University of Redlands
The University of Redlands is a private, nonprofit university located in Redlands, United States, offering both liberal arts and professional programs. The Universitys main, residential campus is situated on 160 acres near downtown Redlands, an additional seven regional locations throughout Southern California provide programs for working adults. The University of Redlands had its roots in the founding of two other American Baptist institutions, California College in Oakland, and Los Angeles University. The Reverend Jasper Newton Field, a Baptist pastor at Redlands, on June 27,1907 the Commission voted all in favor of the Redlands proposal. Ground was broken on April 9,1909, on the hill where the building now stands. Nine founding faculty members held their first day of classes in the Redlands Baptist Church on September 30,1909, on January 27,1910, the University of Redlands opened its physical doors by occupying the newly completed administration building. Bekins Hall and the Presidents mansion were the two other buildings completed.
Victor LeRoy Duke and Professor of Mathematics, became the next president, the Southern California Baptist community initiated a campaign to raise $50,000 to clear outstanding debt. The following spring the Northern Baptist Education Board endorsed the school, by 1925, the faculty numbered 25, and student enrollment had increased to 465. Finances had improved to the extent that, with significant volunteer help, New dormitories, classrooms, a library, a gymnasium, and Memorial Chapel were built. A school of education was added, a developing alumni base started to support the University. By 1928, the Universitys endowment was $2,592,000, by the beginning of 1932, the effects of the Great Depression started to be felt at the University. Enrollment soared, as there was no work to be found, salaries were cut, and employees were laid-off. On March 3,1933, the day after the governor declared a moratorium on banks, the administration of the Universitys third President, Dr. Clarence Howe Thurber, soon ran afoul of ultra-conservative churches.
Student members complained of an attitude toward Baptist doctrine being taught at the campus. The affair of Dr. William H. Roberts, a Redlands psychology professor who became the manager of Upton Sinclairs run for governor in 1934. The 1940s brought many changes to the University of Redlands, beginning with the bombing of Pearl Harbor, as conscription and enlistments for the war depleted classes, courses were set up for the soldiers at Camp Haan and March Field. Military men were not required to attend chapel, and on New Years Eve the Marines clandestinely held the first impromptu dance ever on the campus
University of Salzburg
Founded in 1622, the university has around 18,000 students and 2,800 employees and is largest educational institution in the Land Salzburg. Paris Lodron University, was founded by Prince Archbishop Paris von Lodron in 1622, five years earlier had established a Gymnasium. The University was initially built and maintained by a federation of Benedictine abbeys from Salzburg, Switzerland, in its early years, courses taught were theology, philosophy and medicine. As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Salzburg University was secularized, with Prince Ferdinand, after Bavaria annexed Salzburg in 1810, the university was closed on 24 December and replaced by a Lyzeum. The Lyzeum had sections for divinity and medicine, in 1816 Salzburg became part of the Austrian Empire again. Austria converted the divinity section to a Faculty and closed the Lyzeum in 1850, the University of Salzburg was formally re-established in 1962 with a Faculty of Catholic Theology and a Faculty of Philosophy. Classes resumed in 1964, with a Faculty of Law added the following year, in 1975, a new federal law regulated the organisation of all Austrian universities.
Salzburg University created four divisions, the Faculty of Catholic Theology, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Humanities. A fifth division, the Faculty of Medicine was not realized, in 1995, the organisation of Austrian universities was further restructured with more faculty autonomy. The university gradually incorporated new academic programs through 2004 into 32 Fachbereiche or departments, Salzburg University has no central campus, occupying several buildings in the Altstadt, former parts of the Residenz Palace, the Toskanatrakt and in the Kapitelgasse. The university library is between the Kollegienkirche and the Festival Halls, attached to it is the “Große Aula”, or ceremonial hall, the traditional faculty building of Humanities is located by the Rudolfskai, only 100 metres from Mozartplatz and Papagenoplatz. The Faculty of Sciences is housed in the second largest building in Salzburg after the Hohensalzburg Fortress, completeted in 2011, the Unipark Nonntal is home to the departments of modern languages, and cultural and social sciences.
