Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of waka voyages somewhere between 1320 and 1350. Over several centuries in isolation, these settlers developed their own distinctive culture whose language, mythology and performing arts evolved independently from other eastern Polynesian cultures; the arrival of Europeans in New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s, massive land confiscations. Social upheaval, epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically. By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice.

Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. However, disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups, they suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the 2018 census, there were 775,836 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 16.5 per cent of the national population. They are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population.

Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine". Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives"; the Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. Who is considered Māori has not always been clear from a Pākehā perspective.

For electoral purposes before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the status of "a Māori person" and only those with at least 50% Māori ancestry were allowed to choose which seats they wished to vote in. The Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed this, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity; until 1986 the census required at least 50 per cent Māori ‘blood’ to claim Māori affiliation. In all contexts authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection; the Māori originated from settlers. Polynesian people settled a large area encompassing Samoa, Hawaii, Easter Island – and New Zealand. There may have been some exploration and settlement before eruption of Mount Tarawera in about 1315, based on finds of bones from Polynesian rats and rat-gnawed shells, evidence of widespread forest fires in the decade or so earlier; this broadly aligns with analyses from Māori oral traditions, which describe the arrival of ancestors in a number of large ocean-going canoes in around 1350.

The earliest period of Māori settlement, known as the "Archaic", "Moahunter" or "Colonisation" period, dates from c. 1300 to c. 1500. The early Māori diet included an abundance of moa and other large birds and fur seals that had never been hunted before; this Archaic period is known for its distinctive "reel necklaces", remarkable for the lack of weapons and fortifications typical of the "Classic" Māori. The best-known and most extensively studied Archaic site, at Wairau Bar in the South Island, shows evidence of occupation from early-13th century to the early-15th century, it is the only known New Zealand archaeological site containing the bones of people who were born elsewhere. Factors that operated in the transition to the Classic period include a cooler period from 1500, the extinction of the moa and of other food species; the Classic period is characterised by ornaments.

Federico De Roberto

Federico De Roberto was an Italian writer, who became well known for his novel I Viceré, translated as The Viceroys. He began his writing career as a journalist for national newspapers, where he met Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana, the most prominent writers of the Verismo style. Verga introduced him into the literary circles of Milan. De Roberto authored two books of short stories: La Sorte, Documenti umani, his first novel, Ermanno Raeli, is autobiographical. In 1894 his novel I Viceré was published, it obtained little success upon its release. Disillusionment and nervous disorders induced De Roberto to resume journalistic work: he became a writer for the Corriere della Sera and the Giornale d'Italia. Only after some experience as a playwright, he returned to the novel, with L'Imperio, sequel to I Viceré; the novel consists of three parts and is based upon the story of a noble family of Catania, of Spanish origins. This family, the Uzeda princes of Francalanza, were during the previous Spanish rule "Viceré".

The plot, fictional but accurate in describing social and political background, follows the private history of the Uzedas during the last year of Bourbon domination in the kingdom of Two Sicilies and the first decades of Regno d'Italia. It portrays the evolution from feudal rule to a parliamentary system. De Roberto uses the literary style of Verismo. There is no privileged point of view, but rather a plurality of voices. Mass scenes are powerful, the description of various social backgrounds is rich and deep; the primary aim of all members of the Uzeda family is to retain power regardless of the changes that occur if this requires actions that the reader will undoubtedly judge to be cynical, or absurd. De Roberto portrays a world undergoing fundamental change, but holds no hope for the future: no aspect of society is represented as free from corruption. Ths novel has been adapted to cinema by director Roberto Faenza in 2007. Giulio Ferroni, Profilo storico della letteratura italiana, Einaudi scuola, Milano 1992 Federico De Roberto, The Viceroys Adriana: un racconto inedito e altri di Federico De Roberto, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 1998 Nunzio Zago, Racconto della letteratura siciliana, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2000 Works by Federico De Roberto at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Federico De Roberto at Internet Archive


CJAY-92 is a Canadian radio station that broadcasts an active rock format at 92.1 FM in Calgary, Alberta. The station is owned by Bell Media. CJAY operates repeater transmitters located in Banff and Invermere, British Columbia, its founder was Ralph Connor, who moved to Calgary from Ontario to start the station. On June 2nd, 2018 CJAY's studios relocated from their Centre Street location where they had been for 15 years back to their original location on Broadcast Hill, while its transmitter is located at Old Banff Coach Road and 85 Street Southwest. CJAY-FM was owned by Standard Broadcasting until 2007, when Standard Radio was acquired by Astral from Standard Broadcasting due to Standard's exit from terrestrial broadcasting; as part of Astral's merger with Bell Media on June 27, 2013, CJAY is now owned by Bell Media. By September 2010, CJAY-FM changed its logo and slogan, as well as format from mainstream rock to active rock, similar to then-sister station CKQB-FM in Ottawa. CJAY is ranked at #10 in the Calgary market 12+ ratings as of Fall 2014.

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