Ballistic gelatin is a testing medium scientifically correlated to swine muscle tissue, in which the effects of bullet wounds can be simulated. It was developed and improved by Martin Fackler and others in the field of wound ballistics, ballistic gelatin is a solution of gelatin powder in water. Ballistic gelatin closely simulates the density and viscosity of human and animal muscle tissue, and is used as a standardized medium for testing the terminal performance of firearms ammunition. The most commonly used formula is a 10% ballistic gelatin, which is prepared by dissolving 1 part 250 bloom gelatin into 9 parts of warm water, mixing the water while pouring in the powdered gelatin. The older NATO formula specifies a 20% solution, chilled to 10 °C, in either case, a 1988 research paper by Martin Fackler recommends that the water should not be heated above 40 °C, as this can cause a significant change in the ballistic performance. While the exact calibration methods vary slightly, the method used by the INS National Firearms Unit is fairly typical.
It requires a velocity of 183 ±3 m/s, and a BB penetration between 8.3 and 9.5 cm. MacPhersons Figure 5-2, Velocity Variation Correction to Measured BB Penetration Depth, ballistic gels made from natural gelatin are typically yellow-brown in color, and are not re-usable. Newer synthetic substitutes are engineered to closely simulate the ballistic properties of gelatin, while being colorless. Some synthetic gels are re-usable, since they can be melted and reformed multiple times without affecting the ballistic properties of the gels and these bullets use the hydraulic pressure of the tissue or gelatin to expand in diameter, limiting penetration and increasing the tissue damage along their path. Bullets intended for hunting are tested in ballistic gelatin. They sometimes placed real bones or synthetic bones in the gel to simulate bone breaks as well, various weapons are tested on the gel torso to simulate and record the destructive effects the weapons would have on a real human body
The service rifle of a given army or armed force is that which it issues as standard to its soldiers. In modern forces, this is typically a highly versatile and rugged assault rifle, battle rifle or carbine suitable for use in all theatres. These may include urban warfare and jungle warfare environments, most armies have service pistols/side arms. Originally, rifles used in combat were not standard-issue weapons like the service rifles of today. Rifles were for specialist marksmen only, whilst the ordinary infantry were issued less accurate smoothbore muskets which had a rate of fire, with bore diameters as high as 19 mm. By the middle of the 19th century, rifles were becoming more and more common on the battlefield, these combat rifles were single-shot muzzle-loading weapons, but as technology advanced through the 18th and 19th centuries, so too did the technique of loading rounds. By this time almost all prominent armies in the world had some sort of service rifle. During the Second World War, there was yet another leap forward in design which was to influence service rifles even today.
That is, the use of a fired cartridges gas emissions to automatically rechamber rounds into the once a bullet had been fired. These weapons were known as gas-operated firearms and these rifles usually fired a full-sized cartridge, such as the. 30-06 Springfield or.303 British, as opposed to an intermediate rifle cartridge. The first of these was the Sturmgewehr 44, used by Nazi Germany in the stages of the Second World War. The StG44 was not issued in numbers, and was never adopted as Germanys service rifle. The Haitian Army was disbanded by the United States, and replaced in 1915 by the Gendarmerie dHaïti, the Haitian Army was again disbanded in 1995. Tibet was de facto independent from 1912 until the 1950s, and fielded the Tibetan Army List of assault rifles
The Modular Sniper Rifle, or MSR, is a bolt-action sniper rifle recently developed and produced by Remington Arms for the United States Army. It was introduced in 2009, and was designed to meet specific United States Army, the MSR won the PSR competition, and is called the Remington Mk 21 Precision Sniper Rifle in U. S. military service. On 7 March 2013, MSR was declared the winner of the Precision Sniper Rifle competition, Remington announced that the MSR had won on March 8, and it was publicly confirmed on March 9. This was followed by a $79.7 million contract for 5,150 rifles with suppressors, the contract was awarded on 12 September 2013. The Remington MSR is a manually operated weapon with a rotary locking bolt. To facilitate caliber change, the bolt is equipped with bolt heads. Bolt heads have three radial locking lugs, the MSR rifle is built upon an aluminum alloy chassis, which hosts a compact receiver, adjustable trigger unit, pistol grip, and fully adjustable side-folding buttstock.
