Mönchengladbach

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Mönchengladbach
Mönchengladbach Minster
Mönchengladbach Minster
Flag of Mönchengladbach
Flag
Coat of arms of Mönchengladbach
Coat of arms
Mönchengladbach is located in Germany
Mönchengladbach
Mönchengladbach
Location of Mönchengladbach in North Rhine-Westphalia
North rhine w MG.svg
Coordinates: 51°12′0″N 06°26′0″E / 51.20000°N 6.43333°E / 51.20000; 6.43333Coordinates: 51°12′0″N 06°26′0″E / 51.20000°N 6.43333°E / 51.20000; 6.43333
CountryGermany
StateNorth Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. regionDüsseldorf
DistrictUrban districts of Germany
Government
 • Lord MayorHans Wilhelm Reiners (CDU)
Area
 • Total170.43 km2 (65.80 sq mi)
Elevation70 m (230 ft)
Population (2016-12-31)[1]
 • Total260,925
 • Density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes41001–41239
Dialling codes02161, 02166
Vehicle registrationMG
Websitewww.moenchengladbach.de

Mönchengladbach (German pronunciation: [mœnçn̩ˈɡlatbax] (About this sound listen)) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located west of the Rhine, halfway between Düsseldorf and the Dutch border.

Geography[edit]

Municipal subdivisions[edit]

Since 2009, the territory of Monchengladbach has comprised four (previously ten) boroughs which are subdivided into 44 districts.[2]

The boroughs and their associated districts

History[edit]

Name and origins[edit]

The original name of the city was Gladbach, which is even today often applied to the town. To distinguish the town from another town of the same name (the present Bergisch Gladbach), it took the name München-Gladbach in 1888. Between 1933 and 1950 it was written München Gladbach (short: M. Gladbach), without hyphen. This spelling could mislead people to think that Gladbach was a borough of Munich (München in German), and consequently the name was changed to Mönchen-Gladbach in 1950 and Mönchengladbach in 1960.

The origin of the town was an abbey founded in 974. It was named after the Gladbach, a narrow brook, that mostly runs subterraneously today. The abbey and adjoining villages became a town in the 14th century. The town of Rheydt is located nearby and is incorporated into Mönchengladbach today.

The second part of the name, Gladbach (cognate with English Ladbrooke) originates from Low German (Limburgisch[3][better source needed]) and means canalised stream, referring to the small river (the Strunde) that was artificially canalised (laid) in early medieval times. In Limburgisch[3][better source needed], the regional dialect, laid is said gelaat, a word which eventually evolved to glad (in this case the 'd' is pronounced as a 't'). The second part of the word, bach is the standard German word for a small stream.

Early history[edit]

The first settlements in the area of Mönchengladbach are approximately 300,000–400,000 years old and show remains of Homo erectus and Neanderthal. There are numerous cairns from the Neolithic and the Bronze Age.

The history of Mönchengladbach began with the construction of the Gladbach Minster and the founding of an abbey in the year 974 by Gero, Archbishop of Cologne, and his companion, the monk Sandrad of Trier.

To advance the settlement, the monks created a market north of the church in the 12th century. Craftsmen settled near the market. Gladbach received its town charter in 1364–1366. The "town" got a town wall made of stone, which had to be maintained by the citizens. Remains of that wall can be found at the Geroweiher, as can remains of the "Thick Tower", an old fortified tower at the Waldhausener hill. Until the end of the 18th century the city belonged to the department of Grevenbroich within the duchy of Jülich.

On 4 October 1794, the armed forces of the French revolution marched into the town, one day before the fortress Jülich had been handed over. When the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II ceded the left bank of the river Rhine to France with the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, Gladbach fell under French laws suppressing religion. This was the end for the abbey, and the monastery was closed. On 31 October 1802, the last 31 monks left the monastery. The contents of the tremendous abbey library, well known outside Germany, were scattered or destroyed.

From 1798 until 1814, the Mairie Gladbach was part of Kanton Odenkirchen, Arrondissement Krefeld, of the French Département de la Roer.

