Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping originally referred to transport by sea, but is extended in American English to refer to transport by land or air as well, logistics, a term borrowed from the military environment, is fashionably used in the same sense. Land or ground shipping can be by train or by truck, ground transport is typically more affordable than air, but more expensive than sea especially in developing countries like India and Pakistan, where inland infrastructure is not efficient. Shipment of cargo by trucks, directly from the place to the destination, is known as a door to door shipment. Trucks and trains make deliveries to sea and air ports where cargo is moved in bulk, much shipping is done by actual ships. An individual nations fleet and the people that crew it are referred to as its merchant navy or merchant marine, merchant shipping is the lifeblood of the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 102,194 commercial ships worldwide.
On rivers and canals, barges are used to carry bulk cargo. Cargo was transported by air in specialized cargo aircraft and in the compartments of passenger aircraft. Air freight is typically the fastest mode for long distance freight transport, intermodal freight transport refers to shipments that involve more than one mode. More specifically it refers to the use of intermodal shipping containers that are easily transferred between ship and truck. Common trading terms used in shipping goods internationally include, Free on board –the exporter delivers the goods at the specified location. For example, FOB JNPT means that the exporter delivers the goods to the Jawahar lal Nehru Port and this term declares that where the responsibility of shipper ends and that of buyer starts. The exporter is bound to deliver the goods at his cost, in this case, the freight and other expenses for outbound traffic are borne by the importer. Most of the governments ask their exporters to trade on these terms to promote their exports worldwide such as India, many of the shipping carriers offer guarantees on their delivery times.
These are known as GSR guarantees or guaranteed service refunds, if the parcels are not delivered on time, carriage and freight, Insurance and freight are all paid by the exporter to the specified location. For example, at CIF Los Angeles, the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles including the insurance of cargo and this states that responsibility of the shipper ends at the Los Angeles port. The term best way generally implies that the shipper will choose the carrier who offers the lowest rate for the shipment. In some cases, other factors, such as insurance or faster transit time will cause the shipper to choose an option other than the lowest bidder
Order of the Dannebrog
The Order of the Dannebrog is an Order of Denmark, instituted in 1671 by Christian V. In 1808, the Order was reformed and divided into four classes, the Grand Commander class is reserved to persons of princely origin. It is only awarded to royalty with close ties with the Danish Royal House. The statute of the Order was amended in 1951 by a Royal Ordinance so that men and women could be members of the Order. The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Dannebrog cross with a red enamelled border, for the Knights in silver and for everyone else in gold or silver gilt. On its reverse are found the crowned royal cyphers of Valdemar II Sejr, Christian V and Frederik VI, as well as the years 1219,1671 and 1808, in each of the four angles of the cross is found a small Danish royal crown. The Grand Cross can, as an honor, be awarded with diamonds. There is a Cross of Honour, when the collar is worn the sash is not worn. The star of the Order is a silver star with straight rays with an enamelled Dannebrog cross at the centre.
The breast cross of the Order is similar to the cross on the star but larger and with faceted silver instead of white enamel, the ribbon of the Order is white silk moiré with red borders, the national colours of Denmark. The Order originally had a distinctive habit worn by the knights on very solemn occasions, over this red mantle was worn a short white shoulder cape with a standing collar embroidered in gold, upon which was worn the collar of the Order. The habit had a hat with a plume of white. This habit was almost identical to that worn by the knights of the Order of the Elephant, each Danish ministry has a quota of Knights and Knights 1st class that they may use at their discretion. It is most often given to high-ranking officers of the police, armed forces, used for politicians in Folketinget after 8 years of elected service. Ministers are given the rank of Knight 1st Class, the rank of Commander is given to Colonels and other high-ranking officials as a retirement-decoration after long service.
Commander 1st class is given for Admirals, Supreme-court judges, Grand Cross is most often used for admirals, Supreme-court judges and similar as a reward for very meritorious service to Denmark. Grand Cross with Breaststar with Diamonds is most often given to high-ranking officers of the Royal Court, the Grand Commander grade is only given to 8 people. The reigning monarch is always a Grand Commander, and he/she may give the grade to 7 others - most often close family, the Order of the Dannebrog is often used as a tool of diplomacy
Order of St. Olav
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry that was instituted by King Oscar I of Norway and Sweden on August 21,1847, as a distinctly Norwegian order. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav, nobility was abolished in Norway in 1821. Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, the Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdoms only order of chivalry for the next 80 years. The Grand Master of the order is the monarch of Norway. It is awarded to individuals as a reward for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country, since 1985, the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty are awarded the order as a matter of courtesy. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, and the monarch approves them, nominations for the award are directed at the commission through the county governor. The order is divided into five classes and may be awarded for civilian or military contributions.
The collar is awarded as a distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy. Grand Cross of St. Olav – awarded to heads of state as a courtesy and in cases to individuals for merit, wears the badge on a collar. The insignia are expected to be returned either upon the advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. Since it was instituted, the order has been awarded approximately 19,500 times, the insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen. The medal does not confer upon the recipient membership in an order, the badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes, crowned monograms O appear between the arms of the cross. The cross is topped by a crown, military awards have crossed swords between the crown and the cross, the star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order. The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, the central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring.
