Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University
Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University Kanpur University, is a public state university located in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is administered under the state legislature of the government of Uttar Pradesh, it is one of the largest universities of Asia catering to urban and rural students offering professional and academic courses in disciplines of Arts, Commerce, Engineering, Computer Applications and Medicine. Kanpur University was established in 1966 when Agra University split into Agra and Kanpur universities. Mayawati, as chief minister, changed the name from Kanpur University to the current name, after the Maharaja of the Indian princely state of Kolhapur between 1884 and 1922, Shahu IV of Kolhapur known as Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj; the campus is spread across 264 acres. While the undergraduate and post-graduate programmes in Art, Commerce, Law and Medicine are offered in affiliated colleges and institutions, the residential wing of the campus includes faculties of Life Sciences, Business Management and English.
There are separate hostel and administrative blocks. The main university campus is situated on Grand Trunk Road, 12 km from Kanpur Central railway station, 4 km from Kalyanpur railway station and 28 km from Kanpur Airport; the administration is the Chancellor, the Vice Chancellor and the members of the executive council, the court and the academic council of the university. The Kulpati is a whole-time salaried officer of the university and is appointed by the chancellor from amongst the names submitted to him by a committee constituted in accordance with the provisions above U. P. Universities Act 1973; the individual departments are under the direct supervision of their appointed directors, each sub-department has its head. Deen Dayal Shodh Sansthan Department of Adult and Continuing Education and Extension Department of Education Department of English Department of Fine Arts and Painting Department of Library and Information Science Department of Master of Social Work Department of Music Department of Physical Education Institute of Business Management Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology Institute of Journalism and Mass Communication Institute of Life Sciences Institute of Pharmacy University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kanpur University.
Sarita Bhadauria, politician, BJP MLA from Etawah Ram Gopal Yadav, MP Naresh Uttam Patel, MLC Sone Lal Patel, Founder of Apna Dal Sushila Saroj Uma Shankar Dikshit, politician Veena Sahasrabuddhe,Indian vocalist and composer of Hindustani classical music Raj Kumar, Founding director of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh Animesh Mukharjee,Indian documentary film-maker,writer and Hindi poet Bal Govind Dwivedi Arvind Pratap, MLC Arun Kumar,Lakshmanpur Pilakh,Kanpur Dehat Official website
MedStar Georgetown University Hospital
MedStar Georgetown University Hospital is one of the national capital area's oldest academic teaching hospitals. It is a not-for-profit, acute care teaching and research facility located in the Georgetown neighborhood of the Northwest Quadrant of Washington, D. C. MedStar Georgetown is co-located with the Georgetown University Medical Center and is affiliated with the Georgetown University School of Medicine. MedStar Georgetown is home to the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, as well as centers of excellence in the neurology, psychiatry, gastroenterology and vascular surgery. Named Georgetown University Hospital, it became part of the MedStar Health network in 2000; the hospital employs over 4,000 personnel. Georgetown University Hospital was founded in 1898 as part of Georgetown University; the facility was staffed by the Sisters of St. Francis; the Hospital moved to its current location on Reservoir Road NW in 1930. In the past century the hospital has grown to include a community physician practice, the Lombardi Cancer Center and scores of clinical departments and divisions.
Through its 100-year relationship with Georgetown University, the hospital collaborates in training students from both the School of Medicine and the School of Nursing & Health Studies. Additionally, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital works with the university's research enterprise to help bring innovative therapies from the scientific laboratory to the patient bedside; the Main Hospital was built in 1947 and was the first building erected in what is now the MedStar Georgetown University Hospital complex. The hospital, now more than 80 percent renovated, houses multiple patient units, hospital administration offices, hospital support services. In July 2000, Georgetown University entered into a partnership with Medstar Health, a not-for-profit organization of two other Washington hospitals and five Baltimore hospitals- including another Catholic hospital; this partnership improves the clinical efficiency and increases the diversity of clinical experiences available to students. The new Georgetown/Medstar partnership remains committed to the Catholic Jesuit ideals of care for the whole patient and service to those less fortunate.
