The M109 is an American 155 mm turreted self-propelled howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s to replace the M44. It has been upgraded a number of times, most to the M109A7; the M109 family is the most common Western indirect-fire support weapon of maneuver brigades of armored and mechanized infantry divisions. The M109 has a crew of four: the section chief/commander, the driver, the gunner, the ammunition handler/loader; the chief or gunner aims the cannon left or right and down. The British Army replaced its M109s with the AS-90. Several European armed forces have or are replacing older M109s with the German PzH 2000. Upgrades to the M109 were introduced by the U. S. and by Switzerland. With the cancellation of the U. S. Crusader and Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon, the M109A6 will remain the principal self-propelled howitzer for the U. S. for the foreseeable future until the new M1299 will enter service. The M109 was the medium variant of a U. S. program to adopt a common chassis for its self-propelled artillery units.
The light version, the M108 Howitzer, was phased out during the Vietnam War, but many were rebuilt as M109s. The M109 saw its combat debut in Vietnam. Israel used the M109 against Egypt in the 1982 and 2006 Lebanon Wars. Iran used the M109 in the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s; the M109 saw service with the British and Saudi Arabian Armies in the 1991 Gulf War. The M109 saw service with the U. S. Army in the Gulf War, as well as in the Iraq War from 2003–2011. Upgrades to the cannon, fire control and other electronics systems over the design's lifespan have expanded the system's capabilities, including tactical nuclear projectiles, Cannon Launched Guided Projectiles, Rocket Assisted Projectile, FAmily of SCAtterable Mines, improved conventional munitions; the M109 was developed by the Ground System Division of United Defense LP. Primary: M126 155 mm Howitzer, M185 155 mm Howitzer, M284 155 mm Howitzer Secondary:.50 caliber M2 machine gun, Mk 19 Mod 3 40 mm Automatic Grenade Launcher, or 7.62 mm M60, M240 machine gun or the British L4 machine gun In January 2016, the U.
S. Army test-fired hypervelocity projectiles designed for use by U. S. Navy electromagnetic railguns and found that they increased the gun's range; the Army is looking into using the M109 Paladin firing the HVP for ballistic missile defense, as traditional missile interceptors are expensive and gun-based missile defense used for point defense would use artillery at a much lower cost per round. The HVP is capable of being fired out to 50 nautical miles from a conventional cannon, it weighs 68 lb with a 46 lb flight body containing its guidance and warhead—less powerful, but more agile to hit small, high-speed targets. Modifications will be needed for the Paladin to shoot the HVP including different propellant to achieve higher velocities, automated reloading systems to fire enough to defeat salvo launches, improved barrel life, a new fire control and sensor system. First produced in 1963, it had a 23 caliber 155 mm M126 gun in an M127 Howitzer Mount, carried 28 rounds of 155 mm ammunition. It was armed with a.50cal M2HB machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition.
Identified by its short barrel and a double baffle muzzle brake with a large fume extractor just behind it. Maximum range of 14,600 meters. Replaced the M126 gun with a longer barreled, 39 caliber M185 gun, increasing maximum range to 18,100 meters. Incorporated 27 Reliability and Maintainability mid-life improvements. Most notably, the long barreled 155 mm M185 cannon in the new M178 gun mount, ballistic protection for the panoramic telescope, counterbalanced travel lock, the ability to mount the M140 alignment device. Stowage of 155mm rounds increased from 28 to 36 rounds. During M109A2 production, a simplified version was produced for export; this deleted the hull flotation feature. These were designated M109A1B. M109A1s and M109A1Bs rebuilt to M109A2 standard respectively; some A3s feature three contact arm assemblies. M109A2s and M109A3s improved with Nuclear and Chemical / Reliability and Maintainability improvements, including air purifiers and Mission Oriented Protective Posture gear; the traversing mechanism's clutch is hydraulic, as compared to the electric mechanism on previous M109s, features a manual override in the event of an electrical failure.
The A4 adds an additional hydraulic filter, for a total of two. Included is an improvement to the engine starting equipment improving the ability to start in an emergency. Ammunition amounts remain the same as two previous models. Replaces the 155 mm M185 cannon in an M178 mount with a 39-caliber 155 mm M284 cannon in an M182 mount, giving the A5 a maximum range of 22,000 meters with unassisted projectiles and 30,000 meters with Rocket Assisted Projectiles; the vehicle can carry 36 complete rounds of ammunition and has a 440 hp engine instead of the standard 405 hp engine. Various manufacturers have upgraded the fire control and other components of the M109A5. BAE Systems in York PA delivered 12 M109A5+ vehicles to Chile and 32 for Brazil. Overall product improvement in the areas of survivability, RAM, armament; this includes increased armor, a redesigned internal arrangement for safer ammunition and equipment s
Lad is an iOS puzzle game by American indie developer Keith Curtis, released on September 12, 2012. Lad has received a mixed response. AppAdvice wrote "I wanted to enjoy the game, but the control mechanics and physics are enough of a stymie that I don't want to play. I do hope to see improvements in future updates that make easy things, like jumping onto ledges feasible", while 148Apps said "LAD is an interesting game that takes a great deal of risk to present a difficult challenge to the player. In my opinion, though, it just wasn't worth it". TouchGen said "I rather think that during development someone pointed out that this might become a Limbo for iOS. At that time it seems creativity went out the window, we ended up with level design and controls subpar. A shame, as LAD could have been a much more interesting game than "that game that looks like Limbo", which it is now". AppSpy wrote " Don't be fooled by its appearance - LAD may look like Limbo, but it's more gaming purgatory than heaven", while HyperMagazine described it as "An cumbersome, irritating game".
Pocket Gamer UK said "As depressing to play as it is to look at, LAD is a nightmarishly frustrating platform-puzzler", Slide To Play wrote "LAD is an unplayable mess and should not be bought by anyone"
Tahir Iqbal is a Pakistani politician and former army officer, a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, from 2002 to 2007 and again from June 2013 to May 2018. He was born on 15 May 1951, he is a retired Major from Pakistan Army. Iqbal was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan as a candidate of Pakistan Muslim League from Constituency NA-60 in 2002 Pakistani general election, he defeated Ayaz Amir, a candidate of the Pakistan Muslim League. In November 2002, he was inducted into the federal cabinet of Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali and was appointed as the Minister of State for Environment where he remained until June 2004. In June 2004, he was inducted into the federal cabinet of Prime Minister Chaudhry Shujaat and was made Minister of State for Environment where he remained until August 2004. In August 2004, he was inducted into the federal cabinet of Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz and was made Federal Minister for Environment with the additional portfolio of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas.
He joined PML-N in 2011. He was re-elected to the National Assembly as a candidate of PML-N from Constituency NA-60 in 2013 Pakistani general election, he received 130,821 votes and defeated an independent candidate, Sardar Ghulam Abbas