First Indochina War
The First Indochina War began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946 and lasted until 1 August 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Viet Minh opponents in the South dated from September 1945, Japanese forces located south of that line surrendered to him and those to the north surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. In September 1945, Chinese forces entered Tonkin and a small British task force landed at Saigon, the Chinese accepted the Vietnamese government under Ho Chi Minh, in power in Hanoi. The British refused to do likewise in Saigon, and deferred to the French there from the outset, on V-J Day, September 2, Ho Chi Minh had proclaimed in Hanoi the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. On 23 September 1945, with the knowledge of the British Commander in Saigon, French forces overthrew the local DRV government, guerrilla warfare began around Saigon immediately. The first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French, French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire, French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion.
The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming more unpopular at home. It was called the dirty war by leftists in France, the strategy of pushing the Viet Minh into attacking well-defended bases in remote parts of the country at the end of their logistical trails was validated at the Battle of Nà Sản. However, this base was relatively weak because of a lack of concrete and this combination proved fatal for this base defenses, culminating in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The south continued under Emperor Bảo Đại, a year later, Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam. Soon an insurgency, backed by the North, developed against Diệms government, the conflict gradually escalated into the Vietnam War. Vietnam was absorbed into French Indochina in stages between 1858 and 1887, nationalism grew until World War II provided a break in French control. Early Vietnamese resistance centered on the intellectual Phan Bội Châu, Châu looked to Japan, which had modernized and was one of the few Asian nations to successfully resist European colonization.
With Prince Cường Để, Châu started two organizations in Japan, the Duy Tân hội and Vietnam Cong Hien Hoi, due to French pressure, Japan deported Phan Bội Châu to China. Witnessing Sun Yat-sens 1911 nationalist revolution, Châu was inspired to commence the Viet Nam Quang Phục Hội movement in Guangzhou, from 1914 to 1917, he was imprisoned by Yuan Shikais counterrevolutionary government. In 1925, he was captured by French agents in Shanghai, due to his popularity, Châu was spared from execution and placed under house arrest until his death in 1940. In September 1940, shortly after Phan Bội Châus death, Japan launched its invasion of French Indochina, keeping the French colonial administration, the Japanese ruled from behind the scenes in a parallel of Vichy France. As far as Vietnamese nationalists were concerned, this was a double-puppet government, Emperor Bảo Đại collaborated with the Japanese, just as he had with the French, ensuring his lifestyle could continue
The M46 was an American medium tank designed to replace the M26 Pershing and M4 Sherman. It was one of the U. S Armys principal medium tanks of the early Cold War and it was not widely used by U. S. Cold War allies, being exported only to Belgium, and only in numbers to train crews on the upcoming M47 Patton. The M46 was the first tank to be named after General George S. Patton Jr. commander of the U. S, third Army during World War II and one of the earliest American advocates for the use of tanks in battle. After World War II, most U. S. Army armored units were equipped with a mix of M4 Sherman, designed initially as a heavy tank, the M26 Pershing tank was reclassified as a medium tank postwar. The M26 was a significant improvement over the M4 Sherman in firepower and its mobility, was deemed unsatisfactory for a medium tank, as it used the same engine as the much lighter M4A3 and was plagued with an unreliable transmission. Work began in January 1948 on replacing the power plant with the Continental AV1790-3 engine.
This design was called the M26E2, but modifications continued to accumulate, eventually. When the rebuild began in November 1949, the upgraded M26 received not only a new plant and a main gun with a bore evacuator. In total,1,160 M26s were rebuilt,800 to the M46 standard,360 to the M46A1, the only American combat use of the M46 Patton was during the Korean War. On 8 August 1950, the first M46 Patton tanks, belonging to the 6th Tank Battalion, the tank proved superior to the much lighter North Korean T-34-85, which were encountered in relatively small numbers. Subsequent shipments of M46 and M46A1 Pattons allowed all remaining M26 Pershings to be withdrawn during 1951, several other regimental tank companies gained M46/M46A1s by the end of the war, including the 7th and 65th Infantry Regiments of the 3rd Infantry Division. A surviving example of the M46 Patton tank can be seen on display at the War Memorial of Korea in Seoul, South Korea. In the 1950s, small numbers of M46s were leased for training purposes at no cost to some European countries, including Belgium and Italy, American instruction teams used the vehicles to train European tank crews and maintenance personnel.