The building is 17,000 square metres in size, with 5500 students and 300 academic staff, there is a library and an Audimax. Financing for the construction of the Unipark Nonntal was enabled by successful negotiations between Landeshauptmann Franz Schausberger and the ministry, originally designed in 2002 by architects Storch Ehlers Partners and constructed in three years. Smaller university offices and institutes are scattered throughout the city, with the arts and music taught at the Mozarteum Art University
The Society of the Catholic Apostolate, better known as the Pallottines, are a Society of Apostolic Life within the Roman Catholic Church, founded in 1835 by the Roman priest Saint Vincent Pallotti. Pallottines are part of the Union of Catholic Apostolate and are present in 45 countries on six continents, the Pallottines administer one of the largest churches in the world, the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro in Côte dIvoire. Saint Vincent Pallotti was born in Rome in 1795, in the area of the city of Rome, together with a group of associates and collaborators, he developed in the city of Rome a large structure of apostolic activity. At the same time, he strove to unite and co-ordinate such activity, from this effort arose the idea of founding a new institution, that is, “the Union of Catholic Apostolate”, to unite all of the initiatives of apostolic activity. Vincent Pallotti died on January 22,1850 without having seen the development of his work. His closest collaborators continued his mission, ensuring further development of the Society, Vincent Pallotti was beatified in 1950 and canonized in 1963 during the Second Vatican Council.
The charism of the Pallottines is to assist all in finding and living their apostolic vocation in life, St. Vincent Pallotti believed that all are called to revive faith, rekindle charity and be apostles. The Pallottines assist people in living these virtues, one example of their work was the Pallottine mission to Kamerun, established in 1890 in the German colony of Kamerun, todays Cameroon. From the late 1840s, when St, the Pallottines administer schools in locations as diverse as Pennsauken, New Jersey, Laurel and Bruchsal, Germany. The Pallottines founded and direct the Catholic Apostolate Center in Washington, D. C. to help strengthen the Societys mission, developing programs to do so. The Society conducts parishes, missions, retreat houses, all types of charitable works, cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, SJ, Pope Francis, opened the cause in Argentina for beatification—the first step towards sainthood—for five members of the Pallottine community. The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse uncovered that 13. 7% of the priests were accused perpetrators of child abuse between 1950 and 2009.
Gaynor, John S. SCA, The Life of St. Vincent Pallotti, official website Immaculate Conception Province USA Mother of God Province USA Friends of Irish Pallottines Irish Pallottines
Sigismund von Schrattenbach
Sigismund Graf von Schrattenbach was Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1753 to 1771. He was born in Graz, the son of Count Otto Heinrich von Schrattenbach and Maria Theresa, Countess of Wildenstein, after studying theology in Rome, Schrattenbach was ordained a priest in 1723 and obtained a seat in the Salzburg cathedral chapter in 1733. In 1747 he was appointed administrator of Hohenwerfen Castle, also cathedral dean, during his tenure Leopold Mozart as well as his son Wolfgang Amadeus were appointed members of the episcopal court orchestra. In 1763 he employed Michael Haydn as court composer, Schrattenbach died in Salzburg, aged 73. His funeral service on 2 January 1772 was the occasion for the first performance of Michael Haydns Requiem Missa pro defunctis Archespiscopo written in his honour, Schrattenbach was succeeded by Count Hieronymus von Colloredo, the last Salzburg prince-archbishop before the 1803 secularisation. Michael Haydn stayed in Salzburg under the reign of Colloredo, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, on the other hand, alessandro Cont, Leopoldo Ernesto Firmian e larcidiocesi di Salisburgo, “Annali dell’Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento”,32, pp. 71-126
Conglomerates form by the consolidation and lithification of gravel. The size and composition of the fraction of a conglomerate may or may not vary in composition, sorting. In some conglomerates, the gravel-size class consist almost entirely of what were clay clasts at the time of deposition, conglomerates can be found in sedimentary rock sequences of all ages but probably make up less than 1 percent by weight of all sedimentary rocks. A sedimentary rock composed largely of gravel is first named according to the roundness of the gravel, if the gravel clasts that comprise it is largely well-rounded to subrounded, it is a conglomerate. If the gravel clasts that comprise it are largely angular, it is a breccia, such breccias can be called sedimentary breccias to differentiate them from other types of breccia, e. g. volcanic and fault breccias. Sedimentary rocks that contain a mixture of rounded and angular gravel clasts are sometimes called breccio-conglomerate, conglomerates are rarely composed entirely of gravel-size clasts.
Typically, the space between the gravel-size clasts is filled by a mixture composed of varying amounts of silt, paraconglomerates are often unstratified and can contain more matrix than gravel clasts. If the gravel clasts of a conglomerate are in contact with each other, unlike paraconglomerates, orthoconglomerates are typically cross-bedded and often well-cemented and lithified by either calcite, quartz, or clay. The differences between paraconglomerates and orthoconglomerates reflect differences in how they are deposited, paraconglomerates are commonly either glacial tills or debris flow deposits. Orthoconglomerates are typically associated with aqueous currents, conglomerates are classified according to the composition of their clasts. A conglomerate or any clastic sedimentary rock that consists of a rock or mineral is known as either a monomict, oligomict. If the conglomerate consists of two or more different types of rocks, minerals, or combination of both, it is known as either a polymict or polymictic conglomerate.
