M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle
The M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle known as the XM2010 and M24 Reconfigured Sniper Weapon System, is a sniper rifle developed by PEO Soldier for the United States Army. It replaced the existing M24s. After winning a competitive bidding process, Remington was awarded the production contract for up to 3,600 weapons; the Army had anticipated fielding upgraded weapons to deployed U. S. Army Snipers near the end of December 2010, but expected fielding would happen in January 2011; the M2010 system differs from the prior M24 Sniper Weapon System in that it fires.300 Winchester Magnum ammunition to provide 50 percent additional effective range relative to the M24's 7.62×51mm NATO. This chambering to dimensionally larger cartridges is possible because the M24 Sniper Weapon System was designed to use the "long action" bolt version of the Remington 700 receiver for cartridges up to 3.34 inches in overall length. The U. S. Army developed the system so that the additional effective range would help snipers in engagements in mountainous and desert terrain in which the War in Afghanistan was being fought.
The general penalties for using bigger, more powerful magnum rifle ammunition compared to smaller, standard rifle cartridges are increases in recoil, flash and barrel wear. The U. S. Army issued three XM2010s to snipers at the United States Army Sniper School on 18 January 2011 and began using the rifle in combat in Afghanistan in March 2011; the XM2010's.300 Win Mag round extends the engagement range over the M24 from 800 meters to 1,200 meters, enhancing lethality and standoff. The Barrett M107.50 caliber rifle can hit targets past 2,000 meters, but it is accurate to 2.5 MOA, meaning it would hit within a 25 in area at 1,000 meters. This was acceptable for material targets, but not individual personnel; the XM2010 addressed the problem and gave increased range over the M24 but maintained 1 MOA accuracy. Remington had been awarded a $28 million contract on 20 September 2010 to rebuild 3,600 M24 rifles, but only 250 had been ordered to be changed by the time the first XM2010s were fielded. Due to the success of the XM2010, Army officials considered a "pure fleet," meaning all 2,500 Army M24s would be upgraded to XM2010 standard.
Snipers in the field learned how to transition to the XM2010 and learn its use and capabilities during a three-day course. After the course, snipers had no difficulty hitting targets out to 1,000 meters from "ridgetop to ridgetop". In addition to the more powerful cartridge, the new optic enhances the rifle's ability to sight a target without needing to do calculations of range estimation. All 250 XM2010 rifles were to be fielded in 8 Brigade Combat Teams by mid-May 2011. Based on the results and feedback from troops, the U. S. Army decided in May 2011 to replace its entire fleet of M24s, ordering a total of 2,558 M2010 rifles. By September 2012, the Army had fielded more than 1,400 systems as part of an urgent material release; the M2010 achieved Type Classification-Standard in July 2013 and Full Materiel Release in September 2013, supporting procurement for the balance of the Army requirement. On 25 April 2014, the 2,558th M2010 rifle was completed. In March 2014, the company TrackingPoint revealed their smart scope was being integrated onto the M2010 sniper rifle.
The Army purchased six systems in January 2014 for testing, the networked scope and guided trigger had been added. The TrackingPoint system includes a computerized scope that marks a selected target and compensates for external factors, uses a special trigger that does not pull until the system is sure the bullet will land where intended. TrackingPoint costs between $22,000 and $27,000 to be installed on a bolt-action rifle to achieve hits out to 1,250 yd, though it is not intended to replace sniping skills but be used by soldiers who need to take shots at longer sniping ranges; the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle differs from 7.62×51mm NATO chambered M24 Sniper Weapon System in that M2010 sniper weapons are: Chambered to.300 Winchester Magnum. Barreled to a 24 in long, 1 in 10 inch twist rate hammer-forged free floating barrel. Fitted with a new chassis assembly that maximizes the amount of physical adjustments for the sniper to provide a better user customized fit; the chassis has a right folding buttstock that shortens the system for easier transport and better concealment during movement and accommodates the mounting of accessories via removable Mil Std 1913 Picatinny Rails and accessory cables via routing channels.