The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes, the Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian decoration currently awarded by Norway, and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th and this list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by last name, those not possessing a last name, such as royalty. Six of the listed are not heads of states or royals, before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors, in economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is an entity that has significant market power, that is. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly, a small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry. A monopoly is distinguished from a monopsony, in there is only one buyer of a product or service. Likewise, a monopoly should be distinguished from a cartel, in which several providers act together to coordinate services, prices or sale of goods. Monopolies and oligopolies are all situations in one or a few entities have market power and therefore interact with their customers. Monopolies can be established by a government, form naturally, or form by integration, in many jurisdictions, competition laws restrict monopolies. A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state, patents and trademarks are sometimes used as examples of government-granted monopolies.
The government may reserve the venture for itself, thus forming a government monopoly, There are four basic types of market structures in traditional economic analysis, perfect competition, monopolistic competition and monopoly. A monopoly is a structure in which a single supplier produces, if there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product, the market structure is that of a pure monopoly. Sometimes, there are many sellers in an industry and/or there exist many close substitutes for the goods being produced and this is termed monopolistic competition, whereas in oligopoly the companies interact strategically. Most economic textbooks follow the practice of explaining the perfect competition model. The boundaries of what constitutes a market and what does not are relevant distinctions to make in economic analysis, in a general equilibrium context, a good is a specific concept including geographical and time-related characteristics. Most studies of market structure relax a little their definition of a good, price Maker, Decides the price of the good or product to be sold, but does so by determining the quantity in order to demand the price desired by the firm.
High Barriers, Other sellers are unable to enter the market of the monopoly, single seller, In a monopoly, there is one seller of the good, who produces all the output. Therefore, the market is being served by a single company, and for practical purposes. Price Discrimination, A monopolist can change the price or quantity of the product and he or she sells higher quantities at a lower price in a very elastic market, and sells lower quantities at a higher price in a less elastic market
Order of the Elephant
The Order of the Elephant is the highest order of Denmark. After the Reformation in 1536 the confraternity died out, but a badge in the form of an elephant with his profile on its side was still awarded by Frederick II. This latter badge may have inspired by the badge of office of the chaplain of the confraternity which is known to have been in the form of an elephant. The order was instituted in its current form on 1 December 1693 by King Christian V as having one class consisting of only 30 noble knights in addition to the Grand Master. The statutes of the order were amended in 1958 by a Royal Ordinance so that men and women could be members of the order. The Danish monarch is the head of the order, the members of the royal family are members of the order, and foreign heads of state are inducted. In very exceptional circumstances a commoner may admitted, the most recent member of the order who was neither a current or former head of state nor royal was Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, a leading industrialist and philanthropist.
The order of the Elephant has one class, Knight of the Order of the Elephant, Knights of the order are granted a place in the 1st Class of the Danish order of precedence. The collar of the order is of gold and it consists of alternating elephants and towers. On the cover of the elephants there is a D which stands for Dania, according to the statutes of the order, the collar is usually only worn on New Years Day and on major occasions. The badge of the order is an elephant made of white-enamelled gold with blue housings. On its back the elephant is bearing a watch tower of pink enameled masonry encircled by a row of small table cut diamonds at the bottom with another row just below the crenellation at the top. At the top of the tower is a large enameled gold ring from which the badge can be hung from the collar or tied to the sash of the Order, there are about 72 elephants at the chancery of the Order or in circulation. It is estimated that together with an number of elephants in museums around the world.
The star of the order is a silver star with smooth rays. At its center there is a red enameled disc with a white cross and it is worn on the left side of the chest. The sash of the order is of light-blue silk moiré and 10 cm wide for men 6 cm wide for women and it is placed on the left shoulder with the elephant resting against the right hip. The collar is not worn when the sash is used, over this red mantle was worn a short white shoulder cape with a standing collar, embroidered with scattering of numerous gold flames, upon which was worn the collar of the order
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Hellerup is a district of Gentofte Municipality in the suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. The most urban part of the district is centred on Strandvejen and is bordered by Østerbro to the south and it comprises Tuborg Havn, the redeveloped brewery site of Tuborg Breweries, with the Waterfront Shopping Center, a marina and the headquarters of several large companies. Other parts of the consists of single family detached homes. Local landmarks include the science centre Experimentarium and the art Øregaard Museum, with an area of approximately 515 hectares, Hellerup covers 20% of the municipality. As of a January 2012, Hellerup had a population of 18,781, the Hellerup postal district includes a somewhast larger area since part of Østerbro has the postal code 2900 Hellerup. In spite of its name, with the suffix -rup, Hellerup does not originate in an old village, in the 18th century the area was still open countryside with scattered country houses. One of them, was renamed Hellerupgård when it was acquired by Johan David Heller in 1748 and it would lend its name to the modern district of Hellerup.