As the School of Medicine enters its 150th Anniversary year, the hospital has just completed its centennial celebration With primary care providers at nine sites in Washington, D. C. Maryland and Virginia, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital's clinical services represent one of the largest, most geographically diverse and integrated healthcare delivery networks in the area. M. Joy Drass, MD, an alumna of Georgetown University School of Medicine, was appointed President of MedStar Georgetown University Hospital in October, 2000 and continues to lead the hospital today; the hospital was ranked in 13 specialty areas in 2001 U. S. News & World Report's "Best Hospitals" issue. MedStar Georgetown was ranked in more categories than any other Washington-area hospital was awarded Magnet Status by the American Nurses Credentialing Center in 2004. MedStar Georgetown was the first, remains the only, hospital in the District to be awarded this distinction; the research and education programs affiliated with MedStar Georgetown University Hospital continue to be administered by Georgetown University Medical Center.
These include fellowship programs, as well as clinical trials. Some of the specialty areas in which it has been ranked among the top hospitals in recent years include cancer, digestive disorders, ear-nose and throat, gynecology, heart disease, hormonal disorders, kidney disease, neuro-surgery, respiratory disorders, urology and orthopaedics; the Lombardi Comprehensive Care Center is the only facility in the Washington, D. C. area designated by the National Cancer Institute as a Comprehensive Care Center. MedStar Georgetown's Transplant Institute is ranked among the best in the mid-Atlantic region by the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for liver transplant outcomes and is one of few centers in the country to provide living-donor liver transplants. Georgetown Neurosciences is the first on the East Coast and the sixth in the nation to offer the CyberKnife, the latest in stereotactic radiosurgery to treat tumors and lesions of the brain and spine. Additionally, MedStar Georgetown is home to the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, the only facility in the Washington, D.
C. area designated by the National Cancer Institute as a Comprehensive Cancer Center. In 2000, Georgetown University Hospital became part of MedStar Health, a non–profit network of seven regional hospitals, which together see more than 7000 new cancer patients annually; the Lombardi MedStar Research Network has been a great success, both with increased accrual to clinical trials and increased Cancer Center membership. In 2007, over 200 patients were accrued to therapeutic trials; the HealthGrades website contains the clinical quality data for Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, as of 2018. For this rating section clinical quality rating data, patient safety ratings and patient experience ratings are presented. For inpatient conditions and procedures, there are three possible ratings: worse than expected, as expected, better than expected. For this hospital the data for this category is: Worse than expected - 6 As expected - 17 Better than expected - 1For patient safety ratings the same three possible ratings are used.
For this hospital they are" Worse than expected - 4 As expected - 8 Better than expected - 1Percentage of patients rating this hospital as a 9 or 10 - 70% Percentage of patients who on average rank hospitals as a 9
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, United States is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876. The School of Medicine shares a campus with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, established in 1889. Johns Hopkins has ranked among the top medical schools in the United States, in the number of research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health, its main teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the number one hospital in the United States for 22 years by U. S. News & World Report; the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is located off Broadway in the East Baltimore campus of the Johns Hopkins University together with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the School of Nursing. Known collectively as the "Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions" Campus, it spans several city blocks, radiating outwards from the 1889 original landmark red brick Billings building of the Johns Hopkins Hospital with its historic dome.
The founding physicians of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine included pathologist William Henry Welch, the first dean of the school and a mentor to generations of research scientists. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, begun 17 years after its original visionary benefactor Johns Hopkins and opened only with the large financial help offered by several wealthy daughters of the city's business elite on condition that the medical school be open to students of both sexes one of the first co-educational medical colleges; the School of Medicine is affiliated with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, its main teaching hospital, as well as several other regional medical centers, including the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center on Eastern Avenue in East Baltimore. C.. Together, they form an academic health science center; the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is the home of many medical advancements and contributions, including the first of many to admit women and to introduce rubber gloves, which provided a sterile approach to conducting surgical procedures.
Johns Hopkins has published The Harriet Lane Handbook, an indispensable tool for pediatricians, for over 60 years. For years, Johns Hopkins has been among the nation's top medical schools in the number of competitive research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health. According to U. S. News and World Report, Johns Hopkins ranks #2 among research-oriented medical schools, has always ranked in the top 3, its major teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the top hospital in the United States every year from 1991 to 2011 by U. S. News & World Report. International Business Times named an MD from Johns Hopkins one of the five most prestigious degrees in the world; some achievements attributed to the school include the development of CPR, the discovery of the first effective treatments for severe forms of sickle cell disease, the development of the first biological pacemaker for the heart, the planning and performance of one of the most challenging double arm transplants to date.