The quick-change barrels are free-floated inside the tubular handguard which is provided with a number of user-installable Picatinny type accessory rails, the top of receiver is fitted with monolithic Picatinny rail used to install sighting equipment. Additional equipment includes detachable folding bipod, and a quick-detachable suppressor which installs over the specially designed muzzle brake, the model that won the PSR competition is a modified version of the original MSR. It can be chambered in 7. 62×51mm NATO.300 Winchester Magnum and it is reported to have 0.7 MOA average accuracy at 1,000 m with both Barnes and ATK300 gr.338 Lapua Magnum ammunition. Israel, Metzada take-over unit of the Israel Prison Service
Recoil is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged. To apply this counter-recoiling force, modern mounted guns may employ recoil buffering comprising springs and hydraulic recoil mechanisms, early cannons used systems of ropes along with rolling or sliding friction to provide forces to slow the recoiling cannon to a stop. Recoil buffering allows the maximum counter-recoil force to be lowered so that strength limitations of the gun mount are not exceeded, the same pressures acting on the base of the projectile are acting on the rear face of the gun chamber, accelerating the gun rearward during firing. This results in the required counter-recoiling force being proportionally lower, modern cannons employ muzzle brakes very effectively to redirect some of the propellant gasses rearward after projectile exit. This provides a force to the barrel, allowing the buffering system. The same physics affecting recoil in mounted guns and cannons applies to hand-held guns, hands and shoulders have considerable strength and elasticity for this purpose, up to certain practical limits.
For this reason, establishing recoil safety standards for small arms remains challenging, a change in momentum of a mass requires a force, according to Newtons first law, known as the law of inertia, inertia simply being another term for mass. That force, applied to a mass, creates an acceleration, according to Newtons second law, the law of momentum -- changing the velocity of the mass changes its momentum. It is important to understand at this point that velocity is not simply speed, velocity is the speed of a mass in a particular direction. In a very technical sense, speed is a scalar, a magnitude, in summation, the total momentum of the system equals zero, surprisingly just as it did before the trigger was pulled. There are two conservation laws at work when a gun is fired, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, recoil is explained by the law of conservation of momentum, and so it is easier to discuss it separately from energy. The nature of the process is determined by the force of the expanding gases in the barrel upon the gun.
It is determined by the force applied to the gun. The recoil force only acts during the time that the ejecta are still in the barrel of the gun, except for the case of zero-recoil, the counter-recoil force is smaller than the recoil force but lasts for a longer time. Since the recoil force and the force are not matched. In the zero-recoil case, the two forces are matched and the gun will not move when fired. In most cases, a gun is very close to a free-recoil condition, an example of near zero-recoil would be a gun securely clamped to a massive or well-anchored table, or supported from behind by a massive wall. For example, placing the butt of a large caliber gun directly against a wall, the recoil of a firearm, whether large or small, is a result of the law of conservation of momentum
Turkish Armed Forces
The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force, in wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the overall head. The current Chief of the General staff is General Hulusi Akar, the Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, he acts as the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of Turkey, the General Staff coordinates the military relations of the TAF with NATO member states and other friendly nations. The modern history of the army began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalist ideology, the official state ideology, especially of the secular aspects of Kemalism. After becoming a member of NATO on 18 February 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive program for its armed forces. The Turkish Army sent troops to fight in Korea, where they played pivotal roles at some points, towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated.
The Turkish Armed Forces participate in European Union battlegroups under the control of the European Council, the TAF contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army corps initiative of the EU and NATO. The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second largest standing military force in NATO, Armed Forces, with an estimated strength in 2015 of 639,551 military and paramilitary personnel. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Italy. After the end of World War I, many Ottoman military personnel escaped from Rumelia to Anatolia in order to part in the national movement. Turkey won the War of Independence in 1922, Turkey remained neutral until the final stages of World War II. In the initial stage of World War II, Turkey signed a treaty of assistance with Great Britain. But after the fall of France, the Turkish government tried to maintain a distance with both the Allies and the Axis. After the German-Soviet War broke out, the Turkish government sent a delegation of observers under Lieutenant General Ali Fuat Erden to the German Eastern Front.
