Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna af Södermöre, Count of Södermöre, was a Swedish statesman. He became a member of the Swedish Privy Council in 1609 and served as Lord High Chancellor of Sweden from 1612 until his death, he was a confidant of first Gustavus Adolphus and Queen Christina. Oxenstierna is considered one of the most influential people in Swedish history, he played an important role during the Thirty Years' War and was appointed Governor-General of occupied Prussia. Oxenstierna was born on 16 June 1583, at Fånö in Uppland, the son of Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna and Barbro Axelsdotter Bielke, as the oldest of nine siblings, his parents belonged to the ancient and influential high noble families of Oxenstierna and Bielke, both of which had held high offices in the state and the church for generations. After the death of her husband Gustaf, Axel's mother Barbro decided to let Axel and his brothers Christer and Gustaf finish their studies abroad. Thus, the brothers received their education at the universities of Rostock and Jena.
On returning home in 1603 he took up an appointment as valet de chambre to King Charles IX of Sweden. One of Oxenstierna's more unusual intellectual qualifications was his knowledge of the Scots language, reflecting the importance of the Scottish expatriate community in Sweden at that time; as Chancellor, he would receive correspondence in Scots from his agent Sir James Spens, he ventured into the language himself for an official letter to his Scottish counterpart, the Earl of Loudoun. In 1606 he undertook his first diplomatic mission, to other German royal courts. While on diplomatic duty abroad, Oxenstierna gained appointment to the Privy Council. Henceforth, Oxenstierna became one of the king's most trusted servants. In 1609 he travelled to Reval, on King Charles's behalf, to receive tributes from the city of Reval and the Estonian knighthood. Together with other councillors, Oxenstierna tried to warn the king of Denmark and the intentions of Danish King Christian IV. In 1610, Oxenstierna travelled to Copenhagen with the aim of preventing war with the neighbours, but unsuccessfully.
The following year, Danish forces crossed the border. In the fall of 1611, King Charles died. Around New Year 1611–12, the parliament had to deal with the situation. According to the rules, the 17-year-old Gustavus Adolphus had not reached the proper age to be considered adult enough to rule as king. However, the estates agreed to disregard those rules. In return, the young king agreed to ensure the nobles further privileges and appoint Axel Oxenstierna Lord High Chancellor. On 6 January 1612 Oxenstierna became Lord High Chancellor of the Privy Council, his controlling, organizing hand soon became apparent in every branch of the administration. Sweden was at the time troubled by three wars against Poland-Lithuania and Russia. Oxenstierna's first big task as Chancellor was to achieve peace in some of the wars; the war against Denmark was considered the most dangerous of the three as the enemy-controlled parts of Sweden itself. Negotiations began in Oxenstierna was first Swedish plenipotentiary; the negotiations led to the Treaty of Knäred in 1613.
For his efforts regarding these negotiations, Oxenstierna received the title of district judge in the hundred of Snävringe and the barony of Kimito. During the frequent absences of Gustavus in Livonia and in Finland Oxenstierna acted as his viceroy. One assignment Oxenstierna received while the king was in Livonia, was the task to finalize the negotiations regarding the marriage of John Casimir and the king's sister, Princess Catharina. At the coronation of Gustavus Adolphus, in October 1617, Oxenstierna was knighted. In 1620 he headed the embassy dispatched to Berlin to arrange the nuptial contract between Gustavus and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. During the king's Russian and Polish wars he had the principal duty of supplying the armies and the fleets with everything necessary, including men and money. Oxenstierna's ways of carrying out his assignments gained King Gustavus's appreciation, since the king, in 1622, asked Oxenstierna to accompany him to Livonia and appointed him Governor-General and commandant of Riga, a strategically important town during the ongoing war against Poland.
His services in Livonia gained him the reward of the whole bishopric of Wenden. Entrusted with the peace negotiations which led to the truce with Poland in 1623, he succeeded in averting a threatened rupture with Denmark in 1624; the Polish-Swedish War was reinitiated in 1626, on 7 October that year, Oxenstierna became Governor-General in the newly acquired Swedish possession of Prussia. In 1629 he concluded the advantageous Truce of Altmark with Poland-Lithuania. Prior to this, in September 1628, he arranged a joint occupation of Stralsund with Denmark in order to prevent that important fortress from falling into the hands of the Imperialists. Oxenstierna was not only successful within the diplomacy. During these years, he was entrusted with various important assignments in which he succeeded, such as gathering money and troops for the attack in Prussia in 1626, he played the leading organizational and administrational role in Prussia, as he had done earlier in Livonia. He was in charge of, for example, tolls and the entire state grain trade.