According to the Flexner Report, Hopkins has served as the model for American medical education. It was the first medical school to require its students to have an undergraduate degree and was the first graduate-level medical school to admit women on an equal basis as men. Mary Elizabeth Garrett, head of the Women's Medical School Fund, was a driving force behind both of these firsts. Sir William Osler became the first Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins and the first Physician-in-Chief at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Osler was responsible for establishing the residency system of postgraduate medical training, where young physicians were required to reside within the hospital to better care for their patients. Upon matriculation, medical students at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine are divided into four Colleges named after famous Hopkins faculty members who have had an impact in the history of medicine; the Colleges were established to "foster camaraderie, advising, professionalism, clinical skills, scholarship."
In each incoming class, 30 students are assigned to each College, each College is further subdivided into six molecules of five students each. Each molecule is advised and taught by a faculty advisor, who instructs them in Clinical Foundations of Medicine, a core first-year course, continue advising them throughout their 4 years of medical school; the family within each college of each molecule across the four years who belong to a given advisor is referred to as a macromolecule. Every year, the Colleges compete in the “College Olympics” in late October. Sabin
Royal College of Surgeons of England
The Royal College of Surgeons of England, is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London, it publishes multiple medical journals including the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Faculty Dental Journal, the Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The origins of the College date to the fourteenth century with the foundation of the "Guild of Surgeons Within the City of London". Certain sources date this as occurring in 1368. There was ongoing dispute between the surgeons and barber surgeons until an agreement was signed between them in 1493, giving the fellowship of surgeons the power of incorporation; this union was formalised further in 1540 by Henry VIII between the Worshipful Company of Barbers and the Guild of Surgeons to form the Company of Barber-Surgeons. In 1745 the surgeons broke away from the barbers to form the Company of Surgeons.
In 1800 the Company was granted a Royal Charter to become the Royal College of Surgeons in London. A further charter in 1843 granted it the present title of the Royal College of Surgeons of England; the correct way to address a member or fellow of The Royal College of Surgeons is to use the title Mr, Mrs, or Ms. This system has its origins in the 16th century, when surgeons were barber-surgeons and did not have a medical degree, unlike physicians, who, by the 18th century, held a university medical degree and could thus be referred to as "Doctor". By the time the College of Surgeons received its Royal Charter in 1800, the Royal College of Physicians were insisting that candidates for membership for the college of Surgeons must have a medical degree first. Therefore, the ensuing years saw aspiring surgeons having to study medicine first and hence receive the title Doctor. Thereafter, having obtained the diploma of Member or Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons he would revert to the title "Mr" as a snub to the RCP.
Nowadays the title "Mr" is used by Members of the College who have passed the diploma MRCS examination and the College addresses Members as "Mr" or "Ms". In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles, the distinction is made in the following conversation: "Come, come, we are not so far wrong after all," said Holmes. "And now, Dr. James Mortimer--" "Mister, Mister--a humble M. R. C. S." Despite Mortimer's correction, he is referred to as "Dr. Mortimer" throughout the story. A biographical register of fellows is available on Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online The Company of Surgeons moved from Surgeon's Hall in Old Bailey to a site at 41 Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1797. Construction of the first College building, to a design by George Dance the Younger, James Lewis, took from 1805 to 1813. In 1833 Sir Charles Barry won the public competition to design a replacement; the library and portico of this building are all that remain today after a German incendiary bomb hit the College in 1941. The exterior of the building was one of the filming location of Agatha Christie's Poirot episode The Mystery of the Spanish Chest.