Recent history[edit]

In 1815, Gladbach became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and seat of the Landkreis Gladbach, which was dissolved in 1929. In 1815 Gladbach became seat of the Bürgermeisterei (Office of mayor), which was split in 1859 into two parts: the City of Gladbach and Office of Mayor Obergeburth. The latter was renamed to München-Gladbach-Land in 1907.

From 1933 through 1975, the neighborhood of Rheydt was an independent city; the split from München-Gladbach was arranged by Joseph Goebbels, who was born locally. After reuniting with Mönchengladbach, the central station (Rheydt Hauptbahnhof) kept its original name, making Mönchengladbach the only city in Germany to have two rail stations each called Hauptbahnhof.

In response to the 10 May 1940 German invasion of Belgium, Mönchengladbach was bombed by British Bomber Command on the evening of 11 May. The bomber crews were attempting to interdict German troop movements on roads, intersections and rail lines in the area, especially the city's railyards. About half of the approximately 36 twin-engine RAF bombers reportedly hit their targets, and three were shot down.[4][5][6] Four people were killed on the ground, including a British woman living in Germany.[7]

After the Second World War, in compensation of the occupation of the Netherlands by Germany, several German cities were proposed to be ceded to the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Though never approved, the project would have renamed Mönchengladbach to Monniken-Glabbeek.

Eventually, the Prussian Rhine Province was dissolved after World War II, and the city became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia which was formed in 1946.

Largest groups of foreign residents
Nationality Population (2018)
 Turkey 6,800
 Poland 4,143
 Syria 3,400
 Romania 2,791
 Bulgaria 2,446

Economy[edit]

Hugo Junkers Hangar, aviation and event facility

Mönchengladbach's industrial ascent was mainly influenced by the development of the textile industry from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century. In addition, a textile-oriented machine industry also developed.

After the Second World War, a major structural change began, reducing the importance of the textile industry and attracting new economic sectors. At present, only 7 percent of employees work in the once dominant textile and clothing industry (for example: Van Laack and gardeur).

As part of the successful diversification of the business location, local government and representatives founded the Mönchengladbach Business Development Corporation (WFMG) in 1997. WFMG and the University of Applied Sciences Niederrhein have developed a five-pillar model for the future orientation of the business location. Thereafter textile and fashion, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering, logistics, the creative industry and the health sector are the leading sectors for the economic future of the city of Mönchengladbach. As part of an active cluster policy, the WFMG has partly initiated its own networks for these industries.[8]

The most important employer in Mönchengladbach is the Santander Consumer Bank, which has its headquarters at Aachener Straße in Mönchengladbach's city center.

The economic structure includes: tool and spinning machines (Dörries Scharmann, Monforts, Trützschler, Schlafhorst), automatic conveyor systems, signal and system technology (Scheidt & Bachmann), transformers (SMS Meer), cables (Nexans Germany formerly Kabelwerk Rheydt), printed matter and foodstuffs.

Chocolatier Heinemann is known beyond the city limits for his cakes, pralines and baked goods, which he offers in cafés on site as well as in Düsseldorf and Munich. Furthermore, beer breweries are represented in Mönchengladbach. The Oettinger brewery produces at the site of the former Hannen brewery. The Hensen brewery has been producing a lower Rhine-type Altbier since 2015 at the former spring of the river Gladbach in the Waldhausen district.

Especially in the 1970s and 1980s nightlife was attractive to young party people from Düsseldorf. In the meantime, tourism in particular is playing a certain role. Mönchengladbach has about 40 hotels (for example: Hotel Burgund) and inns as well as a youth hostel in the district Hardter Wald. In total there are about 2000 beds. The number of overnight stays is over 200,000 annually.

Mönchengladbach Airport is dominated by general aviation. There are currently no scheduled services to and from Mönchengladbach. Additionally, there are few business-charter passenger flights. In June 2015 Hugo Junkers Hangar was opened as an aviation and event facility. Airplane enthusiasts can book sightseeing flights with Junkers Ju 52 from the 1940s.[9][10] The next major international airport Düsseldorf Airport is only 20 kilometres (12 mi) away to the east.