Fitted with a five-round detachable box magazine. Fitted with a quick-attachable/detachable Advanced Armament Corporation sound suppressor with muzzle brake to reduce recoil and jump and audible and visible signature with an available thermal sleeve that reduces mirage effect on heated suppressors; the 10 in Titan-QD Fast-Attach suppressor eliminates 98 percent of muzzle flash, 60 percent of recoil, reduces sound by 32 decibels. Fitted with a Leupold Mark 4 6.5–20×50mm ER/T M5A2 Front Focal variable power telescopic sight featuring a 34 mm tube diameter, first focal plane Horus Vision H-58 grid system range estimation reticle and Bullet Drop Compensation, fielded with the AN/PVS-29 or AN/PVS-30 Clip-on Sniper Night Sight. The application of advanced corrosion resistant coatings throughout the system. According to Remington Arms each rifle is tested to meet the requirement to fire ≤ 1 moa/0.3 mil before being released for fielding. In 2009 the U. S. government purchased MK 248 MOD 1.300 Winchester Magnum match-grade ammunition for use in.300 Winchester Magnum sniper rifles
A cartridge is a type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile, a propellant substance and an ignition device within a metallic, paper or plastic case, made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting. Although in popular usage the term "bullet" is used to refer to a complete cartridge, it is used only to refer to the projectile. Cartridges can be categorized by the type of their primers — a small charge of an impact- or electric-sensitive chemical mixture, located at the center of the case head, inside the rim of the case base, in a sideway projection, shaped like a pin or a lip, or in a small nipple-like bulge at the case base. Military and commercial producers continue to pursue the goal of caseless ammunition; some artillery ammunition uses the same cartridge concept. In other cases, the artillery shell is separate from the propellant charge. A cartridge without a projectile is called a blank.
One, inert is called a dummy. One that failed to ignite and shoot off the projectile is called a dud, one that ignited but failed to sufficiently push the projectile out of the barrel is called a squib; the primary purpose is to be a handy all-in-one for a shot. In modern, automatic weapons, it provides the energy to move the parts of the gun which make it fire repeatedly. Many weapons were designed to make use of a available cartridge, or a new one with new qualities; the cartridge case seals a firing chamber in all directions excepting the bore. A firing pin ignites it; the primer compound deflagrates, it does not detonate. A jet of burning gas from the primer ignites the propellant. Gases from the burning powder expand the case to seal it against the chamber wall; these propellant gases push on the bullet base. In response to this pressure, the bullet will move in the path of least resistance, down the bore of the barrel. After the bullet leaves the barrel, the chamber pressure drops to atmospheric pressure.
The case, elastically expanded by chamber pressure, contracts slightly. This eases removal of the case from the chamber. To manufacture brass for cartidges, a sheet of brass is punched into disks; these disks go through a series of punches and dies and are annealed and washed before moving to the next series of dies. Making bullets involves simular type of maching as for making brass cases; the projectile can be made of anything. Lead is a material of choice because of high density, ductility; the propellant was long gunpowder, still in use, but superseded by better compositions, generically called Smokeless powder. Early primer was fine gunpowder poured into a pan or tube where it could be ignited by some external source of ignition such as a fuse or a spark. Modern primers are shock sensitive chemicals enclosed in a small capsule, ignited by percussion. In some instance ignition is electricity-primed, there may be no primer at all in such design; the case is made of brass because it is resistant to corrosion.
A brass case head can be work-hardened to withstand the high pressures of cartridges, allow for manipulation via extraction and ejection without tearing the metal. The neck and body portion of a brass case is annealed to make the case ductile enough to allow reforming so that it can be reloaded many times. Steel is used in some plinking ammunition, as well as in some military ammunition. Steel is less expensive than brass. Military forces consider small arms cartridge cases to be disposable, one-time-use devices. However, case weight affects how much ammunition a soldier can carry, so the lighter steel cases do have a military advantage. Conversely, steel is more susceptible to contamination and damage so all such cases are varnished or otherwise sealed against the elements. One downside caused by the increased strength of steel in the neck of these cases is that propellant gas can blow back past the neck and into the chamber. Constituents of these gases condense on the chamber wall; this solid propellant residue can make extraction of fired cases difficult.
This is less of a problem for small arms of the former Warsaw Pact nations, which were designed with much larger chamber tolerances than NATO weapons. Aluminum cased; these are not reloaded as aluminum fatigues during firing and resizing. Some calibers have non-standard primer sizes to discourage reloaders from attempting to reuse these cases. Plastic cases are used in shotgun shells and some manufacturers offer polymer centerfire cartridges. Paper had been used in the earliest cartridges. Critical cartridge specifications include neck size, bullet weight and caliber, maximum pressure, overall length, case body diameter and taper, shoulder design, rim type, etc. Ever
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Kurdish–Turkish conflict (2015–present)
In late July 2015, the third phase of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict between various Kurdish insurgent groups and the Turkish government erupted following a failed two and a half year-long peace process, aimed at resolving the long-running conflict. The conflict between Turkey and the PKK broke out in summer 2015 following a two-year-long peace negotiations, which began in late 2012, but failed to progress in light of the growing tensions on border with Syria in late 2014, when Turkey prevented Kurds sending support to their militants who were fighting against ISIS during the Siege of Kobani. Turkey was accused of assisting the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant during the crisis, resulting in widespread Kurdish riots in Turkey involving dozens of fatalities; the tensions further escalated in summer 2015 with the July 20 bombing in Suruç. On July 21, the PKK carried out a revenge attack and killed a Turkish soldier and wounded two more in Adıyaman; some PKK supporters claimed responsibility for the July 23 killing of two Turkish police officers in Ceylanpinar, describing it as a retaliation.
A week after, Group of Communities in Kurdistan spokesman Demhat Agit denied official PKK involvement, saying "these are the units independent from the PKK. They are local forces which organized themselves and not affiliated with us."On 24 July 2015, Turkey announced an official military operation against PKK targets in Iraqi Kurdistan and Rojava claiming to inflict dozens of fatalities on PKK fronts – which caused the PKK to withdraw from the peace talks and announce a full-scale rebellion against the government. The same day, Turkey performed a nationwide crackdown on so-called PKK operatives, arresting hundreds, including Peoples' Democratic Party members and leaders; the conflict escalated, with PKK and its affiliated militias staging attacks across the country, Turkish forces attacks in the form of aerial bombardments and operations in the east of the country, including the Siege of Cizre in September 2015. In October 2015, the PKK declared a unilateral cease-fire for the November general elections.
As of November 2015, Turkish authorities claimed that a number of towns and areas in Eastern Turkey had come under the control of the PKK rebels and affiliated armed organizations. According to the Turkish government sources, between July 2015 and May 2016, 2,583 Kurdish rebels were killed in Turkey and 2,366 in northern Iraq, while 483 were killed among Turkish security forces; the PKK claimed 1,557 Turkish security forces were killed in 2015 during the clashes in North and South Kurdistan, while it lost 220 fighters. According to the International Crisis Group, 4,226 people, including 465 civilians, were killed in Turkey between July 2015 and December 2018, including ethnic Kurdish lawyer Tahir Elçi. In March 2017, the United Nations remarks'concern' over the Turkish government's operations and called for independent assessment for the alleged "massive destruction and numerous other serious human rights violations" against the ethnic Kurdish minority. On 8 May, the PKK's armed wing HPG announced.
On 9 June, the PKK reported several operations by the Turkish army against their troops. On 20 July 2015, a bombing in the predominantly Kurdish district of Suruç perpetrated by the Dokumacılar group linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, killed 32 young activists and injured over 100. Most victims were members of the Socialist Party of the Oppressed Youth Wing and the Socialist Youth Associations Federation, university-aged students who were giving a press statement on their planned trip to reconstruct the Syrian border town of Kobanî in the de facto autonomous Federation of Northern Syria - Rojava. On 21 July, the Turkish authorities claimed that the PKK's military wing has killed a Turkish soldier and wounded two more in Adıyaman, in retaliation for Suruc and what they claim was Turkey's collaboration with ISIL. On 22 July, in Ceylanpinar, two policemen were shot in the head by gunmen in their sleep. A week however, KCK spokesman Demhat Agit denied PKK involvement, saying "these are the units independent from the PKK.
They are local forces which organized themselves and not affiliated with us", despite alleged claims that the PKK had claimed responsibility for the attack. The July 21 and 22 attacks were proclaimed a casus belli by the Turkish government, which resulted in Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu taking the decision to begin active air operations against PKK positions in Iraq; this was internationally perceived as the end of the ceasefire period in the Kurdish-Turkish conflict. The New York Times assessed that "the Iraq raids, which began late Friday and continued into Saturday ended an unstable two-year cease-fire between the Turkish government and the Kurdish militants known by the initials of their Kurdish name, PKK". On 24 July, members of the PKK abducted a policeman in the province of Diyarbakir. Additionally two police officers were injured, one with life-threatening injuries, after a suspected PKK grenade attack in Hakkari. On 25 July, two Turkish soldiers were killed and four were wounded in a car bomb attack in the province of Diyarbakir in Turkey by PKK fighters.