Hellerupgård was purchased by the merchant and shipowner Erich Erichsen and he commissioned the French architect Joseph-Jacques Ramée to built a new house in 1802. Other country houses included Øregård, Blidah and Taffelbay, one of the oldest properties in the area was Vartov, a former watermill which had been acquired by Frederick II in 1566 and used as a hunting lodge. It was converted into a hospital for the poor in 1607, the navel officer Charles Frédéric le Sage de Fontenay acquired it in the 18th century and converted it into a country house. A harbor was built on the coast between 1869 and 1873, the new Tuborg Brewery was inaugurated that same year. In 1887, Carl Ludvig Ibsen began to land in the area with the intension to sell it off in lots to developers. He purchased Hellerupgård, Lille Mariendal and Slukefter in Hellerup as well as Smakkegård, Rygård, Lundegård and Stengård in Gentofte, the land in Hellerup alone added up to 37 hectares. He reclaimed an area along the coast just north of Tuborg Breweries and he did not build on the land himself but prepared it with sewers and roads and sold it off in lots to developers and private citizens.
In the mid-1890s, redevelopment of the areas on the west side of Strandvejen began, resulting in such as Ryvangs Allé. A new gasworks, Strandvejsgasværket, opened adjacent to Tuborg Breweries in 1893. Many of the new homes had WCs, in 1916, Ibsen placed his remaining land in a company, A/S De Ibsenske Grunde i Gjentofte Sogn, which existed until 1945. As of 1996, it has been an area with numerous apartments overlooking the harbour. The site is home to the headquarters of several Danish and international companies
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas supermajors and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies and it has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide, as of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues, Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom.
Shell first entered the industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it sold in 1994. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shells business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the worlds largest producer of liquefied natural gas, Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange, as of January 2013, Shells largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9. 85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6. 89%. Shells logo, known as the pecten, is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world and it was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Shell Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned a company in Houndsditch, London.
For various reasons, the new firm operated as a company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British, national patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production, the British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force
A business magnate refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. Such individuals may be called czars, proprietors, taipans, the word magnate derives from the Latin magnates, meaning a great man or great nobleman. The word tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means great lord, the word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay, the term spread to the business community, where it has been used ever since. The word mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for Mongol and it alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in the Medieval India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence such as the Taj Mahal. Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses and their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era.
The Famous 15, Americas Most Fascinating Tycoons,25 Tycoons Who Run the World
Order of the Falcon
The Order of the Falcon is a national Order of Iceland, established on July 3,1921 by King Christian X of Denmark and Iceland. During a royal visit to Iceland, King Christian X issued the royal decree founding the Icelandic Order of the Falcon, new statutes were incorporated for the Order on July 11,1944, when Iceland became a republic. It may be awarded to both Icelanders and citizens of countries for achievements in Iceland or internationally. The President of Iceland is the designated Grand Master of the Order, a five-member council makes recommendations on awards to the Grand Master, who grants the award. However, the Grand Master may award the Order without recommendations from the Order Council, the Grand Master and the Chairman of the Order Council sign the Letters Patent, which are given to those who receive the awards. The badge consists of a cross, enamelled in white. The star is a silver, eight-pointed star, for the Grand Cross class it has the badge of the Order superimposed upon it.
For the Commander with Star class it has a central disc bearing the white falcon. The ribbon is blue with white-red-white border stripes, if a holder is promoted to a higher rank, the lower ranks insignia must be returned. The insignia is retained during the lifetime, but it must be returned to the Icelandic Government upon his or her death. Rory McTurk, Professor of Icelandic Studies, University of Leeds, weir Awarded 1978 Evelyn Stefansson Nef Awarded 2001 Børge Boeskov Victor Borge Thomas E. Brittingham Jr. Awarded 1957 Erik J
For its Antillian namesake, see Charlotte Amalie, U. S. Virgin Islands Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Amalienborg was originally built for four families, when Christiansborg Palace burned on 26 February 1794. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces, the Frederiksstaden district was built on the former grounds of two other palaces. The first palace was called Sophie Amalienborg, other parts of the land were used for Rosenborg Castle and the new Eastern fortified wall around the old city. Work on the began in 1664, and the castle was built 1669-1673. The King died in 1670, and the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on 20 February 1685, the presentation was a great success, and it was repeated a few days on 19 April. However, immediately after the start of the performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground. The King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household, ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Amalienborg in the early 1690s.
In 1694, the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his drawing and model were completed in 1697. The King, found the plans too ambitious, and instead began tearing down the buildings that same year. The second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign, the second Amalienborg consisted of a summerhouse, a central pavilion with orangeries, and arcades on both side of the pavilion. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon with an out to the harbour, the garden. This development is thought to have been the brainchild of Danish Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Paris. Heading the project was Lord High Steward Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of the most powerful and influential men in the land, with Nicolai Eigtved as royal architect and supervisor. The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles and these mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg, albeit much modified over the years.
The noblemen who owned them were willing to part with their mansions for promotion and money, and the Moltke and Schack Palaces were acquired in the course of a few days. A colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, was added 1794-1795 to connect the recently occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with that of the Crown Prince, Schack’s Palace