Turkey participated in the Korean War as a state of the United Nations and sent the Turkish Brigade to South Korea. On 18 February 1952, Turkey became a member of NATO, the Korean government donated a war memorial for the Turkish soldiers who fought and died in Korea
Advanced Armament Corporation
Advanced Armament Corporation or AAC is an American company that develops and manufactures firearms, firearm silencers, muzzle devices and related accessories. Under Brittinghams direction, AAC grew to be one of the largest silencer manufacturers in the U. S. including a number of military contracts. Of note, one of AACs chief silencer designers is Robert Silvers, in 2009, Brittingham sold the company to Remington Arms. Robert Silvers remained at the company as a leader of research, in early 2015 AAC moved locations from Lawrenceville, GA to a new, state of the art facility located in Huntsville, AL. The company produces numerous lifestyle products related to AAC and/or the NFA firearms community, including T-shirts, stickers, AACs silencer lineup includes models suitable for virtually every firearm caliber between.22 Long Rifle and.50 BMG. Rimfire models include the Avaitor2, and Element2, centerfire rifle suppressors include the M4-2000, 762-SDN-6, SR series as well as the Cyclone, and others.
The companys Titan-QD Fast-Attach suppressor is used on the US Armys M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle, the suppressor eliminates 98 percent of muzzle flash,60 percent of recoil, and reduces sound by 32 decibels. Element 2, The Element is a premium thread-on silencer for handguns and rifles chambered in.17 HMR.22 LR, aviator 2, All aluminum thread-on silencer for handguns and rifles chambered in.22 LR that is user serviceable. Dragonfly, The Dragonfly is an integrally suppressed Ruger MK II pistol, The Phoenix is an integrally suppressed Ruger 10/22 rifle.45 ACP caliber pistols that is made from Titanium. Short versions were manufactured using an S suffix in the model names, M4-2000 designed for use with firearms chambered for 5. 56×45mm NATO/.223 Remington. 762-SDN-6 Fast attach 7.62 silencer optimized for the 300 AAC Blackout cartridge, in 2011, AAC was awarded a $14,201,731 contract for the muzzle brakes that they produce known as the Brakeout. This contract was procured via the Navy Electronic Commerce and Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, in 2016 the BlastOut gives users the ability to redirect muzzle blast forward when shooting unsuppressed.
The.300 AAC Blackout cartridge was created by Advanced Armament Corporation in cooperation with Remington Defense and this has led to far wider adoption than the.300 Whisper, which is proprietary to SSK. This round has the overall length and width as the popular 5. 56×45mm NATO round, except it fires a 30 caliber bullet allowing for much better barrier penetration. These dimensions allow the 300 AAC Blackout to be used in existing magazines designed for M16 or AR-15 rifles, because the rim of the cartridge is identical, the same bolt and carrier can be used between calibers. The only part that needs to be changed to convert an existing AR-15 chambered in 5. 56×45mm to one chambered in 300 BLK is the barrel, Advanced Armament Corporation builds a number of rifles and receivers for this caliber including the MPW and the AAC Honey Badger PDW. PDW, a personal defense weapon based on the AR-15. MPW, a rifle chambered in.300 AAC Blackout, made with 16 and 12.5 barrels, additionally AAC partners with the National Rifle Association in grassroots lobbying efforts to educate voters about firearms legislation
A gun barrel is a part of firearms and artillery pieces. The hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore, a gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out by the expanding gas. Modern small arms barrels are made of known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength, early firearms were muzzle-loading, with powder, and shot loaded from the muzzle, capable of only a low rate of fire. During the 19th century effective mechanical locks were invented that sealed a breech-loading weapon against the escape of propellant gases, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, a naturally tubular stalk, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons. Early European guns were made of iron, usually with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, early cannon barrels were very thick for their caliber. Bore evacuator Bore snake Cannon Muzzle Polygonal rifling Rifling Slug barrel Smoothbore
A muzzle brake or recoil compensator is a device connected to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon that redirects propellant gases to counter recoil and unwanted rising of the barrel during rapid fire. They have been used in forms for rifles and pistols to help control recoil. They are used on pistols for practical pistol competitions, and are usually called compensators in this context, the interchangeable terms muzzle rise, muzzle flip, or muzzle climb refer to the tendency of a handheld firearms front end to rise after firing. Firearms with less height from the line to the barrel centerline tend to experience less muzzle rise. The muzzle rises primarily because, for most firearms, the centerline of the barrel is above the center of contact between the shooter and the grip and stock. The reactive forces from the bullet and propellant gases exiting the muzzle act directly down the centerline of the barrel. If that line of force is above the center of the points, this creates a moment or torque rotational force that makes the firearm rotate.