In 1799 the government purchased the collection of John Hunter. This formed the basis of the Hunterian Collection, which has since been supplemented by others including an Odontological Collection and the natural history collections of Richard Owen; the Hunterian Museum is a member of The London Museums of Health & Medicine group, displays thousands of anatomical specimens, including the Evelyn tables and the skeleton of the "Irish giant" Charles Byrne, surgical instruments, paintings and sculptures about medical individuals and medicine. Faculty of Dental Surgery Faculty of General Dental Practice Faculty of Anaesthetists - Until 1988, now the Royal College of Anaesthetists; the Cheselden Medal was instituted in 2009 in honour of William Cheselden "to recognise unique achievements in, exceptional contributions to, the advancement of surgery". The award is made at irregular intervals to reflect the outstanding qualities required of recipients and is deemed one of the College’s highest professional honours.
The Royal Colleges' Bronze Medal was instituted in 1957 and is awarded jointly with the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. It is awarded annually "on the nomination of the Medical Group of the Royal Photographic Society for the outstanding example of photography in the service of medicine and surgery"; the Wood Jones Medal was instituted in 1975 to commemorate Frederic Wood Jones. It is awarded by a Committee "for contributions to anatomical knowledge or the teaching of anatomy in the tradition of Frederic Wood Jones"; the Clement-Price Award was founded in 1958 with a gift of 1,000 guineas from members of the staff of the Westminster Hospital in honour of Sir Clement Price Thomas. It is awarded triennially, or at such other interval as the President may decide, by the Council on the recommendation of the Fellowship Election and Prize Committee, "in recognition of meritorious contributions to surgery in its widest sense, without restriction of candidature".
The Lister Medal has been awarded since 1924, after the College was entrusted in 1920 with administrating the Lister Memorial Fund, in memory of pioneering British surgeon Joseph Lister. The award is decided in conjunction with the Royal Society
University of Kerala
University of Kerala the University of Travancore, is an affiliating university located in Thiruvananthapuram, capital of the state of Kerala, India. It was established in 1937, long before the birth of the state of Kerala in India, by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the first Chancellor of the university. C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, the Diwan of Travancore, was the first Vice-Chancellor. One of the first 16 Universities in India and the first in the state of Kerala, the University of Kerala was founded as the University of Travancore in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore in 1937. During the 7 decades since the University of Kerala grew and shrunk physically and transformed itself in many ways; the earliest origins of the University may be traced back to two institutions of modern learning in Kerala, the University College, Thiruvananthapuram and the Trivandrum Observatory. The University College was founded as the Maharaja's Free School by Maharaja Swathi Thirunal in 1834, with Mr John Roberts.
A Christian Missionary as Headmaster, soon grew into a college in 1866, affiliated to the Madras University. When the University of Travancore was founded, the Departments of the college became the University Departments, only to switch back again when the transformation to University of Kerala happened in 1957; the University College still retains its connection with the University as an affiliated college. The Trivandrum Observatory was founded in 1838 and had an internationally reputed scientist, John Caldecott FRS as its first Director, it became a part of the Travancore University, but for some time was administered as an independent government institution. It is now the oldest institution under the Kerala University; the University of Travancore was established in 1937 by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the first Chancellor of the University. Sir C. P Ramaswamy Ayyar, the Diwan of the State was the first Vice-Chancellor, he was an able administrator.
It is said the Government made an unsuccessful attempt to invite Albert Einstein to be the first Vice-Chancellor. The University was modelled after the best Universities of the United Kingdom, today retains some of these features; the affiliating system of the University however evolved to be different from the college system in British Universities. Only ten colleges within the State of Travancore, which were at that time affiliated to the Madras University, became the affiliated colleges of the University of Travancore. In 1954, the unified state of Kerala came into being with most of Travancore and whole of state of Cochin and Malabar area of Madras presidency becoming part of it; the Kerala University Act was brought into force and the University of Travancore was renamed University of Kerala. The University had three campuses located in three different parts of the State viz. Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode; the number of affiliated colleges grew phenomenally. However, in 1968, the University Centre at Kozhikode became a full-fledged University, the University of Calicut, affiliating the colleges located in Thrissur, Palakkad and Kannur districts of Kerala and transforming the Kozhikkode Centre into University Departments.
