Mên Scryfa is an inscribed standing stone in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The inscription, dating to the early medieval period, commemorates "Rialobranus son of Cunovalus." Mên Scryfa stands near the Madron to Morvah road in Cornwall. It stands in the middle of a field; the prehistoric Mên-an-Tol standing stones lie about 300 metres to the south. The stone is 1.7 metres high and rectangular in section, with sides of 0.4 metres by 0.5 metres. The inscription is on the northern face, although the bottom of the inscription is buried in the ground. At one time two plain crosses were said to be viewable at the upper end of the stone; the horizontal axis of the lower cross, is visible but the vertical stroke is indistinct. The smaller cross above this can no longer be distinguished; the inscription, in debased Roman capitals, reads "Rialobrani Cunovali fili", which translates as "Rialobranus son of Cunovalus." Rialobran is not known elsewhere. Rialobran may be Cornish for "royal raven", whereas Cunovallos may be British for "famous leader", thus the inscription would read "royal raven son of famous leader.
Antiquarians, at one time, used to identify Cunovalus with the pre-Roman British king Cunobeline. The inscription has been dated on stylistic grounds to the 6th to 8th century AD, it is thought, that the stone itself could be a prehistoric standing stone. The antiquarian William Borlase described the stone in 1769: at that time it was lying prostrate on the ground, it was erected in 1825 only to be toppled again in 1849 by treasure hunters. It was lying face down when John Thomas Blight described it in 1861, it was however re-erected in its current position around 1862, the last word of the inscription being buried. A popular tradition stated that a battle was fought nearby, that Riolbranus was slain and buried at the spot, it was further claimed. Media related to Mên Scryfa at Wikimedia Commons
Helston is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula 12 miles east of Penzance and 9 miles south-west of Falmouth. Helston is the most southerly town on the island of Great Britain and is around 1.5 miles farther south than Penzance. The population in 2011 was 11,700; the former stannary and cattle market town is best known for the annual Furry Dance, said to originate from the medieval period. However, the Hal-an-Tow is reputed to be of Celtic origin; the song, music, associated with the Furry Dance is known to have been written in 1911. In 2001, the town celebrated the 800th anniversary of the granting of its Charter; the name comes from the Cornish'hen lis' or'old court' and'ton' added to denote a Saxon manor. Only one edition refers to'Henlistona', it was granted its charter for the price of forty marks of silver. It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the tin coinage duty due to the Duke of Cornwall when a number of stannary towns were authorised by royal decree.
A document of 1396 examined by Charles Henderson shows that the old form "Hellys" was still in use The manor of Helston in Kerrier was one of the seventeen Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall. The seal of the borough of Helston was St Michael his wings standing on a gateway; the two towers domed upon the up-turned dragon, impaling it with his spear and bearing upon his left arm an escutcheon of the arms of England, viz Gu three lions passant guardant in pale Or, with the legend "Sigillum comunitatis helleston burg". It is a matter of debate as to. A common belief is that in the 13th-century Loe Bar formed a barrier across the mouth of the River Cober cutting the town off from the sea. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, blocking the river and creating a barrier beach; the beach is formed of flint and the nearest source is found offshore under the drowned terraces of the former river that flowed between England and France, now under the English Channel.
Daniel Defoe describes Helston in his tour around Great Britain thus, ″This town is large and populous, has four spacious streets, a handsome church, a good trade: this town sends members to Parliament.' He mentions that the River Cober makes a tolerable good harbour and several ships are loaded with tin, although over one hundred years before Defoe, Richard Carew described Loe Bar as "The shingle was porous and fresh water could leave and seawater enter depending, on the relative heights of the pool and sea". Defoe's description seems to be the first and the origin of other sources claiming Helston to be a port in the historic period. Loe Pool is referred to in a document of 1302, implying the existence of Loe Bar at this date, if not much earlier, thus precluding the passage of shipping up the Cober. At the same time it was recorded that the burgesses of Helston exercised jurisdiction over the ships anchored at Gweek, but no mention was made of ships at Helston, no customs records or other documentation of port traffic relating to Helston survives.
