SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Métis

The Métis are a multiancestral Indigenous group whose homeland is in Canada and parts of the United States between the Great Lakes region and the Rocky Mountains. The Métis trace their descent to European settlers. Not all people of mixed Indigenous and Settler descent are Métis, as the Métis is a distinct group of people with a distinct culture and language. Since the late 20th century, the Métis in Canada have been recognized as a distinct Indigenous peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982. Smaller communities self-identifying as Métis exist in the United States, such as the Little Shell Tribe of Montana; the Métis ethnogenesis began in the fur trade, they have been an important group in the history of Canada, as well as the foundation of the province of Manitoba. The Métis have homelands and communities in the U. S. as well as in Canada, that have been separated by the drawing of the U. S.-Canada border at the 49th parallel North. "Métis" is the French term for "mixed-blood". The word is a cognate of the Portuguese word mestiço.

Michif is the name of creole language spoken by the Métis people of western Canada and adjacent areas of the United States a mix of Cree and Canadian French. The word derives from the French adjective métis spelled metice, referring to a hybrid, or someone of mixed ancestry. In the 16th century, French colonists used the term métis as a noun for people of mixed European and indigenous American parentage in New France. At the time, it applied to French-speaking people who were of partial ethnic French descent, it came to be used for people of mixed European and Indigenous backgrounds in other French colonies, including Guadeloupe in the Caribbean. The spelling Métis with an uppercase M refers to the distinct Indigenous peoples in Canada and the U. S. while the spelling métis with a lowercase m refers to the adjective. There are many different spellings of the word Métis that have been used interchangeably, including métif, michif the most agreed upon spelling is Métis, however some prefer to use Metis to be inclusive to persons of both English and French descent.

The definition of the word is disputed, as governments and political organizations have been the parties to define the perception of Métis in legislation, rather than Métis defining the title themselves. The #Métis people in Canada and the #Métis people in the United States adopted parts of their Indigenous and European cultures while creating customs and tradition of their own, as well as developing a common language; some argue that the ethnogenesis of the Métis began when the Métis organized politically at the Battle of Seven Oaks, while others argue that the ethnogenesis began prior to this politicized battle, before the Métis emigrated from the Great Lakes region to the Western plains. The Métis people in Canada are specific cultural communities who trace their descent to First Nations and European settlers the French, in the early decades of the colonisation of the west; these Métis peoples are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples.

April 8, 2014 the Supreme court of Canada Daniels vs Canada appeal held that “Métis and non status Indians are “Indians” under s. 91 “, but excluded the Powley test as the only criteria to determine Metis identity. Canadian Métis represent the majority of people that identify as Métis, although there are a number of Métis in the United States. While the Métis developed as the mixed-race descendants of early unions between First Nations and colonial-era European settlers, within generations, a distinct Métis culture developed; the women in the unions in eastern Canada were Wabanaki and Menominee. Their unions with European men engaged in the fur trade in the Old Northwest were of the type known as Marriage à la façon du pays. After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control in 1763, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, the Anglo-Métis descended from English or Scottish fathers. Today these two cultures have coalesced into location-specific Métis traditions.

This does not preclude a range of other Métis cultural expressions across North America. Such polyethnic people were referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Black Scots, Jackatars. While people of Métis culture or heritage are found across Canada, the traditional Métis "homeland" includes much of the Canadian Prairies; the most known group are the "Red River Métis", centring on southern and central parts of Manitoba along the Red River of the North. Related are the Métis in the United States those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, eastern Montana; these were areas in which there was considerable Aboriginal and European mixing due to the 19th-century fur trade. But they do not have a federally recognized status in the United States

Collis King

Collis Llewellyn King is a former West Indies first-class cricketer who played nine Tests and 18 One Day Internationals for the West Indies. Born in Christ Church, King played as an all-rounder, but had more success with the bat than ball in Test cricket, where he scored one century and two fifties but only took three wickets – in three different innings. In ODI cricket, his highest – and swiftest – score came in the 1979 World Cup final, when he came in at 99 for 4 to hit 86 off 66 deliveries, adding 149 with Viv Richards. King held a catch and bowled three overs for 13 runs in the match, the West Indies won by 92 runs. King went on both 1983/4 West Indies' Rebel Tours to South Africa. In a varied first-class career, he played for his native country Barbados in the West Indies domestic competition, but played for Glamorgan and Worcestershire in English county cricket and Natal in South Africa. In scoring 123 on his Worcestershire debut in 1983, he became the first player in more than fifty years to score a hundred in his first match for the county.

Collis still enjoys his cricket, playing for Yorkshire side Dunnington CC since 2001

Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture

The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture is one of the earliest agricultural societies in the United States. The Society was incorporated by an act of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on March 7, 1792; the Society's founding members included Samuel Adams, Charles Bulfinch, Timothy Pickering, Benjamin Lincoln, Christopher Gore, Benjamin Guild. The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture was established to promote the study and experimentation of agricultural endeavors; the M. S. P. A. Historically has given handsome premiums to individuals who made useful discoveries in the field and communicated these improvements to the general public; the first premiums offered by the MSPA were $50 for "the most satisfactory account of the natural history of the canker-worm" and $100 for the cheapest and most effective method of eradicating it. Premiums were offered for the cultivation of wheat and other grains. March 7, 1792 The society was incorporated by an act of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

April 19, 1792 Samuel Adams authorized the first meeting of the society to be held in the town of Boston. John Avery, Jr. was elected secretary of the society pro tem. Seventy-two new members were admitted to the society. June 14, 1792 The organization of the society was completed at the adjourned meeting of this date. August 3, 1792 The organization of the society was completed at the adjourned meeting of this date. August 3 1792 The first meeting of the trustees was held, it was voted to publish in the newspaper an announcement that the society was now organized, the board would meet monthly, be soliciting communications in all agriculture interests of the society. October 3, 1792 The first semi-annual meeting of the society was held. John Hancock was admitted to the society. In 1813, the M. S. P. A. began publishing semi-annually the Massachusetts Agricultural Journal, discontinued in 1827 when the publication of various weekly farming journals supplanted the need for a semi-annual one. Constitution of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture.

Boston: Nathan Sawyer & Son, Printers, 1894. 2013-10-22. Centennial Year of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture. Salem: Printed at Salem Observer Office, 1892. 2013-10-22