If a polymictic conglomerate contains an assortment of the clasts of metastable and unstable rocks and minerals, two recognized types of type of intraformational conglomerates are shale-pebble and flat-pebble conglomerates. Finally, conglomerates are often differentiated and named according to the dominant clast size comprising them, conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. In turbidites, the part of a bed is typically coarse-grained. In this setting, conglomerates are normally very well sorted, well-rounded, conglomerates are normally present at the base of sequences laid down during marine transgressions above an unconformity, and are known as basal conglomerates. They represent the position of the shoreline at a time and are diachronous. Conglomerates deposited in environments are typically well rounded and well sorted
Adits are used to explore for mineral veins. Adits are driven into the side of a hill or mountain, in cases where the mineral vein outcrops at the surface, the adit may follow the lode or vein until it is worked out, in which case the adit is rarely straight. The use of adits for the extraction of ore is called drift mining. Adits can only be driven into a mine where the topography permits. There will be no opportunity to drive an adit to a mine situated on a flat plain. Also if the ground is weak, the cost of shoring up a long adit may outweigh its possible advantages, access to a mine by adit has many advantages over the vertical access shafts used in shaft mining. Less energy is required to transport miners and heavy equipment into and it is much easier to bring ore or coal out of the mine. Horizontal travel by means of narrow gauge tramway or cable car is much safer and can move more people. Most adits are designed to slope slightly upwards from the entrance so that water will flow out of the mine.
Mines that have adits can be at least partly drained of water by gravity alone or power-assisted gravity, the depth to which a mine can be drained by gravity alone is defined by the deepest open adit which is known as the drainage adit. Workings above this level will remain unflooded as long as the adit does not become blocked, all mine workings below both the drainage adit and the water table will flood unless mechanical means are used for drainage. Until the invention of the engine this was the main restriction on deep mining. Of course, adits are still useful for deeper mines because the water needs to be raised to the drainage adit rather than to the surface. A side benefit of driving such extensive adits is that previously unknown ore-bodies can be discovered, great County Adit, a system of over 65 kilometres of adits used for dewatering the over 100 mines in the Gwennap area of Cornwall in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Milwr tunnel, a ten-mile -long drainage adit in North Wales, started in 1897, it still discharges an average of 23 million US gallons of water per day from the disused Halkyn District United Mines.
The Snowy Hydro scheme in the Australian Snowy Mountains created during its construction and these adits are very large and used to access the central point from which the hydro tunnels were constructed. Black Trout Adit in Tarnowskie Góry, Poland and it is part of a former silver mine, the adit was used for removing the water out of the mine. Blue Hawk Mine near Kelowna, BC, Canada, nORCATs Underground Mine Centre, used for underground training and mining technology development in Onaping, ON, Canada
St Peter's Abbey, Salzburg
St Peters Abbey, or St Peters Archabbey, is a Benedictine monastery and former cathedral in the Austrian city of Salzburg. It is considered one of the oldest monasteries in the German-speaking area, St Peters Abbey was founded in 696 by Saint Rupert at the site of a Late Antique church stemming from the first Christianization in the area in the days of Severinus of Noricum. Likewise the establishment of the monastery was meant to forward the work in the Eastern Alps. Until 987, the office of the abbot was joined to that of the Archbishop of Salzburg, in the Middle Ages, St Peters was known for its exceptional writing school. In 1074, Archbishop Gebhard of Salzburg sent several monks to the newly established monastery of Admont in the March of Styria. In the 15th century, the abbey adopted the Melk Reforms, in 1623, Archbishop Paris Graf von Lodron founded the Benedictine University of Salzburg, which until its dissolution in 1810 was closely connected to the abbey. From 1641, the abbey was a member of the Salzburg Congregation, in 1926, the endeavours for the establishment of a Catholic university led to the foundation of the Benedictine college, on which the re-foundation of the University of Salzburg was based.
In 1927, St Peters was raised to the status of an Archabbey, upon the Austrian Anschluss to Nazi Germany in 1938, the premises were seized and the monks expelled. Nevertheless, the monastery was not dissolved and the monks returned after the war, one of the organs had been built on the rood screen in 1444 by Heinrich Traxdorf of Mainz. The high altar is a work by Martin Johann Schmidt, the St Marys Chapel contains the grave of Abbot Johann von Staupitz, a friend of Martin Luther. Mozarts Great Mass in C minor was scheduled to premiere in the church, probably on 26 October 1783, next to the altar where St. Rupert is entombed lies the tombs of Mozarts sister Maria Anna Mozart, and Johann Michael Haydn. Also entombed at St. Peters Abbey is St. Vitalis, St Peters houses the oldest library in Austria. Among the 800 manuscripts the most precious is the Verbrüderungsbuch, which was deposited in 784 by Bishop Virgil, special collections include incunabulae and early editions, graphics including the devotional images collection of Father Gregor Reitlechner and the map collection.