There is no known archaeological evidence for the existence of a port at Helston* and there is no primary evidence to support Defoe’s account. However, contributing to the belief of a port at Helston was the discovery of what some people believe to be slipways and mooring rings, during excavations around 1980. There was no known shipping from the sea after 1260, but before 1200, in'the 1182 record of Godric of Helleston paying a fine of ten marks for exporting his corn out of England from Helston without a licence.' This could be considered the most significant piece of documentary evidence signifying Helston's former port days, though it does not prove the case. At the time of Domesday Book, Gweek had no inhabitants whilst Helston was the largest settlement in the west of Cornwall, with 113 households. In 1837 a plan was drawn up to open Loe Pool to shipping using a pier to counteract siltation, but it was never carried out; the site of Helston's castle is now a bowling green near the Grylls Monument, there since 1760.
The castle was a simple pre-1086 motte and bailey structure, known as Henliston Castle, replaced in around 1280 by a stone structure of a similar design for Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. By 1478 it had fallen into ruin; the Helston parliamentary constituency was created in 1298 and elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons. Helston is now part of the St Ives constituency, which covers the western part of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; the current member is Derek Thomas. Helston is within the South West England European Parliamentary Constituency. At local government level, the town is administered by Helston Town Council. Helston is situated along the banks of the River Cober in Cornwall. Downstream is Cornwall's largest natural lake Loe Pool, formed when a shingle bar blocked the mouth of the river by rising sea levels forming a barrier beach. To the south is the Lizard Peninsula, an area important for its complex geology and wildlife habitats. Helston is on the A394 road. To the west, the A394 leads to Penzance.
The B3297 runs north from Helston to Re
A cairn is a human-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn. Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have been built and used as burial monuments. Cairns are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundra, they vary in size from small stone markers to entire artificial hills, in complexity from loose conical rock piles to delicately balanced sculptures and elaborate feats of megalithic engineering. Cairns may be painted or otherwise decorated, whether for increased visibility or for religious reasons. An ancient example is the inuksuk, used by the Inuit, Kalaallit and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. Inuksuit are found from Alaska to Greenland; this region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks.
Different types of cairns exist from rough piles of stones to interlocking dry stone round cylinders. The most important cairns used around the world are interlocking stone survey cairns constructed around a central survey mark about every 30 km on the tallest peaks across a nation; these physical survey mark cairn systems are the basis for national survey grids to interconnect individual land survey measurements for entire nations. On occasion these permanent interlocking stone cairns are taken down reconstructed to re-mark measurements to increase the accuracy of the national survey grid, they can be used in unpopulated countries as emergency location points. In North America and Northern Europe any type of cairn can be used to mark mountain bike and hiking trail]]s and other cross-country trail blazing in mountain regions at or above the tree line. For example, the extensive trail network maintained by the DNT, the Norwegian Trekking Association, extensively uses cairns in conjunction with T-painted rock faces to mark trails.
Other examples of these can be seen in the lava fields of Volcanoes National Park to mark several hikes. Placed at regular intervals, a series of cairns can be used to indicate a path across stony or barren terrain across glaciers; such cairns are placed at junctions or in places where the trail direction is not obvious. They may be used to indicate an obscured danger such as a sudden drop, or a noteworthy point such as the summit of a mountain. Most trail cairns are small being a foot or less in height. However, they may be built taller so as to protrude through a layer of snow. Hikers passing by add a stone, as a small bit of maintenance to counteract the erosive effects of severe weather. North American trail marks are sometimes called "ducks" or "duckies", because they sometimes have a "beak" pointing in the direction of the route; the expression "two rocks do not make a duck" reminds hikers that just one rock resting upon another could be the result of accident or nature rather than intentional trail marking.
