlottenburg to Kreuzberg, the previous AII became the line 2; the severed eastern line section, used since 1949 by the BVG East / BVB, retained unchanged the "A" as a line designation, as well as the red color code. On January 9, 1984, the BVG took over the managed by the Deutsche Reichsbahn S-Bahn lines in West Berlin; the marking of the subway lines traveled by the BVG changed again because of the now parallel operated U- and S-Bahn. To better distinguish the two trades, the respective Arabic number, which has remained valid since 1966, was prefixed with the letter "U" as a line number. According to the model of public transport networks, such things were followed from various cities they were called U1 to U9 and equivalent to the acquired S-Bahn routes preceded by "S" and the route number.
With the merging of Berlin in the context of German reunification and the reconstruction of the disused section Wittenbergplatz - Mohrenstraße, the BVG decided to swap the western branches of the meeting at the Wittenbergplatz lines U1 and U2. The reunited former AI line has since been under the new name "U2", but as earlier by the two separate parts of the city with traditional red line color; the increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London. Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York; these people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstraße, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers.
After many years
Berlin Schönhauser Allee station
Berlin Schönhauser Allee is a railway station in the Prenzlauer Berg district of Berlin. It is located on the Berlin U-Bahn line U 2 and on the Ringbahn. Built in 1913 by A. Grenander opened as "Bahnhof Nordring"; as the station was well accepted the roof was elongated in 1925 and a new entrance build. In 1936 the station was named "Schönhauser Allee". On an average day 500 trains and more than 26000 people cross this station. At this station, the Elevated U2 crosses the below-ground S-bahn, while at the other crossing of the U2 and the ringbahn, messe-nord/Icc S-bahn station and kaiserdamm U2 station, the U2 crosses above the below-ground s-bahn on the bottom deck of a road bridge
Margraviate of Brandenburg
The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe. Brandenburg developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends, it derived one of its names from the March of Brandenburg. Its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor; the state thus became additionally known as the Electorate of Brandenburg. The House of Hohenzollern came to the throne of Brandenburg in 1415. In 1417, Frederick I moved its capital from Brandenburg an der Havel to Berlin. Under Hohenzollern leadership, Brandenburg grew in power during the 17th century and inherited the Duchy of Prussia; the resulting Brandenburg-Prussia was the predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia, which became a leading German state during the 18th century. Although the electors' highest title was "King in/of Prussia", their power base remained in Brandenburg and its capital Berlin.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. It was replaced after the Napoleonic Wars with the Prussian Province of Brandenburg in 1815; the Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871. As Prussia was the legal predecessor of the united German Reich of 1871–1945, as such a direct ancestor of the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, Brandenburg is one of the earliest linear ancestors of present-day Germany; the Mark Brandenburg is still used informally today to refer to the present German state of Brandenburg. The territory of the former margraviate known as the Mark Brandenburg, lies in present-day eastern Germany and western Poland. Geographically it encompassed the majority of the present-day German states Brandenburg and Berlin, the Altmark, the Neumark. Parts of the present-day federal state Brandenburg, such as Lower Lusatia and territory, Saxon until 1815, were not parts of the Mark.
Colloquially but not the federal state Brandenburg is sometimes identified as the Mark or Mark Brandenburg. The region was formed during the ice age and characterized by moraines, glacial valleys, numerous lakes; the territory march because it was a border county of the Holy Roman Empire. The Mark is defined by two depressions; the depressions are taken up by rivers and chains of lakes with marsh and boggy soil along the shores. The Northern or Baltic Uplands of the Mecklenburg Lake Plateau have only minor extensions into Brandenburg; the 230 km-long range of hills in the Mark's south begins in the Lusatian Highlands and continues past Trzebiel and Spremberg to the northwest through Calau, ends in the bare and dry Fläming. The southern depression is to the north of this ridge and appears strikingly in the Spreewald; the northern depression, lying directly south of the Baltic uplands, is defined by the lowlands of the Noteć and Warta Rivers, the Oderbruch, the valley of the Finow, the Havelland moor, the Oder River.
Between these two depressions is a low plateau that extends from the Poznań area westward to Brandenburg through Torzym, the Spree plateau, the Mittelmark. From southeast to northwest, this plateau is intersected by the lowland of the Leniwa Obra and the Oder River below the confluence of the Lusatian Neisse, the lower Spree Valley, the Havel Valley. Between these valleys rise a series of hills and plateaus, such as the Barnim, the Teltow, the Semmelberg near Bad Freienwalde, the Müggelberge in Köpenick, the Havelberge, the Rauen Hills near Fürstenwalde; the region is predominantly marked by dry, sandy soil, wide stretches of which have pine trees and erica plants, or heath. However, the soil is loamy in the uplands and plateaus and, when farmed appropriately, can be agriculturally productive. Mark Brandenburg has a cool, continental climate, with temperatures averaging near 0 °C in January and February and near 18 °C in July and August. Precipitation averages between 500 mm and 600 mm annually, with a modest summer maximum.
By the 8th century, Slavic Wends, such as the Sprewane and Hevelli, started to move into the Brandenburg area. They intermarried with Bohemians; the Bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg were established at the beginning of the 10th century. They were suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mainz. King Henry the Fowler started governing in the region in 928–9, allowing Emperor Otto I to establish the Northern March under Margrave Gero in 936 during the German Ostsiedlung. However, the march and the bishoprics were overthrown by a Slavic rebellion in 983. Though the bishopric was retained. Prince Pribislav of the Hevelli came to power at the castle of Brenna in 1127. During Pribislav's reign, in which he cultivated close connections with the Germ