Points of interest[edit]

Schloss Rheydt

Twin cities[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Gallery of people with a reference to Mönchengladbach:

These people were born in Mönchengladbach, or in Rheydt or Wickrath, formerly independent communities united with Mönchengladbach in 1975.

Transport[edit]

The city has two main railway stations: Mönchengladbach Hauptbahnhof and Rheydt Hauptbahnhof, the result of the merger of the two cities, in which the deprecated name for Rheydt Hbf was never removed. Line 8 of the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn connects the city to Düsseldorf and Hagen; an extension further westwards is being discussed. A number of regional trains serve Mönchengladbach. By the end of 2009 it was the largest city in Germany without regular long-distance services. With the new schedule for 2010, Mönchengladbach got an InterCity/Intercity-Express connection twice a week.[12]

The city also has a commercial airport called Düsseldorf Mönchengladbach.

Local bus and rail transport is carried out by the NEW-AG under the VRR transport association regulations.

Sports[edit]

Mönchengladbach has a long football tradition. Its home club Borussia Mönchengladbach is one of the country's most well-known, best-supported, and successful teams.

"Die Fohlen" ("The Foals") with more than 50,000 members is rated actually as fourth largest fan club in Germany. Famous for the attacking style, Gladbach belonged to the strongest European football teams in the 1970s, winning the Bundesliga five times. The club lost the 1977 final of the European Cup to Liverpool, but also made four appearances in the UEFA Cup final with wins in 1975 and 1979 against losses in 1973 and 1980. However, after a last place finish in the top flight for the 2006–07 season, they were relegated to the 2. Bundesliga (second tier) for the 2007–08 season. They have been playing in the Bundesliga again since 2008, surviving relegation in the 2010–11 season and finishing fourth in the 2011–12 season.

On 30 July 2004, the opening of the new stadium "Borussia-Park" was celebrated. It has a capacity of 54,700 visitors (seated: 34,300, standing: 20,400 / capacity on International games: 45,600). The stadium can be reached by car (through dedicated exit on the Autobahn "A 61"), bus and train.

The city hosted the FIH Hockey World Cup 2006 during the period of 6–17 September and the 2010 FIH Champions Trophy in July/August that year.

Since 1892, Mönchengladbach owns a harness racing track called "Trabrennbahn Mönchengladbach".

Club League Sport Venue Established Capacity
Borussia Mönchengladbach Bundesliga Football Borussia-Park 1900 54,000

Military[edit]

Until December 2013, the Rheindahlen Military Complex was located just outside Mönchengladbach, where it was home to the headquarters of the British Armed Forces in Germany.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  2. ^ Dieter Weber (23 January 2009). "Vier Bezirke bei der Kommunalwahl". RP ONLINE GmbH. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  3. ^ a b de:Niederrheinisch
  4. ^ Grayling, A. C. (2011). Among the Dead Cities: Is the Targeting of Civilians in War Ever Justified?. A&C Black. p. 27. ISBN 9781408827901.
  5. ^ Spingola, Deanna (2014). The Ruling Elite. Trafford Publishing. pp. 541–2. ISBN 9781490734743.
  6. ^ Diefendorf, Jeffry M. (1993). In the Wake of War : The Reconstruction of German Cities after World War II: The Reconstruction of German Cities after World War II. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780195361094.
  7. ^ Bowman, Martin (2011). Bomber Command: Reflections of War. Casemate. pp. 41–2. ISBN 9781848844926.
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ "Ju 52 Rundflüge – Ein tolles Erlebnis für groß und klein – Eine weitere WordPress-Website". Ju 52rundflug.de. 2018-06-13. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  10. ^ [2][dead link]
  11. ^ "Bio". The Moseley Society Local History Group. 2012.
  12. ^ Mönchengladbach: ICE-Anbindung nach Berlin (accessed Nov. 2009)

External links[edit]