The building of cairns for recreational purposes along trails, to mark one's personal passage through the area, can result in an overabundance of rock piles. This distracts from cairns used as genuine navigational guides, conflicts with the Leave No Trace ethic; this ethic of outdoor practice advocates for leaving the outdoors undisturbed and in its natural condition. Coastal cairns, or "sea marks", are common in the northern latitudes in the island-strewn waters of Scandinavia and eastern Canada. Indicated on navigation charts, they may be painted white or lit as beacons for greater visibility offshore. Modern cairns may be erected for historical or memorial commemoration or for decorative or artistic reasons. One example is a series of many cairns marking British soldiers' mass graves at the site of the Battle of Isandlwana, South Africa. Another is the Matthew Flinders Cairn on the side of Arthur's Seat, a small mountain on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. A large cairn referred to as "the igloo" by the locals, was built atop a hill next to the I-476 highway in Radnor, Pennsylvania and is a part of a series of large rock sculptures initiated in 1988 to symbolize the township's Welsh heritage and to beautify the visual imagery along the highway.
Some are places where farmers have collected stones removed from a field. These can be seen in the Catskill Mountains, North America where there is a strong Scottish heritage, may represent places where livestock were lost. In locales exhibiting fantastic rock formations, such as the Grand Canyon, tourists construct simple cairns in reverence of the larger counterparts. By contrast, cairns may have a strong aesthetic purpose, for example in the art of Andy Goldsworthy. Norwegian authorities said in 2015 that illegal cairns are being built each year, to a large degree by tourists to Norway; the building of cairns for various purposes goes back into prehistory in Eurasia, ranging in size from small rock sculptures to substantial man-made hills of stone. The latter are relatively massive Bronze Age or earlier structures which, like kistvaens and dolmens contain burials.
Levellers are an English folk rock band formed in Brighton, England in 1988, consisting of Mark Chadwick, Jeremy Cunningham, Charlie Heather, Jon Sevink, Simon Friend, Matt Savage. Taking their name from the Levellers political movement, the band released their first EP in 1989 and LP in 1990, with international success following upon signing to China Records and the release of their second album "Levelling the Land". Self-described as having "a left wing view of politics", they continue to tour; the band was formed with Mark Chadwick on guitar and lead vocals, Jeremy Cunningham on bass guitar, Charlie Heather on drums. Jon Sevink, the brother of Chadwick's girlfriend, was brought in to play the fiddle. Chadwick's flatmate "Bucky" lost interest after a few months. Chadwick and Cunningham composed their first recordings for the compact cassettes An Agreement of the People and All the Free Commons of England. A group of fans known as the "happy hitchers" would hitch-hike around the country, following the band while they were on tour.
Their first EP, Carry Me, was released in 1989 and contained the songs "Carry Me" and "England My Home", which received Radio 2 airplay. At that time the band recruited Alan Miles to play harmonica and mandolin and to perform backing vocals; this lineup produced the EP "Outside/Inside" and toured throughout 1989 and most of 1990. After re-releasing two EPs on their own Hag label, in 1989, the Levellers signed a contract with French record label Musidisc, their first album "A Weapon Called the Word" went platinum. The first single from the album was "World Freak Show". After an acrimonious split with Musidisc, the Levellers were discovered by Derek Green and signed to China Records. At this point Miles left the band; the Levellers recruited Simon Friend who had played some acoustic support slots for the band in the past. Around this time Friend and Chadwick played a number of low-key shows as "The Levellers 2" performing songs, in Friend's repertoire as a solo singer-songwriter. 1991 saw the release of the Levellers' second album, "Levelling the Land", which entered the charts at number 14.
The anthemic single "One Way", despite not reaching the Top 40, became a popular song and live favourite for years to come among the travelling and indie music community, as well as "The Boatman" and the telling of the story of "Battle of the Beanfield". Throughout 1992 the band enjoyed a series of successful tours their debut on one of the main stages of the Glastonbury Festival. Mixing tracks from their first two LPs with a couple of more obscure songs and a cover of Charlie Daniels' "The Devil Went Down to Georgia", the Levellers' performance secured their place on the large Pyramid Stage for the following year; the band scored a chart hit with the "15 Years EP". The gloomy atmosphere that surrounded the band is reflected in the darker tone of the resulting "Levellers" album. Despite the band's dislike of the album, it reached No. 2 in the album charts. It included "This Garden". In June 1993 they released the "Belaruse EP" which included a live cover of "Subvert", the first single from the anarchist punk band Zounds.
1994 saw the Levellers reach the peak of their popularity with a headlining appearance at Glastonbury Festival and a record breaking set on the main stage when they performed to around 300,000 people, a figure, still a Glastonbury record to this day. They became involved in the campaign against the Criminal Justice Act. In 1994 the band purchased a derelict factory in Brighton, named the "Metway" after the factory's original owners, created a self-contained headquarters; the buildings housed their offices, fan club, rehearsal area, a bar and a recording studio, equipped with gear bought from Tom Robinson. The move enabled the band to operate on their own terms as far as possible; the spare space that remained was given over to small craft businesses. Weekly anarchist newspaper SchNEWS set up their office in the building."Hope Street", the lead single from the "Zeitgeist" album, was the first recording to come out of Metway. The album was charted at No. 2 in the week of its release. Buoyed by the initial success, manager Phil Nelson persuaded China Records to advertise the album on television and, the album reached No. 1 in its second week on the chart.
The third single released from this album took the Levellers to their first Top of the Pops appearance, playing the tongue-in-cheek drinking anthem "Just the One" whilst dressed in tuxedos. "Just the One" was specially re-recorded for the single release, with The Clash's frontman and long-time Levellers hero Joe Strummer guesting on honky tonk piano. It reached No. 12 in the UK. The Levellers embarked on another tour of Europe and the UK towards the end of 1995, culminating in a one-off "Christmas Freakshow" at Sheffield Arena on 18 December; this was recorded by the BBC with eight songs being broadcast at a date on Radio 1. The 1995 "Total Chaos" Tour came to an end on 7 February 1996 at Blackpool's Empress Ballroom with a show, filmed for the video and live album release, "Headlights, White Lines, Black Tar Rivers"; the album reached No. 13 in the UK Albums Chart and a less extensive UK tour was undertaken in September/October to support the record's release. An EP "Exodus EP" was lifted from the live album.
The band returned to the studio through late 1996 and early 1997 when the album "Mouth to Mouth" was recorded. Their first gigs in several months coincided with the Labo
A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural. Myths and stories about fairies do not have a single origin, but are rather a collection of folk beliefs from disparate sources. Various folk theories about the origins of fairies include casting them as either demoted angels or demons in a Christian tradition, as minor deities in pre-Christian Pagan belief systems, as spirits of the dead, as prehistoric precursors to humans, or as elementals; the label of fairy has at times applied only to specific magical creatures with human appearance, small stature, magical powers, a penchant for trickery. At other times it has been used to describe any magical creature, such as gnomes. Fairy has at times been used as an adjective, with a meaning equivalent to "enchanted" or "magical". A recurring motif of legends about fairies is the need to ward off fairies using protective charms. Common examples of such charms include church bells, wearing clothing inside out, four-leaf clover, food.
Fairies were sometimes thought to haunt specific locations, to lead travelers astray using will-o'-the-wisps. Before the advent of modern medicine, fairies were blamed for sickness tuberculosis and birth deformities. In addition to their folkloric origins, fairies were a common feature of Renaissance literature and Romantic art, were popular in the United Kingdom during the Victorian and Edwardian eras; the Celtic Revival saw fairies established as a canonical part of Celtic cultural heritage. The English fairy derives from Old French form faierie, a derivation from faie with the abstract noun suffix -erie. In Old French romance, a faie or fee was a woman skilled in magic, who knew the power and virtue of words, of stones, of herbs."Fairy" was used to represent: an illusion or enchantment. Faie became Modern English fay, while faierie became fairy, but this spelling exclusively refers to one individual. In the sense of "land where fairies dwell", archaic spellings faery and faerie are still in use.
Latinate fay is not related the fey, meaning "fated to die", but some dictionaries do list "fey" as a kind of fairy. Various folklore traditions refer to fairies euphemistically as wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair folk, etc; the term fairy is sometimes used to describe any magical creature, including goblins and gnomes, while at other times, the term describes only a specific type of ethereal creature or sprite. The concept of "fairy" in the narrower sense is unique to English folklore made diminutive in accordance with prevailing tastes of the Victorian era, as in "fairy tales" for children. Historical origins include various traditions of Celtics, Germanic peoples, of Middle French medieval romances. Fairie was used adjectivally, meaning "enchanted", but became a generic term for various "enchanted" creatures during the Late Middle English period. Literature of the Elizabethan era conflated elves with the fairies of Romance culture, rendering these terms somewhat interchangeable.
The Victorian era and Edwardian era saw a heightened increase of interest in fairies. The Celtic Revival cast fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage. Carole Silvers and others suggested this fascination of English antiquarians arose from a reaction to greater industrialization and loss of older folk ways. Fairies are described as human in appearance and having magical powers. Diminutive fairies of various kinds have been reported through centuries, ranging from quite tiny to the size of a human child; these small sizes could be magically assumed, rather than constant. Some smaller fairies could expand their figures to imitate humans. On Orkney, fairies were described as short in stature, dressed in dark grey, sometimes seen in armour. In some folklore, fairies have green eyes; some depictions of fairies show them with others as barefoot. Wings, while common in Victorian and artworks, are rare in folklore. Modern illustrations include dragonfly or butterfly wings. Early modern fairies does not derive from a single origin.
In folklore of Ireland, the mythic aes sídhe, or'little folk', have come to a modern meaning somewhat inclusive of fairies. The Scandinavian elves served as an influence. Folklorists and mythologists have variously depicted fairies as: the unworthy dead, the children of Eve, a kind of demon, a species independent of humans, an older race of humans, fallen angels; the folkloristic or mythological elements combine Celtic and Greco-Roman elements. Folklorists have suggested that'fairies' arose from various earlier beliefs, which lost currency with the advent of Christianity; these disparate explanations are not incompatible, as'fairies' may be traced to multiple sources. King James, in his dissertation Daemonologie, stated the term "faries" referred to illusory spirits that prophesied to, consorted with, transported the individuals they served. A Christian tenet held that fairies were a class of "demot
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Boskednan stone circle
Boskednan stone circle is a restored prehistoric stone circle near Boskednan, around 4 miles northwest of the town of Penzance in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The megalithic monument is traditionally known as the Nine Maidens or Nine Stones of Boskednan, although the original structure may have contained as many as 22 upright stones around its 69-metre perimeter; the stone circle is in southwest Cornwall north of the road from Madron to Morvah, is 1 km northwest of the village of Boskednan and can only be reached on foot. The enigmatic Mên-an-Tol stones are less than 1 kilometre to the southwest; the stone circle once consisted of 22 granite blocks, from which 10 still survive. Six stones stand upright, one sits half a metre out of the ground, the others remain lying in the soil; the stones are all about 1 m high, the highest measure 2 m and stand to northern edge of the circle. The stone circle described a circle with a diameter of 22 m; the stone circle may have belonged with the nearby barrow to an extensive cult district.
Stone circles such as that at Boskednan, were erected in the late Neolithic or in the early Bronze Age by representatives of a Megalithic culture. The first mention of the stone circle in modern times, in 1754, is found in the work Antiquities and monumental, of the County of Cornwall by William Borlase, who reported 19 upright standing stones. William Copeland Borlase, a descendant of the earlier Borlase, conducted excavations and found a cist and a funerary urn near the stone circle, dating from the early Bronze Age. Borlase described his discoveries in 1872 in his work Naenia Cornubiae, which concerns prehistoric monuments of Cornwall. Other prehistoric stone circles in the Penwith region Boscawen-Un The Merry Maidens - known as Dans Maen Tregeseal East - known as the Tregeseal Dancing Stones John Barnatt: Prehistoric Cornwall; the Ceremonial Monuments. Turnstone Press Limited, Wellingborough 1982, ISBN 0-85500-129-1. Robin Payne: The Romance of the Stones. Alexander Associates, Fowey 1999, ISBN 1-899526-21-8.
Burl, Aubrey. The stone circles of Britain and Brittany. Yale University Press. Chapter 9. ISBN 0-300-08347-5. Cope, Julian; the Modern Antiquarian: A Pre-Millennial Odyssey Through Megalithic Britain. HarperCollins. P. 166. ISBN 0-7225-3599-6. Boskednan stone circle site page on The Megalithic Portal Nine Stones of Boskednan site page on The Modern Antiquarian Boskednan Stone Circle page at Megalithic Walks