In 1768, Abbot Beda Seeauer had the medieval Zellenbibliothek converted to the Rococo style, in 1999, it was restored and is now only accessible by special permission. The archive is for the purposes of administration and the researching of its history. It contains documents from the 8th to the 20th centuries, in the series, Deeds. The abbey owns collections of paintings, church treasures, minerals, musical instruments, a cabinet. The director is Dr. Michaela Puzicha OSB, through the endeavours of Father Adalbero Raffelsberger, St Peters was one of the earliest homes of liturgical revival in Austria
It is one of Salzburgs most popular tourist attractions. Closed in 1878, the site decayed until in 1930 the monks of St. Peters successfully urged for the admission of new burials and its origins date back to about 700, when the adjacent St. Peters Abbey was established by Saint Rupert of Salzburg. The abbeys cemetery, probably at the site of an earlier burial place, was first mentioned in an 1139 deed. Carved into the rock of the Festungsberg are catacombs that may stem from the Early Christian days of Severinus of Noricum during the Migration Period, a second chapel, The Margarethenkapelle, built in 1491, occupies a cite in the center of the cemetery
Thomas Bernhard was an Austrian novelist and poet. Thomas Bernhard was born in 1931 in Heerlen, where, at the time, since the autumn of 1931, he lived with his grandparents in Vienna until his mother, who had married since, moved him, in 1937, to Traunstein, Bavaria. Bernhards natural father Alois Zuckerstätter died in Berlin from gas poisoning in an assumed suicide, Bernhards grandfather, the author Johannes Freumbichler, pushed for an artistic education for the boy, including musical instruction. Bernhard went to school in Seekirchen and attended various schools in Salzburg including the Johanneum which he left in 1947 to start an apprenticeship with a grocer. Stavianicek was the support in Bernhards life and greatly furthered his literary career. The extent or nature of his relationships with women is obscure, Thomas Bernhards public persona was asexual. Suffering throughout his youth from a lung disease, Bernhard spent the years 1949 to 1951 at the sanatorium Grafenhof. He trained as an actor at the Mozarteum in Salzburg and was profoundly interested in music.
His lung condition, made a career as a singer impossible, after that he began to work briefly as a journalist, mainly as a crime reporter, and became a full-time writer. Bernhard died in 1989 in Gmunden, Upper Austria and his attractive house in Ohlsdorf-Obernathal 2 where he had moved in 1965 is now a museum and centre for the study and performance of Bernhards work. His death was announced only after his funeral, often criticized in Austria as a Nestbeschmutzer for his critical views, Bernhard was highly acclaimed abroad. His work is most influenced by the feeling of being abandoned and by his incurable illness and his work typically features loners monologues explaining, to a rather silent listener, his views on the state of the world, often with reference to a concrete situation. This is true for his plays as well as for his prose and his main protagonists, often scholars or, as he calls them, denounce everything that matters to the Austrian in contumacy-filled tirades against a stupid populace.
He attacks the state, generally respected institutions such as Viennas Burgtheater and his work continually deals with the isolation and self-destruction of people striving for an unreachable perfection, since this same perfection would mean stagnancy and therefore death. His novel Holzfällen, for instance, could not be published for years due to a claim by a former friend. Many of his plays—above all Heldenplatz —were met with criticism from many Austrians, one of the more controversial lines called Austria a brutal and stupid nation. A mindless, cultureless sewer which spreads its penetrating stench all over Europe, Heldenplatz, as well as the other plays Bernhard wrote in these years, were staged at Viennas famous Burgtheater by the controversial director Claus Peymann. Even in death Bernhard caused disturbance by his, as he called it, posthumous literary emigration, by disallowing all publication
Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. Salzburgs Old Town is internationally renowned for its architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997, the city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic center and the scenic Alpine surroundings, Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the musical play, traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC, around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called Juvavum and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD, Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum.
After the Norican frontiers collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it became a ruin. The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the citys rebirth, when Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica, Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. He traveled to evangelise among pagans, the name Salzburg means Salt Castle. The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach River, the Festung Hohensalzburg, the citys fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence. It was greatly expanded during the following centuries, independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, as the reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants War, and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress It was besieged for three months in 1525.
It was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces,21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, the rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism, in 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon, he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg