The French Resistance was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women, who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines; the men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, students, conservative Roman Catholics, citizens from the ranks of liberals and communists. The French Resistance played a significant role in facilitating the Allies' rapid advance through France following the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, the lesser-known invasion of Provence on 15 August, by providing military intelligence on the German defences known as the Atlantic Wall and on Wehrmacht deployments and orders of battle.
The Resistance planned and executed acts of sabotage on the electrical power grid, transport facilities, telecommunications networks. It was politically and morally important to France, both during the German occupation and for decades afterward, because it provided the country with an inspiring example of the patriotic fulfillment of a national imperative, countering an existential threat to French nationhood; the actions of the Resistance stood in marked contrast to the collaboration of the French regime based at Vichy, the French people who joined the pro-Nazi Milice française and the French men who joined the Waffen SS. After the landings in Normandy and Provence, the paramilitary components of the Resistance were organised more formally, into a hierarchy of operational units known, collectively, as the French Forces of the Interior. Estimated to have a strength of 100,000 in June 1944, the FFI grew and reached 400,000 by October of that year. Although the amalgamation of the FFI was, in some cases, fraught with political difficulties, it was successful, it allowed France to rebuild the fourth-largest army in the European theatre by VE Day in May 1945.
Following the Battle of France and the second French-German armistice, signed near Compiègne on 22 June 1940, life for many in France continued more or less at first, but soon the German occupation authorities and the collaborationist Vichy régime began to employ brutal and intimidating tactics to ensure the submission of the French population. Although the majority of civilians neither collaborated nor overtly resisted, the occupation of French territory and the Germans' draconian policies inspired a discontented minority to form paramilitary groups dedicated to both active and passive resistance. One of the conditions of the armistice was; this burden amounted to about 20 million German Reichsmarks per day, a sum that, in May 1940, was equivalent to four hundred million French francs. Because of this overvaluation of German currency, the occupiers were able to make fair and honest requisitions and purchases while, in effect, operating a system of organized plunder. Prices soared, leading to widespread food shortages and malnutrition among children, the elderly, members of the working class engaged in physical labour.
Labour shortages plagued the French economy because hundreds of thousands of French workers were requisitioned and transferred to Germany for compulsory labour under the Service du Travail Obligatoire. The labour shortage was worsened by the fact that a large number of the French were held as prisoners of war in Germany. Beyond these hardships and dislocations, the occupation became unbearable. Onerous regulations, strict censorship, incessant propaganda and nightly curfews all played a role in establishing an atmosphere of fear and repression; the sight of French women consorting with German soldiers infuriated many French men, but sometimes it was the only way they could get adequate food for their families. As reprisals for Resistance activities, the authorities established harsh forms of collective punishment. For example, the increasing militancy of communist resistance in August 1941 led to the taking of thousands of hostages from the general population. A typical policy statement read, "After each further incident, a number, reflecting the seriousness of the crime, shall be shot."
During the occupation, an estimated 30,000 French civilian hostages were shot to intimidate others who were involved in acts of resistance. German troops engaged in massacres such as the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre, in which an entire village was razed and every resident murdered because of persistent resistance in the vicinity. In early 1943, the Vichy authorities created a paramilitary group, the Milice, to combat the Resistance, they worked alongside German forces. The group collaborated with the Nazis, was the Vichy equivalent of the Gestapo security forces in Germany, their actions were brutal and included torture and execution of Resistance suspects. After the liberation of France in the summer of 1944, the French executed many of the estimated 25,000 to 35,000 miliciens for their collaboration. Many of
The Servant of God Franz Stock was a German Roman Catholic priest. He is known for ministering to prisoners in France during World War II, to German prisoners of war in the years following; the cause for his canonization has been accepted by the Holy See. Stock was born the first of nine children of a worker family in the village of Neheim-Hüsten, in the Province of Westphalia of the German Empire. From 1910 to 1913, he attended a Catholic elementary school. At the age of twelve Franz expressed a wish to become a priest. In 1926, he participated in an international peace meeting in Bierville near Paris, organized by Marc Sangnier under the motto "Peace via the young!" There Franz became friends with Joseph Folliet, who grew up to become a noted Catholic writer and who influenced him. That same year, he entered the Catholic seminary in Paderborn. In the spring of 1928, Stock went to Paris, where he spent three semesters studying at the Institut Catholique. During this period, he became a member of the Compagnons du saint François, a fellowship committed to living a simple life and working for peace.
He was the first German student of theology in France since the Middle Ages. Stock was ordained to the subdiaconate on 15 March 1931, he was ordained to the priesthood on 12 March 1932 by the Archbishop of Paderborn, Kaspar Klein, from 1932 to 1934 had his first appointment as priest in Effeln, near Lippstadt, in Dortmund-Eving. In 1934, he was appointed as rector of the German national parish of St. Boniface in Paris. A few days before the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, he returned to Germany, where he officiated as a priest in Dortmund-Bodelschwingh and in Klein-Wanzleben in central Germany. On 13 August 1940, he was named as priest for Germans residing in Paris during Nazi Germany's occupation of France, returned in October 1940 to Paris. In 1941, he started to work as a chaplain in the Fresnes Prison, La Santé Prison and Cherche-Midi Prison in Paris, he was a chaplain at the execution site at the Mont Valérien during the German occupation of France in World War II, owing him his nickname L'Aumônier de l'Enfer and L'archange des prisons.
Because of his German nationality, he was the only priest who could visit the prisoners without being a part of the Nazi war apparatus. He met with more than 2,000 prisoners, among whom the French Navy officer Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves, the Communist Gabriel Péri and the Gaullist Edmond Michelet; as part of his pastoral mission, with great peril to his life, he passed messages from the prisoners to their families and back, sometimes memorizing them. Exploiting every possible avenue to help the prisoners, he delivered German information on them to their families, so as to prepare them when interrogated; the information thus delivered prevented many arrests. This he did under a double threat to his life: besides the obvious peril of arrest, incarceration and/or execution if discovered, Stock suffered severe heart disease and thus had been ordered to rest, he went on in his endeavor. On 10 June 1941, he was acknowledged as military chaplain with the rank of non-commissioned officer. At the time of the liberation of Paris on 25 August 1944, Stock was in the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, where more than 600 wounded German soldiers together with 200 English and American soldiers were lying, unfit for transport.
When the Americans took command of the hospital, Stock became a prisoner of war of the Americans, was sent to the POW camp of Cherbourg. This he accepted willingly, for it enabled him to help those who now needed most his services - the defeated German POWs; the Aumônerie Générale in Paris, planning to set up a seminary for captured German Catholic students of theology at the POW Camp Depot 51 at Orléans, contacted him. Shortly thereafter, Stock was asked to head this seminary as managing director, supported in particular by the Gaullist Edmond Michelet. On 24 April 1945, the Abbé Le Meur accompanied him to Orléans, where twenty-eight theology students awaited them. On 17 August 1945, the "barbed-wire seminary", the séminaire des barbelés, was transferred from Orléans to Camp 501 at Le Coudray, near Chartres. On 19 August 1945, Raoul-Octove-Marie-Jean Harscouët, Bishop of Chartres, accompanied by his secretary Abbé Pierre André, visited the POW seminary, he visited the camp and addressed the seminarians, always calling them "Mes chers enfants.
18 On September 1945, Nuncio Roncalli, came for a longer visit at the camp and returned on 16 July 1946, declaring: The seminary of Chartres is praiseworthy for both countries, France as well as Germany. It is suitable for becoming a sign of understanding and reconciliation. From 1945 till 1947, Stock was managing director of the prisoner of war séminaire des barbelés of Chartres. On 14 May 1947, Cardinal Suhard of Paris visited the seminary, closed on 5 June 1947. 949 lecturers, priests and seminarists had been at the seminary. When it was closed, only 369 were still there. On 16 December 1947, Stock received notification about his appointment as honorary doctor of the University of Freiburg, in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany, he died unexpectedly on 24 February 1948 at the Hôpital Cochin in Paris. Since he was still considered a POW few people were made aware of his death at the time, his funeral was held four days at the Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas church in Paris, with Nuncio Roncalli officiating.
Only about 12 people accompanied his body to the cemetery of Thiais in Paris. On 15/16 June 1963
Cross of Lorraine
The Cross of Lorraine, known as Cross of Anjou in the 16th century, is a heraldic two-barred cross, consisting of a vertical line crossed by two shorter horizontal bars. In most renditions, the horizontal bars are "graded" with the upper bar being the shorter, though variations with the bars of equal length are seen; the Lorraine name has come to signify several cross variations, including the patriarchal cross with its bars near the top. The Cross of Lorraine consists of one vertical and two horizontal bars, This cross has been referred to on the Flag of the Dominican Republic The Cross of Lorraine came from the Kingdom of Hungary to the Duchy of Lorraine. In Hungary, Béla III was the first monarch to use the two-barred cross as the symbol of royal power in the late 12th century, he adopted it from the Byzantine Empire, according to historian Pál Engel. René II, Duke of Lorraine inherited the two-barred cross as a symbol from his ancestors from the House of Anjou, his grandfather, René the Good, who used it as his personal sigil, laid claim to four kingdoms, including Hungary.
The cross was still known as the "cross of Anjou" in the 16th century. René II placed the symbol on his flag before the Battle of Nancy in January 1477. In the battle, René defeated the army of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who had occupied the Duchy of Lorraine, regained his duchy. All coins struck; the Cross of Lorraine is an emblem of Lorraine in eastern France. Between 1871 and 1918, the north-eastern quarter of Lorraine was annexed to Germany, along with Alsace. During that period the Cross served as a rallying point for French ambitions to recover its lost provinces; this historical significance lent it considerable weight as a symbol of French patriotism. During World War II, Capitaine de corvette Thierry d'Argenlieu suggested the Cross of Lorraine as the symbol of the Free French Forces led by Charles de Gaulle as an answer to the Nazi swastika. In France, the Cross of Lorraine was the symbol of Free France during World War II, the liberation of France from Nazi Germany, Gaullism and includes several variations of a two barred cross.
The Cross was displayed on the flags of Free French warships, the fuselages of Free French aircraft. The medal of the Order of Liberation bears the Cross of Lorraine. De Gaulle himself is memorialised by a 43-metre high Cross of Lorraine in his home village of Colombey-les-Deux-Églises; the Cross of Lorraine was adopted by Gaullist political groups such as the Rally for the Republic. French Jesuit missionaries and settlers to the New World carried the Cross of Lorraine c. 1750–1810. The symbol was said to have helped the missionaries to convert the native peoples they encountered, because the two-armed cross resembled existing local imagery; the coat of arms of Hungary depicts a double cross, attributed to Byzantine influence as King Béla III of Hungary was raised in the Byzantine Empire in the 12th century, it was during his rule when the double cross became a symbol of Hungary. The'dual cross' is the consonant'gy' in ancient Hungarian runic writing which reads "egy" when it stands alone if not always, with "God" meaning.
A golden double cross with equal bars, known as the Cross of Jagiellons, was used by Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Jogaila since his conversion to Christianity in 1386, as a personal insignia and was introduced in the Coat of Arms of Lithuania. The lower bar of the cross was longer than the upper, since it originates from the Hungarian type of the double cross, it became the symbol of Jagiellon dynasty and is one of the national symbols of Lithuania, featured in the Order of the Cross of Vytis and the badge of the Lithuanian Air Force. The double-barred cross is one of the national symbols in Belarus, both as the Jagiellon Cross and as the Cross of St. Euphrosyne of Polatsk, an important religious artifact; the symbol is supposed to have Byzantine roots and is used by the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church as a symbol uniting Eastern-Byzantine and Western-Latin church traditions. The Belarusian Cross can be found on the traditional coat of arms of the Pahonia. Silver double cross, on a mountain with three peaks, forms the coat of arms of Slovak Republic.
It is considered national symbol of Slovaks, its history in present territory can be traced back to Great Moravia in 9th century. The "Cross of Lorraine" symbol appears in Unicode as U+2628 ☨ CROSS OF LORRAINE, it is not to be confused with U+2021 ‡ DOUBLE DAGGER. The cross of Lorraine was used in the Sabre and Worldspan global distribution systems as a delimiter in various input formats, the latest version of the Graphical User Interface for each system uses a different symbol: Apollo displays it as a plus sign, Worldspan as a number sign, Sabre as a yen symbol. For its defense of France in World War I, the American 79th Infantry Division was nicknamed the "Cross of Lorraine" Division; the German 79th Infantry Division of World War II used the cross of Lorraine as its insignia because its first attack was in the Lorraine region. The insignia was redesignated effective December 1, 2009, for the 79th US Army Reserve Sustainment Support Command in Los Alamitos, California; the cross is used as an emblem by the American Lung Association and related organizations through the world, as such is familiar from their Christmas Seals program.