The Cochin University of Science and Technology - CUSAT -, Kerala Agricultural University and Mahatma Gandhi University were subsequently established, with CUSAT taking over the University's centre at Cochin. These developments have shrunk the jurisdiction of the University of Kerala to Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha Districts and some parts of Pathanamthitta District. At present, the University has sixteen faculties and forty one departments of teaching and research in addition to study centres and other departments. Teaching and Knowledge extension are the mandate of the Departments, they focus on post-graduate programmes, MPhil programmes and doctoral research. In 2007, the University awarded over 100 PhDs.. The University has had in its faculties eminent scholars; some of the faculty members themselves were legends, such as famous poet K Ayyappa Panciker, Oriental scholar T Ganapathi Sasthri etc. The University has a number of study centres in specialised areas such as Nano-technology, Kerala Studies, Women's Studies, Learning Difficulties, Sree Narayana Studies, Gandhian Studies etc.
Some of these centres have taught many offer PhD programmes. The University has established 10 University College of Teacher Education and 8 University Institute of Technologies both of which offer under-graduate programmes, although masters programmes are available in select UITs; the University College of Engineering at Karyavattom offers Engineering Education at Undergraduate level. The University has over 150 affiliated colleges; the role of the University is in prescribing courses of study and conducting examinations and issuing certificates. The day-to-day administration of these institutions is not under the purview of the University. However, these institutions form a major part of the University. Of these 60
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research is a medical and research institution in Chandigarh, India. It has educational, medical research, training facilities for its students, it has been ranked 2 in the category of medical institutes in latest NIRF rankings in India. The founders of the institute are Tulsi Das, Santokh Singh Anand, P N Chuttani, B N Aikat, Sant Ram Dhall and Bala Krishna. PGIMER was conceived and planned in 1960 to provide a physical and intellectual milieu for young scientists working in multiple disciplines of medicine, to advance the frontiers of knowledge to render humane service to sick and suffering, to train medical and paramedical manpower in Chandigarh; the institute was established in 1962 under the erstwhile state of Punjab. It was declared as an Institute of National Importance by an Act of Parliament w.e.f. 1 April 1967. PGIMER is involved in research for the rural and community related environment and health problems; the focus of research has been on tackling diseases like diarrhea, malaria, systemic vasculitis, relapsing polychondritis, HIV, hepatitis, leukaemia, atherosclerosis, dental caries, stone disease and sexually transmitted diseases.
Techniques are available to conduct studies like flow cytometry, molecular biology, positron emission tomography and genetic studies. A BSL-III laboratory for mycobacteria is under construction; some advanced bio techniques like Ultracentrifugation, LC-MS,Scanning electron microscopy and Whole genome sequencer have been installed in the CSIC, research block B. Admission to post doctoral and postgraduate courses conducted at PGIMER is made twice a year; the sessions commence from first July. The admission to the courses is made on merit on all-India basis by holding an entrance examination by the institute, after issuing a countrywide admission notice; each year more than 20,000 medical graduates across the country compete for the positions. 1% to 2% of the candidates are selected, making it one of the most competitive tests across all fields in India. PhD is the highest level of a > terminal > degree, in the area of study. MD is a basic master's degree of 3 years. Prerequisite for super speciality high masters'DM' degree is MD.
MS is a master's degree of 3 years, in surgical fields. Prerequisite for super speciality high masters'MCh' degree is MS. Orthodontia and Preventive Dentistry, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. To prepare the students for the administrative career; this two-year course provides competency in Public Health Management, Teaching and Leadership. After taking a core course and an elective course in the first year candidates take a special paper on Epidemiology or Health Management or Health Promotion in the second year. Graduates of Medicine / Dental / Veterinary / Engineering or any Postgraduate degree who have passed with at least 50% marks will be admitted through a national entrance test. DM is a Super specialty higher master's degree of 3 years. Prerequisite for DM is another lower master's degree such as MD. One has to choose a particular branch from the field in which they did MD. For example: After pursuing MD in General Medicine, you can do DM in Nephrology, Endocrinology etc. MCh is a higher master's degree of 3 years.