Turkish Forces on 26 July again attacked the same village west of Kobani targeting Kurdish People's Protection Units fighters, fired on a YPG vehicle west of Tell Abyad. On 26 July, it was reported that F-16s yet again took off from Diyarbakır, this time only targeting PKK targets in Northern Iraq. Although there was no official government statement on the airstrikes, PKK sources claimed that one of their key bases in Hakurk was attacked, it was reported that the number of fighter jets taking part was
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end at a high velocity; the hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is measured in inches or millimetres; the first firearms were made at a time when metallurgy was not advanced enough to cast tubes capable of withstanding the explosive forces of early cannons, so the pipe needed to be braced periodically along its length for reinforcement, producing an appearance somewhat reminiscent of storage barrels being stacked together, hence the English name. Gun barrels are metal. However, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, which has a strong tubular stalk and is cheaper to obtain and process, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons such as the fire lances.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons. Early European guns were made of wrought iron with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings and welded into a hollow cylinder. Bronze and brass were favoured by gunsmiths because of their ease of casting and their resistance to the corrosive effects of the combustion of gunpowder or salt water when used on naval vessels. Early firearms were muzzle-loading, with the gunpowder and the shot loaded from the front end of the barrel, were capable of only a low rate of fire due to the cumbersome loading process; the later-invented breech-loading designs provided a higher rate of fire, but early breechloaders lacked an effective way of sealing the escaping gases that leaked from the back end of the barrel, reducing the available muzzle velocity. During the 19th century, effective breechblocks were invented that sealed a breechloader against the escape of propellant gases.
Early cannon barrels were thick for their caliber. This was because manufacturing defects such as air bubbles trapped in the metal were common back in the days, played key factors in many gun explosions. A gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out. If the barrel material cannot cope with the pressure within the bore, the barrel itself might suffer catastrophic failure and explode, which will not only destroy the gun but present a life-threatening danger to people nearby. Modern small arms barrels are made of carbon steel or stainless steel materials known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength. In firearms terminology, fluting refers to the removal of material from a cylindrical surface creating rounded grooves, for the purpose of reducing weight; this is most done to the exterior surface of a rifle barrel, though it may be applied to the cylinder of a revolver or the bolt of a bolt-action rifle.
Most flutings on rifle barrels and revolver cylinders are straight, though helical flutings can be seen on rifle bolts and also rifle barrels. While the main purpose of fluting is just to reduce weight and improve portability, when adequately done it can retain the structural strength and rigidity and increase the overall specific strength. Fluting will increase the surface-to-volume ratio and make the barrel more efficient to cool after firing, though the reduced material mass means the barrel will heat up during firing; the chamber is the cavity at the back end of a breech-loading gun's barrel where the cartridge is inserted in position ready to be fired. In most firearms, the chamber is an integral part of the barrel made by reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel. In revolvers, the chamber is a component of the gun's cylinder and separate from the barrel, with a single cylinder having multiple chambers that are rotated in turns into alignment with the barrel in anticipation of being fired.
Structurally, the chamber consists of the body and neck, the contour of which correspond to the casing shape of the cartridge it is designed to hold. The rear opening of the chamber is the breech of the whole barrel, sealed tight from behind by the bolt, making the front direction the path of least resistance during firing; when the cartridge's primer is struck by the firing pin, the propellant is ignited and deflagrates, generating high-pressure gas expansion within the cartridge case. However, the chamber restrains the cartridge case from moving, allowing the bullet to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front end as a projectile; the act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions. In the case of an air gun, a pellet itself has no casing to be retained and will be inserted into the chamber (often called "seating
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Gas-operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to operate locked breech, autoloading firearms. In gas operation, a portion of high-pressure gas from the cartridge being fired is used to power a mechanism to dispose of the spent case and insert a new cartridge into the chamber. Energy from the gas is harnessed through either a port in a trap at the muzzle; this high-pressure gas impinges on a surface such as a piston head to provide motion for unlocking of the action, extraction of the spent case, cocking of the hammer or striker, chambering of a fresh cartridge, locking of the action. The first gas-operated rifle was designed in 1883–1884 by Karel Krnka. Most current gas systems employ some type of piston; the face of the piston is acted upon by combustion gas from a port in the barrel or a trap at the muzzle. Early guns such as Browning's'flapper' prototype, the Bang rifle, Garand rifle used low-pressure gas from at or near the muzzle. This, combined with larger operating parts, reduced the strain on the mechanism.