During the latter part of the 1620s, Elbląg (Ger
Gothicism or Gothism was a cultural movement in Sweden, centered on the belief in the glory of the Swedish Geats, who were identified with the Goths. The founders of the movement were the brothers Johannes and Olaus Magnus; the belief continued to hold power in the 17th century, when Sweden was a great power following the Thirty Years' War, but lost most of its sway in the 18th. It was renewed by the Viking revival and Romantic nationalism in the early 19th century, this time with the Vikings as heroic figures; the name is derived from the Gothicists' belief that the Goths had originated from Sweden, based on Jordanes' account of a Gothic urheimat in Scandinavia. The Gothicists took pride in the Gothic tradition that the Ostrogoths and their king Theodoric the Great, who assumed power in the Roman Empire, had Scandinavian ancestry; this pride was expressed as early as the medieval chronicles, where chroniclers wrote about the Goths as the ancestors of the Scandinavians, the idea was used by Nicolaus Ragvaldi at the Council of Basel to argue that the Swedish monarchy was the foremost in Europe.
It permeated the writings of the Swedish writer Johannes Magnus as well as those of his brother Olaus Magnus. Both had a strong influence on contemporary scholarship in Sweden; some scholars in Denmark attempted to identify the Goths with the Jutes. In contrast with the Swedes, the Danes of this era did not forward claims to political legitimacy based on assertions that their country was the original homeland of the Goths or that the conquest of the Roman Empire was proof of their own country's military valour and power through history. During the 17th century and Swedes competed for the collection and publication of Icelandic manuscripts, Norse sagas, the two Eddas. In Sweden, the Icelandic manuscripts became part of an origin myth and were seen as proof that the greatness and heroism of the ancient Geats had been passed down through the generations to the current population; this pride culminated in the publication of Olaus Rudbeck's treatise Atland eller Manheim, in which he claimed that Sweden was identical to Atlantis.
During the 18th century, Swedish Gothicism had sobered somewhat, but it revived during the period of Romantic nationalism from c. 1800 onwards, with Erik Gustaf Geijer and Esaias Tegnér in the Geatish Society. In Denmark, Romantic nationalism led writers such as Johannes Ewald, N. F. S. Grundtvig and Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger to take a renewed interest in Old Norse subjects. In other parts of Europe, interest in Norse mythology and language was represented by the Englishmen Thomas Gray, John Keats and William Wordsworth, the Germans Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. In Scandinavian architecture, Gothicism had its prime in the 1860s and 1870s, but it continued until c. 1900. The interest in Old Norse subjects led to the creation of a special architecture in wood inspired by stave churches, it was in Norway that the style had its largest impact; the details that are found in this style are dragon heads, from which it is called dragon style, false arcades, lathed colonnades, protruding lofts and a ridged roof.
Götaland theory Donecker, Stefan, "There and Back Again: The North as Origin and Destination in Early Modern Migration Narratives", Images of the North, archived from the original on May 3, 2007
Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger was a Danish poet and playwright. He introduced romanticism into Danish literature, he was born in Vesterbro a suburb of Copenhagen, on 14 November 1779. His father, a Schleswiger by birth, was at that time organist, became keeper, of the royal palace of Frederiksberg; the poet's mother, on the other hand, German by extraction, suffered from depression, which afterwards deepened into melancholy madness. Oehlenschläger and his sister Sophie were allowed their own way throughout their childhood, were taught nothing, except to read and write, until their twelfth year. At the age of nine, Oehlenschläger began to make fluent verses. Three years while walking in Frederiksberg Gardens, he attracted the notice of the poet Edvard Storm, the result of the conversation was that he received a nomination to the college called Posterity's High School, an important institution of which Storm was the principal. Storm himself taught the class of Scandinavian mythology, thus Oehlenschläger received his earliest bias towards the poetical religion of his ancestors.