Prerequisite for MCh is another lower master's degree such as MS. MSc is a master's degree of 2 years with intense research focus, it is offered by Department of Department of Exp. Medicine & Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacology etc; the institute accepts medical students from other countries for elective training in any of its departments. Clearance from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and Medical Council of India, New Delhi is required before the students are accepted; the process takes about 3–4 months. Dr. Tulsi Das Library, PGIMER, was established in 1962, it has 45696 books, 57610 bound journals and current journals include 414 international and 96 national journals. At present the library has 4851 theses of MD, MS, DM, M. Ch and Ph. D from different disciplines; the library subscribes to online databases like Science Direct, MD consult, Wiley- Blackwell and Oxford Journals and 494 online full text journals. Announced in 2013, the PGIMER now has an operational satellite center at Sangrur in Punjab.
In August 2017, the INR 495 crore budget for setting up a similar second satellite center at Una, Himachal Pradesh was approved. Ashok Panagariya, neurologist Sarbeswar Sahariah and organ transplant specialist Chittoor Mohammed Habeebullah, gastroenterologist Purshottam Lal Wahi, cardiologist Ram Baran Yadav, first president of Nepal Harpinder Singh Chawla, dental surgeon and Padma Shri awardee Keiki R. Mehta and Padma Shri awardee K. K. Talwar and Padma Bhushan recipient Jagjit Singh Chopra and Padma Bhushan recipient Jagat Ram, Ophthalmologist Padma Shri recipient T. S. Chandrasekar, gastroenterologist, Padma Shri awardee Rakesh Aggarwal, gastroenterologist, National Bioscience Award for Career Development recipientJagat Ram, Padam Shri Amod Gupta, Padma Shri awardee Kirpal Singh Chugh, Padma Shri awardee Jagat Ram, Padam Shri List of medical colleges in India Official website
Varanasi known as Benares, Banaras, or Kashi, is a city on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh, India, 320 kilometres south-east of the state capital, 121 kilometres east of Allahabad. A major religious hub in India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, played an important role in the development of Buddhism and Ravidassia. Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur and Delhi, is served by Varanasi Junction railway station and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport. Varanasi is one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were 1329 villages in this district; the main native languages of Varanasi are Bhojpuri. Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, ivory works, sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma", at nearby Sarnath.
The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva as an official sect of Varanasi. During the Muslim rule through Middle Ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu devotion, pilgrimage and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Rama's life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir and Ravidas. Guru Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism. In the 16th century, Varanasi experienced a cultural revival under the Mughal emperor Akbar who patronised the city, built two large temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu, though much of modern Varanasi was built during the 18th century, by the Maratha and Brahmin kings; the Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947.
The city is governed by the Varanasi Nagar Nigam and is represented in the Parliament of India by the current Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. Silk weaving and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals. Varanasi Hospital was established in 1964. Varanasi has been a cultural centre of North India for several thousand years, is associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe; the city is known worldwide for its many ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead and the Hindu genealogy registers at Varanasi are kept here; the Ramnagar Fort, near the eastern bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, scenic pavilions.
Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Durga Temple. The Kashi Naresh is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, an essential part of all religious celebrations. An educational and musical centre, many prominent Indian philosophers, poets and musicians live or have lived in the city, it was the place where the Benares gharana form of Hindustani classical music was developed. One of Asia's largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu University; the Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920. Traditional etymology links "Varanasi" to the names of two Ganges tributaries forming the city's borders: Varuna, still flowing in northern Varanasi, Assi, today a small stream in the southern part of the city, near Assi Ghat; the old city is located on the north shores of the Ganges, bounded by Assi. In the Rigveda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi known as "City of Light", the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning".
The name was used by pilgrims dating from Buddha's days. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā, Avimukta, Ānandavana, Rudravāsa. According to Hindu mythology, Varanasi was founded by Shiva, one of three principal deities along with Brahma and Vishnu. During a fight between Brahma and Shiva, one of Brahma's five heads was torn off by Shiva; as was the custom, the victor carried the slain adversary's head in his hand and let it hang down from his hand as an act of ignominy, a sign of his own bravery. A bridle was put into the mouth. Shiva thus dishonored Brahma's head, kept it with him at all times; when he came to the city of Varanasi in this state, the hanging head of Brahma dropped from Shiva's hand and disappeared in the ground. Varanasi is therefore considered an holy site; the Pandavas, the protagonists of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, are said to have visited the city in search of Shiva to atone for their sin of fratricide and Brāhmana