To simplify and lighten the firearm, gas from nearer the chamber needed to be used. This high-pressure gas has sufficient force to destroy a firearm. Most gas-operated firearms rely on tuning the gas port size, mass of operating parts, spring pressures to function. Several other methods are employed to regulate the energy; the M1 carbine incorporates a short piston, or "tappet". This movement is restricted by a shoulder recess. Excess gas is vented back into the bore; the M14 rifle and M60 GPMG use the White expansion and cutoff system to stop gas from entering the cylinder once the piston has traveled a short distance. Most systems, vent excess gas into the atmosphere through slots, holes, or ports. A gas trap system involves ` trapping' combustion gas; this gas impinges on a surface that converts the energy to motion that, in turn cycles the action of the firearm. Hiram Maxim patented a muzzle-cup system in 1884 described in U. S. Patent 319,596 though it is unknown if this firearm was prototyped.
John Browning used gas trapped at the muzzle to operate a'flapper' in the earliest prototype gas-operated firearm described in U. S. Patent 471,782; the Danish Bang rifle used a muzzle cup blown forward by muzzle gas to operate the action through transfer bars and leverage. Other gas-trap rifles were early production German Gewehr 41; these systems are longer, heavier and more complex than gas-operated firearms. Despite these disadvantages, they used low pressure gas and did not require a hole in the barrel; the American and German governments both had requirements that their guns operated without a hole being drilled in the barrel. Both governments would first adopt weapons and abandon the concept. All US M1 Garand rifles were retrofitted with long-stroke gas pistons. With a long-stroke system, the piston is mechanically fixed to the bolt group and moves through the entire operating cycle; this system is used in weapons such as the Bren light machine gun, AK-47, Tavor, FN Minimi, M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, FN MAG, FN FNC, M1 Garand.
The primary advantage of the long-stroke system is that the mass of the piston rod adds to the momentum of the bolt carrier enabling more positive extraction, ejection and locking. The primary disadvantage to this system is the disruption of the point of aim due to several factors such as: the center of mass changing during the action cycle, abrupt stops at the beginning and end of bolt carrier travel, the use of the barrel as a fulcrum to drive the bolt back. Due to the greater mass of moving parts, more gas is required to operate the system that, in turn, requires larger operating parts. With a short-stroke or tappet system, the piston moves separately from the bolt group, it may directly push the bolt group parts as in the M1 carbine or operate through a connecting rod or assembly as in the Armalite AR-18 or the SKS. In either case, the energy is imparted in a short, abrupt push and the motion of the gas piston is arrested allowing the bolt carrier assembly to continue through the operating cycle through kinetic energy.
This has the advantage of reducing the total mass of recoiling parts compared with a long-stroke piston. This, in turn, enables better control of the weapon due to less mass needing to be stopped at either end of the bolt carrier travel. However, additional complexity, the fact that in many designs the piston is a separate component that impacts the bolt carrier group above the center of gravity, there is a greater potential for premature wear, or damage to the bolt carrier, the rails that guide its rearward movement due to the abrupt uneven impulse. Modern iterations of this design are limited by the physical parameters of the M16 family of weapons as they are a retrofitted solution for addressing the perceived shortcomings of the direct impingement system; the direct impingement method of operation vents gas from partway down the barrel through a tube to the working parts of a rifle where they directly impinge on the bolt carrier. This results in a lighter mechanism. Firearms that use this system include the French MAS-40 from 1940, the Swedish Ag m/42 from 1942, the American M16 rifle family.
One principal advantage is that the moving parts are placed in-line with the bore meaning that sight picture is not disturbed as much. This offers a particular advantage for automatic mechanisms, it has the disadvantage of the propellant gas being blown directly into the action parts. DI operation increases the amount of heat, deposited in the receiver while firing, which can burn off and cover up l