The M1946 Sieg automatic rifle had a muzzle brake that made the rifle climb downward. Muzzle brakes are simple in concept, such as the one employed on the 90 mm M3 gun used on the M47 Patton tank and this consists of a small length of tubing mounted at right angles to the end of the barrel. Brakes most often utilize slots, holes, the strategy of a muzzle brake is to redirect and control the burst of combustion gases that follows the departure of a projectile. All muzzle brake designs share a basic principle, they partially divert combustion gases at a sideways angle. The momentum of the diverted gases thus does not add to the recoil, the angle toward which the gases are directed will fundamentally affect how the brake behaves. If gases are directed upward, they exert a downward force. Construction of a brake or compensator can be as simple as a diagonal cut at the muzzle end of the barrel to direct some of the escaping gas upward. On the AKM assault rifle, the brake angles slightly to the right to counteract the movement of the rifle under recoil.
Another simple method is porting, where holes or slots are machined into the barrel near the muzzle to allow the gas to escape, more advanced designs use baffles and expansion chambers to slow escaping gases. This is the principle behind a linear compensator. Ports are often added to the chambers, producing the long
A milliradian, often called a mil or mrad, is an SI derived unit for angular measurement which is defined as a thousandth of a radian. Mils are used in adjustment of firearm sights by adjusting the angle of the sight compared to the barrel, Mils are used for comparing shot groupings, or to compare the difficulty of hitting different sized targets at different distances. Using optics with mil markings in the one can make a range estimation of a known size target, or vice versa to determine a target size if the distance is known. In such applications it is useful to use a unit for target size that is a thousandth of the unit for range, for instance by using the metric units millimeters for target size and meters for range. This coincides with the definition of the milliradian where the arc length is defined as 1/1000 of the radius, a common adjustment value in firearm sights is 1 cm at 100 meters which equals 10 mm/100 m = 1/10 mil. The true definition of a milliradian is based on a circle with a radius of one.
There are other definitions used for mapping and artillery which are rounded to more easily be divided into smaller parts. The milliradian was first used in the mid nineteenth century by Charles-Marc Dapples and minutes were the usual units of angular measurement but others were being proposed, with grads under various names having considerable popularity in much of northern Europe. However, Imperial Russia used a different approach, dividing a circle into equilateral triangles, around the time of the start of World War I, France was experimenting with the use of milliemes for use with artillery sights instead of decigrades. The United Kingdom was trialing them to replace degrees and minutes and they were adopted by France although decigrades remained in use throughout World War I. The United States, which copied many French artillery practices, adopted mils, before 2007 the Swedish defence forces used streck which is closer to the milliradian but changed to NATO mils. After the Bolshevik Revolution and the adoption of the system of measurement the Red Army expanded the 600 unit circle into a 6000 mil one.
Hence the Russian mil has a different origin than those derived from French artillery practices. In the 1950s, NATO adopted metric units of measurement for land, Mils and kilograms became standard, although degrees remained in use for naval and air purposes, reflecting civil practices. The approximation error by using the linear formula will increase as the angle increases. New shooters are often explained the principle of subtensions in order to understand that a milliradian is an angular measurement, subtension is the physical amount of space covered by an angle and varies with distance. Thus, the corresponding to a mil varies with range. Subtensions always change with distance, but a mil is always a mil regardless of distance, therefore ballistic tables and shot corrections are given in mils thereby avoiding the need of mathematical calculations
A handgun is a firearm designed to be handheld, in either one or both hands. This characteristic differentiates handguns as a class of firearms from long guns such as rifles. Major handgun subtypes are the revolver and pistol, other subtypes include derringers, the words pistol and handgun have overlapping variations, in meaning. Although handgun use often includes bracing with a hand, the essential distinguishing characteristic of a handgun is its facility for one-handed operation. The word pistol is often synonymous with the word handgun, some handgun experts make a technical distinction that views pistols as a subset of handguns. But UK/Commonwealth usage often does not make this distinction, handheld firearms were first made in China where gunpowder was first developed. By the 14th century, they existed in Europe as well, the first handheld firearms that might better be called pistols were made as early as the 15th century, but their creator is unknown. By the 18th century, the term came to be used often to refer to handheld firearms, previously there had been no such differentiation, and in fact Samuel Colts original patent was for a revolving-breech pistol.