Oehlenschläger was confirmed in 1795, was to have been apprenticed to a tradesman in Copenhagen. To his great delight there was a hitch in the preliminaries, he returned to his father's house, he now, in his eighteenth year took up study with great zeal, but soon again abandoned his books for the stage, where he was offered a small position. In 1797 he made his appearance on the boards in several successive parts, but soon discovered that he possessed no real histrionic talent; the brothers Ørsted, with whom he had formed an intimacy that proved quite profitable to him, persuaded him to quit the stage, in 1800 he entered the University of Copenhagen as a student. He was doomed, however, to disturbance in his studies, first from the death of his mother, next from his inveterate tendency towards poetry, from the First Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801, however, inspired a dramatic sketch, the first thing of the kind by Oehlenschläger that we possess. In the summer of 1802, when Oehlenschläger had an old Scandinavian romance, as well as a volume of lyrics, in the press, the young Norse philosopher, Henrik Steffens, came back to Copenhagen after a long visit to Schelling in Germany, full of new romantic ideas.
His lectures at the university, in which Goethe and Schiller were revealed to the Danish public for the first time, created a great sensation. Steffens and Oehlenschläger met one day at Dreier's Club, after a conversation of sixteen hours the latter went home, suppressed his two coming volumes, wrote at a sitting his splendid poem Guldhornene, in a manner new to Danish literature; the result of his new enthusiasm speedily showed itself in a somewhat hasty volume of poems, published in 1803, now chiefly remembered as containing the lovely piece called Sanct Hansaften-Spil. The next two years saw the production of several exquisite works, in particular the epic of Thors Reise til Jotunheim, the charming poem in hexameters called Langelandsreisen, the bewitching piece of fantasy Aladdin. At the age of twenty-six, Oehlenschläger was universally recognised by the opponents of the romantic revival, as the leading poet of Denmark, he now collected his Poetical Writings in two volumes. He found no difficulty in obtaining a grant for foreign travel from the government, he left his native country for the first time, joining Steffens at Halle in August 1805.
Here he wrote the first of his great historical tragedies, Hakon Jarl, which he sent off to Copenhagen, proceeded for the winter months to Berlin, where he associated with Humboldt and the leading men of the day, met Goethe for the first time. In the spring of 1806 he went on to Weimar, where he spent several months in daily intercourse with Goethe; the autumn of the same year he spent with Tieck in Dresden, proceeded in December to Paris. Here he resided eighteen months and wrote his three famous masterpieces, Baldur hin Gode and Axel og Valborg. Oehlenschläger had made his own translation of Aladdin into German, adding some extra new material which does not appear in the 1805 edition. Ferruccio Busoni used the text of this translation for the last movement of his Piano Concerto Op. 39. Editions of Oehlenschläger's play do not contain this text. In July 1808 he left Paris and spent the autumn and winter in Switzerland as the guest of Madame de Staël at Coppet, in the midst of her circle of wits.
In the spring of 1809 Oehlenschläger went to Rome to visit Bertel Thorvaldsen, in his house wrote his tragedy of Correggio. He hurriedly returned to Denmark in the spring of 1810 to take the chair of aesthetics at the University of Copenhagen to marry the sister-in-law of Rahbek, to whom he had been long betrothed, his first course of lectures dealt with his Danish predecessor Johannes Ewald, the second with Schiller. From this time forward his literary activity became great. From 1814 to 1819 he, or rather his admirers, were engaged in a long and angry controversy with Baggesen, who represented the old didactic school; this contest seems to have disturbed the peace of Oehlenschläger's mind and to have undermined his genius. His talent may be said to have culminated in the glorious cycle of verse-romances called Helge, published in 1814; the tragedy of Hagbarth og Signe, showed a distinct falling-off in style. In 1817 he went back to Paris, published Hroars Saga and
Düsseldorf school of painting
The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow. The work of the Düsseldorf School is characterized by finely detailed yet fanciful landscapes with religious or allegorical stories set in the landscapes. Leading members of the Düsseldorf School advocated "plein air painting", tended to use a palette with subdued and colors; the Düsseldorf School was a part of the German Romantic movement. Prominent members of the Düsselorf School included von Schadow, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Andreas Achenbach, Hans Fredrik Gude, Oswald Achenbach, Adolf Schrödter; the Düsseldorf School had a significant influence on the Hudson River School in the United States, many prominent Americans trained at the Düsseldorf Academy and show the influence of the Düsseldorf School, including George Caleb Bingham, David Edward Cronin, Eastman Johnson, Worthington Whittredge, Richard Caton Woodville, William Stanley Haseltine, James McDougal Hart, Helen Searle, William Morris Hunt, as well as German émigré Emanuel Leutze.