Its use was suggested in 1902 by Paris physician Gilbert Sersiron as a symbol for the "crusade" against tuberculosis. The Scottish indie rock band Frightened Rabbit have used it as a symbol, notably on some merchandise a
Jean-Pierre Raffarin is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 6 May 2002 to 31 May 2005. He resigned after France's rejection of the referendum on the European Union draft constitution. However, after Raffarin resigned, he said that his decision was not based on the outcome of the vote. Opinion polls following his resignation suggested that Raffarin was one of France's least popular Prime Ministers since the Fifth Republic was established in 1958. However, according to the book France: 1815–2003, written by Martin Evans and Emmanuel Godwin, Raffarin was "a remarkably popular Prime Minister" despite his ability "to state the obvious and to make empty statements", he was Vice President of the Senate from 2011 to 2014. Born 3 August 1948, Raffarin grew up in Poitiers as the son of a prominent national figure: his father Jean Raffarin was a vice-minister of Agriculture in the government of Pierre Mendes-France, he studied law at Panthéon-Assas University and graduated from ESCP Europe business school.
He started his professional career in marketing. In the 1970s, his first political commitment was in the association of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's young supporters. Defining himself as a "giscardien", he joined the staff of Lionel Stoléru, Secretary of state for Manual Workers and Immigration, the Republican Party, the liberal-conservative component of the centre-right confederation the Union for French Democracy. In the 1980s, he started a career in local politics in Poitou-Charentes region. With the support of René Monory, the local political leader, he took the chair of the regional council in 1988. Seven years he was elected senator of Vienne département. Governmental functions Prime Minister: 2002–2005. Minister of Small and Medium Enterprises and Craft: 1995–1997. Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament: 1989–1995. Reelected in 1994. Senate of France Senator of Vienne: Elected in 1995, but he stays minister / 1997–2002 / Re-elected in 2004, but he stays Prime minister / Since 2005.
Elected in 1995, re-elected in 1997, 2004, 2005, 2008. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes: 1988–2002. Re-elected in 1992, 1998. Vice-President of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes: 2002–2004. Regional councillor of Poitou-Charentes: 1986–2004. Reelected in 1992, 1998. Municipal Council Deputy-mayor of Chasseneuil-du-Poitou: 1995–2001. Municipal councillor of Chasseneuil-du-Poitou: 1995–2001. Municipal councillor of Poitiers: 1977–1995. Re-elected in 1983, 1989. Political functions Vice-President of the Union for a Popular Movement: Since 2007. During the 1995 presidential campaign, while most UDF politicians supported Édouard Balladur, he chose the winning candidacy of Jacques Chirac. In return, he was nominated Minister of Small and Medium-sized Companies and Craft Industry in Alain Juppé's cabinet. At the same time, the pro-Chirac UDF members founded the Popular Party for French Democracy, he returned in the Republican Party, became Liberal Democracy in 1997.
He was vice-president of DL until 2002. During the 2002 presidential campaign, he advocated the union of the right behind the incumbent President Chirac. After his re-election, Chirac wished to give a sign of political renewal. Furthermore, elected in a special second round by a majority of left-wing voters, he searched for a moderate to lead the cabinet and the June 2002 legislative campaign. Raffarin participated in the formation of the Union for a Popular Movement, he criticized the American-led intervention in Iraq. His political policies combined authority and moderate economical liberalism – that is, the support of laissez-faire economic policies. In 2003 he launched reforms of the public retirement scheme and of decentralisation, which led to many strikes. During the summer of 2003 the country experienced an unusual heat wave which caused the death of nearly 15,000 people; the perceived late reaction of the government was blamed on his administration. In 2004 he began a reform of the French state-run health-care system.
Raffarin's governments were known for their internal quarrels with various ministers taking opposite positions in public. The alleged lack of authority of the Prime Minister was mocked by the media. On 28 March 2004 the ruling UMP party suffered an important defeat during the regional elections, with all but one région out of 22 of mainland France going to the opposition; this was interpreted, including by Raffarin himself in his post-election speech, as "a sign of distrust against the government from the electorate". On 30 March 2004 Jean-Pierre Raffarin tendered the resignation of his government to president Jacques Chirac, who re-appointed him prime minister, with the delegation to form a new government; this major cabinet reshuffle removed some of its most controversial ministers like Luc Ferry or Jean-François Mattei. Raffarin's resignation was accepted by President Chirac on 30 May 2005, after the "no" victory at the European Constitution referendum, he was replaced as Prime Minister by Dominique de Villepin.