There is no equivalent for handgun in the Romance languages. The general types of handguns are listed below in their order of historical appearance, each type can be classified into many sub-types. Some of these types can be classified using the general distinction between muzzle-loading firearms and breech-loading firearms. Single-shot pistols are the simplest possible form of pistols and are known to have existed in AD1365, the earliest handguns were single-shot, muzzle-loading guns with ignition provided by inserting a smoldering match cord into a touch hole. As such, they were nothing more than miniature cannon. Improvements followed in subsequent centuries, as types of locks were invented. In the matchlock, the separate match cord was affixed to a pivot which could be tripped by a trigger. In the wheellock, an analogous to that used in todays cigarette lighters replaced the smoldering match cord. In the 17th century, the flintlock, which strikes a flint against steel, the flintlock remained the standard method of small arms ignition around two hundred years.
In the 19th century, percussion caps were developed, followed shortly by modern integrated-primer cartridges, an example of a single-shot pistol is the flare gun
The Barrett M82, standardized by the US Military as the M107, is a recoil-operated, semi-automatic sniper rifle developed by the American Barrett Firearms Manufacturing company. It is used by units and armies around the world. Despite its designation as a rifle, it is used by some armed forces as an anti-personnel sniper rifle. It is called the Light Fifty for its.50 BMG chambering, the weapon is found in two variants, the original M82A1 and the bullpup M82A2. The M82A2 is no longer manufactured, though the XM500 can be seen as its successor, Barrett began his work in the early 1980s, and the first working rifles were available in 1982, hence the designation M82. Barrett designed every single part of the weapon personally and went on to market the weapon and he continued to develop his rifle through the 1980s, and developed the improved M82A1 rifle by 1986. The first conventional military success was the sale of about 100 M82A1 rifles to the Swedish Army in 1989, major success followed in 1990, when the United States armed forces purchased significant numbers of the M82A1 during operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in Kuwait and Iraq.
About 125 rifles were bought by the United States Marine Corps. The M82A1 is known by the US military as the SASR—Special Applications Scoped Rifle, the M82 can be used to defeat human targets from standoff range or against targets behind cover. Further development led to the M82A2 bullpup rifle in 1987, which was a design to be fired from the shoulder. It failed to make an impression on the firearms market. However, in 2006, Barrett completed development of the XM500, the latest derivative of the M82 family is the M82A1M rifle, adopted by U. S. Marine Corps as the M82A3 SASR and bought in large numbers. This rifle differs from M82A1 in that it has a full-length Picatinny rail that allows a variety of scopes. Other changes are the addition of a rear monopod, slightly lightened mechanism, the M82 is widely used for civilian.50 caliber long-range shooting competitions, being fired accurately out to 910 metres and even farther. Barrett M82 rifles have attracted attention from law enforcement agencies, they have been adopted by the New York City Police Department.
If it becomes necessary to immobilize a vehicle, a.50 BMG round in the block will shut it down quickly. If it is necessary to breach barriers, a.50 BMG round will penetrate most commercial brick walls, according to the documentary The Brooklyn Connection, M82s smuggled into Kosovo by sympathizers in the United States quickly became popular long-range sniper rifles in the Kosovo Liberation Army. The Barrett M82A1 rifle was used in 2002 as a platform for the experimental OSW prototype and this weapon was fitted with a shorter barrel, and fired 25mm high-explosive shells developed for the 25×59 mm OCSW automatic grenade launcher