Albert Bierstadt was not accepted. His American friend Worthington Whittredge became his teacher while attending Düsseldorf. Between 1819 and 1918, some 4000 artists belonged to the Düsseldorf school of painting, including: Andreas Achenbach Oswald Achenbach Hermann Anschütz Peter Nicolai Arbo Louis Asher Anders Askevold Hans von Bartels William Holbrook Beard August Becker Jakob Becker Peter Behrens Gunnar Berg Ludolph Berkemeier Edward Beyer Albert Bierstadt George Caleb Bingham Georg Bleibtreu Arnold Böcklin Erik Bodom Friedrich Boser August Bromeis Wilhelm Busch Anton Bütler Joseph Niklaus Bütler Alexandre Calame Wilhelm Camphausen August Cappelen Gustaf Cederström Fanny Churberg Johann Wilhelm Cordes Peter von Cornelius Ludwig des Coudres Ernest Crofts Georg Heinrich Crola David Edward Cronin Hans Dahl Ernst Deger Anton Dietrich Eugen Dücker Adam Eberle Marie Egner Joseph Fay Anselm Feuerbach Albert Flamm Arnold Forstmann Friedrich Friedländer Bernhard Fries Otto Frölicher Julius Geertz Sanford Robinson Gifford Hans Fredrik Gude Eugene von Guerard Aasta Hansteen James McDougal Hart William Stanley Haseltine Johann Peter Hasenclever Lars Hertervig George Hetzel Hermann Ottomar Herzog Theodor Hildebrandt Robert Alexander Hillingford Bernhard Hoetger Oskar Hoffmann Adolfo Hohenstein Julius Hübner Emil Hünten William Morris Hunt Otto Hupp Franz Ittenbach Otto Reinhold Jacobi Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann August Jernberg Eastman Johnson Arthur Kampf Wilhelm von Kaulbach William Keith César Klein Ludwig Knaus Heinrich Christoph Kolbe Rudolf Koller Julius Kronberg Ants Laikmaa Marcus Larson Wilhelm Lehmbruck Carl Friedrich Lessing Emanuel Leutze Bruno Liljefors Amalia Lindegren George Luks August Macke Fritz Mackensen August Malmström Gari Melchers Carlo Mense Johann Georg Meyer Otto Modersohn Heinrich Mücke Morten Müller Paul Müller-Kaempff Mihály von Munkácsy Ludvig Munthe Amaldus Nielsen Bengt Nordenberg Adelsteen Normann Adolph Northen Theobald von Oer Eduard Peithner von Lichtenfels Carl von Perbandt Heinrich Petersen-Angeln Eduard Wilhelm Pose Johann Wilhelm Preyer Kristjan Raud Paul Raud Robert Reinick Alfred Rethel Karl Lorenz Rettich Henry Ritter Theodor Rocholl Hubert Salentin Johann Wilhelm Schirmer Julius Schrader Adolf Schreyer Adolf Seel Ivan Shishkin Karl Ferdinand Sohn Bernhard Studer Adolph Tidemand Carl d'Unker Lesser Ury Frederick Vezin Heinrich Vogeler Alfred Wahlberg Edward Arthur Walton Worthington Whittredge Charles Wimar Mårten Eskil Winge Richard Caton Woodville Magnus von Wright Clemens von Zimmermann German Romanticism
Nationalmuseum is the national gallery of Sweden, located on the peninsula Blasieholmen in central Stockholm. The museum's benefactors include Carl Gustaf Tessin; the museum was founded in 1792 as Kungliga Museet. The present building was opened in 1866, when it was renamed the Nationalmuseum, used as one of the buildings to hold the 1866 General Industrial Exposition of Stockholm; the current building, built between 1844 and 1866, was inspired by North Italian Renaissance architecture. It is the design of the German architect Friedrich August Stüler, who designed the Neues Museum in Berlin; the closed exterior, save for the central entrance, gives no hint of the spacious interior dominated by the huge flight of stairs leading up to the topmost galleries. The museum was enlarged in 1961 to accommodate the museum workshops; the present restaurant was instated in 1996. The museum building closed for renovation in 2013 and reopened on 13 October 2018; the $132 million overhaul sought to put more of the museum’s collection on display and to match the security, fire safety and climate control of a modern institution.