On 18 September 2005, he was elected Senator in the Vienne département. Speculation were that he could try to become President of the Senate or President of the Union for a Popular Movement if Nicolas Sarkozy won the 2007 presidential election, he became one of the Vice presidents of the UMP in 2007. In September 2008, he sought the Senate UMP fraction's investiture to become President of the Senate, but was defeated by Gérard Larcher. Raffarin is Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur and Grand-Croix de l'ordre n
Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel
The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is a triumphal arch in Paris, located in the Place du Carrousel. It is an example of Corinthian style architecture, it was built between 1806 and 1808 to commemorate Napoleon's military victories of the previous year. The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, at the far end of the Champs Élysées, was designed in the same year; the monument is 63 feet high, 75 feet wide, 24 feet deep. The 21 feet high central arch is flanked by two smaller ones, 14 feet high, 9 feet wide. Around its exterior are eight Corinthian columns of marble, topped by eight soldiers of the Empire. On the pediment, between the soldiers, bas-reliefs depict: the Arms of the Kingdom of Italy with figures representing History and the Arts the Arms of the French Empire with Victory, Fame and Abundance Wisdom and Strength holding the arms of the Kingdom of Italy, accompanied by Prudence and Victory. Napoleon's diplomatic and military victories are commemorated by bas-reliefs executed in rose marble, they depict: the Peace of Pressburg Napoleon entering Munich Napoleon entering Vienna, sculptor Louis-Pierre Deseine the Battle of Austerlitz, sculptor Jean-Joseph Espercieux the Tilsit Conference the surrender of Ulm, sculptor Pierre CartellierThe arch is derivative of the triumphal arches of the Roman Empire, in particular that of Septimius Severus in Rome.
The subjects of the bas-reliefs devoted to the battles were selected by the director of the Napoleon Museum, Vivant Denon, designed by Charles Meynier. The upper frieze on the on entablement has sculptures of soldiers: Auguste Marie Taunay's cuirassier, Charles-Louis Corbet's dragoon, Joseph Chinard's horse grenadier and Jacques-Edme Dumont's sapper; the quadriga atop the entablement is a copy of the so-called Horses of Saint Mark that adorn the top of the main door of the St Mark's Basilica in Venice but during both French empires the originals were brought up for special occasions. Designed by Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, the arch was built between 1806 and 1808 by the Emperor Napoleon I, on the model of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, as a gateway of the Tuileries Palace, the Imperial residence; the destruction of the Tuileries Palace during the Paris Commune in 1871, allowed an unobstructed view west towards the Arc de Triomphe. It was surmounted by the Horses of Saint Mark from Saint Mark's Cathedral in Venice, captured in 1798 by Napoleon.
In 1815, following the Battle of Waterloo and the Bourbon restoration, France ceded the quadriga to the Austrian Empire which had annexed Venice under the terms of the Congress of Vienna. The Austrians returned the statuary to Venice; the horses of Saint Mark were replaced in 1828 by a quadriga sculpted by Baron François Joseph Bosio, depicting Peace riding in a triumphal chariot led by gilded Victories on both sides. The composition commemorates the Restoration of the Bourbons following Napoleon's downfall; the Arc du Carrousel inspired the design of Marble Arch, constructed in London between 1826 and 1833. The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is at the eastern end of Paris Axe historique, a nine-kilometre-long linear route which dominates much of the northwestern quadrant of the city. Looking west, the arch is aligned with the obelisk in the Place de la Concorde, the centerline of the grand boulevard Champs-Élysées, the Arc de Triomphe at the Place de l'Étoile, although it is not directly visible from the Place du Carrousel, the Grande Arche de la Défense.
Thus, the axis ends with an arch. When the Arc du Carrousel was built, however, an observer in the Place du Carrousel was impeded from any view westward; the central part of the Palais des Tuileries intervened to block the line of sight to the west. When the Tuileries was burned down during the Paris Commune in 1871, its ruins were swept away, the great axis, as it presently exists, was opened all the way to the Place du Carrousel and the Louvre
Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu
Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu, in religion Father Louis of the Trinity, O. C. D. was a Discalced Carmelite friar and priest, a diplomat and French Navy officer and admiral. He was the chancellor of the Ordre de la Libération, he was born in Brest on 7 August 1889, in a family of Navy officers. He joined the École navale at 17. D'Argenlieu served on the Du Chayla as a midshipman, taking part in the campaign in Morocco, which led to the Treaty of Fez, in 1912. During the campaign, he was awarded the Legion of Honour, befriended Hubert Lyautey, something that d'Argenlieu recalled as one of the happy memories in his life. During the First World War, d'Argenlieu served in the Mediterranean, he was promoted to lieutenant de vaisseau in 1917. The next year, as commanding officer of a patrol boat, the Tourterelle, he distinguished himself in the rescue of a troop transport. Upon the conclusion of the war, d'Argenlieu undertook theological studies at the Pontifical Angelicum College, the future Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome, which he completed in 1920.
That year, he entered the novitiate of the Discalced Carmelite friars in Seine-et-Marne. He professed his initial religious vows as a member of the Order on 15 September 1921 and was given the religious habit and the religious name of Louis de la Trinité. D'Argenlieu studied theology for four years at the Catholic University of Lille, he finished his studies there and was ordained a priest there in 1925. The Discalced Carmelite friars re-established a Province of Paris in 1932, he was elected Prior Provincial in 1935. In September 1939, d'Argenlieu was mobilised as a reserve Navy officer, rising to the rank of capitaine de corvette in 1940. During the Battle of France, d'Argenlieu was captured. After three days, he escaped from the prisoner train to Germany and joined Charles de Gaulle on the 30 June. D'Argenlieu joined the Free French Forces, intending to serve as chaplain, but took on the duties of a fighting naval officer, with a special authorisation of his religious superiors because of the small number of Navy officers in the Free French Naval Forces.
He was made chief of staff in July. He attempted to convince the Vichy French governor of Dakar to join De Gaulle and was wounded when he was fired upon in his small and unarmed craft on 23 September 1940, during the Battle of Dakar. In November, he directed successful operations in Gabon. D'Argenlieu was made a capitaine de vaisseau, chancellor of the newly created Ordre de la Libération. In 1941, he rose to counter admiral. In 1943, he was made commanding officer for the naval forces in Great Britain On 14 June 1944, he ferried de Gaulle to France aboard the Combattante, entered Paris with him on the 25 August. After the defeat of Japan, d'Argenlieu was sent to French Indochina as part of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to restore the French colonial administration. In 1946, he was promoted to vice-amiral d'escadre, soon to admiral; as High Commissioner in Indochina, he "recognized" a puppet "Autonomous Republic of Cochin-China" in violation of the March 6 Ho–Sainteny agreement whilst the Viet Minh leadership was in negotiations in France beginning the First Indochina War.
During the war, his actions grew more and more controversial, in March 1947, he was replaced by Émile Bollaert. Back in France, he was made inspector general of the Naval Forces before retiring to a monastery. In 1958, sick, d'Argenlieu resigned his position of chancellor of the Ordre de la Libération and withdrew to monastery life again, he was buried in Avrechy. Grand Cross of the Légion d'Honneur Compagnon de la Libération Médaille Militaire Croix de Guerre 39–45 with 3 palms Croix de Guerre des Théâtres d'Opérations Extérieures with palm Médaille de la Résistance avec rosette Insigne des blessés militaires Médaille du Sauvetage Médaille du Maroc Belgian Croix de Guerre with palm Commander of the Order of Léopold Companion of the Order of the Bath Médaille du Sauvetage Médaille du Maroc La Croix de la Libération, Paris 1951 Chroniques d'Indochine 1945-1947, Paris 1985 Souvenirs de Guerre: juin 1940-janvier 1941, Paris 1973 worldatwar.net
Landmarks in Paris
This article presents the main landmarks in the city of Paris within administrative limits, divided by its 20 arrondissements. Landmarks located in the suburbs of Paris, outside of its administrative limits, while within the metropolitan area are not included in this article; the 1st arrondissement forms much of the historic centre of Paris. Place Vendôme is famous for its deluxe hotels such as Hôtel Ritz, The Westin Paris – Vendôme, Hôtel de Toulouse, Hôtel du Petit-Bourbon, Hôtel Meurice, Hôtel Regina Les Halles were Paris's central meat and produce market, since the late 1970s, are a major shopping centre; the old Halles were replaced by the Forum des Halles. The central market of Paris, the biggest wholesale food market in the world, was transferred to Rungis, in the southern suburbs; the Axe historique, is a line of monuments which begins in the first arrondissement at the center of the Louvre with equestrian statue of Louis XIV and continues through the 8th toward the west through the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, the Tuileries Gardens, the Luxor Obelisk erected in the centre of Place de la Concorde, the Champs-Élysées, the Arc de Triomphe, centred in the Place de l'Étoile circus, the Avenue de la Grande Armée, ends at the Grande Arche de la Défense outside of Paris.