The museum collection consists of about half a million drawings from the Middle Ages to 1900, a prominent 17th-century collection of Rembrandt and other Dutch painters, a collection of porcelain items, paintings and modern art as well. The museum has an art library, open to the public and academics; the Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis by Rembrandt Midvinterblot by Carl Larsson Candaules Showing His Wife to Gyges by Jacob Jordaens Hallwyl Palace Swedish Museum of National Antiquities Johan Mårtelius. "Norra innerstaden". Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur Förlag AB. p. 67. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. National Museum of Fine Arts
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he succeeded him as Pfalzgraf, he was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless king Christopher of Bavaria and he was the first king of the Swedish Caroline era, which had its peak during the end of the reign of his son, Charles XI, he led Sweden during the Second Northern War. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland before ascending to the Swedish throne, his numbering as Charles X derives from a 16th-century invention. The Swedish king Charles IX chose his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden; this king was the fourth actual King Charles, but has never been called Charles IV. In his early childhood raised in the Swedish court alongside his cousin Queen Christina he received an excellent civil education.
Charles X learned the art of war under Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld and at Jankowitz. From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden, but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in 1649, despite the opposition of the Privy Council headed by Axel Oxenstierna. In 1648 he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany; the conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia in October 1648 prevented him from winning the military laurels he is said to have desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had an opportunity to learn diplomacy, a science he is described as having mastered. As the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden was dangerous because of the growing discontent with the queen.
He therefore withdrew to the isle of Öland until the abdication of Christina on 5 June 1654 called him to the throne. Charles Gustav was crowned on 7 June 1654; the beginning of Charles X's reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords and on the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest. On the recommendation of his predecessor, he contracted a political marriage on 24 October 1654 with Hedwig Eleonora, the daughter of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he was hoping to secure a future ally against Denmark. The Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Over three days a secret committee presided over by the King decided the war question: Charles X persuaded the delegates that a war against Poland appeared necessary and might prove advantageous. In 1659 he proclaimed severe punishment for anyone hunting in the royal game reserve in Ottenby, Öland, where he had built a long dry-stone wall separating the southern tip of the island.
On 10 July 1655, Charles X left Sweden to engage in a war against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in what became the Second Northern War. By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. Hostilities had begun with the occupation of Dünaburg in Polish Livonia by the Swedes on 1 July 1655. On 21 July 1655 Swedish army under Arvid Wittenberg crossed into Poland and proceeded towards the encampment of the Greater Poland Levy of the Nobility encamped among the banks of the Noteć river, with some regular infantry for support. On 25 July the Polish noble levy army capitulated, the voivodeships of Poznań and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish King. Thereupon the Swedes occupied the whole of Greater Poland; the Polish king, John II Casimir of Poland of the House of Vasa fled to Silesia after his armies had suffered defeats. A great number of Polish nobles and their personal armies joined the Swedes, including the majority of the famous Winged Hussars.
Many Poles saw Charles X Gustav as a strong monarch who could be a more effective leader than John II Casimir. Meanwhile, Charles X Gustav pressed on towards Kraków, which the Swedes captured after a two months' siege; the fall of Kraków followed a capitulation of the Polish Royal armies, but before the end of the year a reaction began in Poland herself. On 18 November 1655 the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Częstochowa, but the Poles defended it and after a seventy days’ siege the Swedish besiegers had to retire with great loss; this success elicited popular enthusiasm in Poland and gave rise to a nationalistic and religious rhetoric concerning the war and Charles X. He was depicted as his mercenaries barbaric, his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet and his negotiations for the partition of the state he affected to befriend, awoke a nationalistic spirit in the country. In the beginning of 1656 King John II Casimir returned from exile and the reorganised Polish army, increased in numbers.
By this time Charles had discovered that he could more defeat the Poles than conquer Poland. What is described as his chief object, the con