The former Conciergerie prison held some prominent Ancien Régime members before their deaths during the French Revolution. Of note in the 1st arrondissement are the theatres Théâtre du Châtelet, Théâtre du Palais-Royal, squares such as Place des Pyramides, Place Dauphine, Place des Victoires and Place du Châtelet, the Comédie-Française, Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume, the Palais de Justice and Palais-Royal; the 2nd arrondissement of Paris lies to the north of the 1st. The Boulevard des Capucines, Boulevard Montmartre, Boulevard des Italiens, Rue de Richelieu and Rue Saint-Denis are major roads running through the district; the 2nd arrondissement is the theatre district of Paris, overlapping into the 3rd, contains the Théâtre des Capucines and Théâtre-Musée des Capucines, Opéra-Comique, Théâtre des Variétés, Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, Théâtre du Vaudeville and Théâtre Feydeau. Of note are the Académie Julian, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Café Anglais and Galerie Vivienne; the 3rd arrondissement is located to the northeast of the 1st.
Le Marais is a trendy district spanning the 4th arrondissements. It is architecturally well preserved, some of the oldest houses and buildings of Paris can be found there, it is a culturally open place, known for its Chinese and gay communities. The Place des Vosges, established in 1612 to celebrate the wedding of Louis XIII to Anne of Austria lies at the border of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements and is the oldest planned square in Paris, the Place de la République was named after the constitutional change in France; the 3rd arrondissement is noted for its museums such as Museum of French History, Musée Picasso, Musée de la Chasse et de la Nature, Musée Cognacq-Jay, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme, Musée de la Poupée, Musée des Arts et Métiers and the Carnavalet Museum, theatres such as Théâtre Déjazet, Théâtre de la Gaîté, Théâtre du Marais. Several hotels are located in this district including Hôtel de Soubise; the 4th arrondissement is located to the east of the 1st. Place de la Bastille is a district of great historical significance, for not just Paris, but all of France.
Because of its symbolic value, the square has been a site of political demonstrations, it has a tall column commemorating the final resting place of the revolutionaries killed in 1830 and 1848. Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, La Force Prison, Centre Georges Pompidou and Lycée Charlemagne are notable institutions here; the 12th-century cathedral Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité is one of the best-known landmarks of the 4th arrondissement, there are the Gothic 13th-century Sainte-Chapelle palace chapel, Notre-Dame-des-Blancs-Manteaux, Saint-Louis-en-l'Île, Saint-Merri, Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis, St-Gervais-et-St-Protais, Temple du Marais. Roads running through the 4th arrondissement include Rue Charlemagne, Rue de Rivoli, Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, Rue des Rosiers. There are a number of notable hotels in the district, including Hôtel de Beauvais, Hôtel de Sully, Hôtel de Sens, Hôtel de Ville, Hôtel Lambert, Hôtel Saint-Pol, a significant number of bridges, including Pont au Change, Pont au Double, Pont de Sully, Pont Louis-Philippe, Pont Marie, Pont Notre-Dame, Pont Saint-Louis, Pont Saint-Michel.
Quartier Latin is a 12th Century scholastic centre stretching between the "Left Bank's" Place Maubert and the Sorbonne campus of the University of Paris, is the oldest and one of the most famous colleges in Europe and the World. It is known for many bistros. Various higher-education establishments, such as Collège de France, Collège Sainte-Barbe, Collège international de philosophie, Sciences Po Paris, the École Normale Supérieure, Mines ParisTech, the Jussieu university campus, make it a major educational centre in Paris; the Panthéon church is where many of France's illustrious women are buried. Of note is the Arab World Institute, Musée Curie, Hotel des Trois Colleges, Jardin des Plantes, Musée national du Moyen Âge, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Paris Mosque, Paris Observatory, Sainte-Geneviève Library, Théâtre de la Huchette; the 6th arrondissement, to the south of the centre and Seine has numerous hotels and restaurants and educational institutions. Hotels located in the district include Hôtel Au Manoir Saint Germai