M46A1 – Product improved variant with improved braking and fire systems, as well as improved electrical equipment, AV-1790-5B engine. M46 - Variant equipped with M3 dozer kit, Belgium France Italy United States List of armored fighting vehicles T-54 Soviet tank M47 Patton M48 Patton M60 Patton M103 heavy tank G-numbers SNL G244 AFV Database, M46 Patton Patton-Mania
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962.
Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict.
As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decades
The Light Tank M22 or Locust was an American-designed airmobile light tank which was produced during World War II. The United States Ordnance Department was asked to produce this replacement, after a series of modifications were made to the initial prototype, production of the T9 began in April 1943. It was significantly delayed, when several faults were found with the tanks design, as a result, the Ordnance Department gave the tank the specification number M22 but no combat units were equipped with it. However, the War Office believed that the tank would perform adequately despite its faults, in October 1944 however, the remaining Tetrarchs of the regiment were replaced by Locusts and eight were used during Operation Varsity in March 1945. The tanks did not perform well in action, several were damaged during the landing process, only two Locusts were able to reach their planned rendezvous point and go into action, occupying a piece of high ground along with an infantry company. The tanks were forced to withdraw from the position after several hours however, the Locust never saw active service with the British Army again and was classified as obsolete in 1946.
When officials at the War Office examined the equipment that would be required for a British airborne division and these gliders would be used to transport troops and heavy equipment, which by 1941 was to include artillery and some form of tank. In a conference held on January 16,1941, it was decided that the General Aircraft Hamilcar, under development at the time, as a result, the Vickers-Armstrong Light Tank Mk VII Tetrarch light tank was now considered obsolete. This made it available for use by the forces and it was chosen by the War Office as the tank to be transported by glider. However, it had not been designed specifically as a tank or to be airmobile. Its size limited the crew to three—a driver in the hull. The War Office was aware that the tank had a faulty cooling system made the Tetrarch unsuitable for service in hotter climates, such as the Middle East. Instead the American government was approached with a request that it produce a replacement for the Tetrarch, the proposed tank was to have a primary armament of a 37-millimetre main gun and secondary armament of a.
30-06 Browning M1919A4, and a crew of three. The specification called for a speed of 40 mph. The turret and front of the hull were to have a thickness of between 40 millimetres and 50 millimetres, and the sides of the tank a thickness of 30 millimetres. The design offered by Christie in mid-1941 was rejected as it failed to meet the size requirements. The T9 had a crew of three and weighed 6.7 metric tons and it was armed with a 37-millimetre main gun and a coaxial. 30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine-gun, as well as two further machine-guns on the right-hand side of the bow. The main gun and coaxial machine-gun were mounted in a powered turret, the tanks engine was able to give it a maximum speed of 40 mph
M103 (heavy tank)
The M103 Heavy Tank served in the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps during the Cold War. The last M103s were withdrawn from service in 1974, the M103 was the last heavy tank to be used by the US military as the concept of the Main Battle Tank evolved, making heavy tanks obsolete. Like the contemporary British Conqueror tank, the M103 was designed to counter Soviet heavy tanks and its long-ranged 120 mm cannon was designed to hit enemy tanks at extreme distances. In 1953–54 a series of 300 tanks, initially designated T43E1, were built by Chrysler at the Newark plant, testing was unsatisfactory, the tanks failing to meet Continental Army Commands standards and the tanks were put into storage in August 1955. After 98 improvement modifications were approved, on 26 April,1956 the tank was designated the M103 Heavy Tank. Of the 300 T43E1s built,80 went to the US Army, following contemporary American design philosophy, the M103 was built with a two-piece, cast elliptic armor scheme, similar to the M48’s design.
It featured seven road wheels per side, mounted with long-arm independent torsion bars, the 28” track was shoed in steel backed rubber chevron tracks, allowing for a ground pressure of 12.9 psi. This allowed the 60-ton heavy tank to achieve a road speed of 34 km/h. Initial production versions suffered a host of mechanical problems. The Continental powerpack, shared by the much lighter M48/M60 tanks, was insufficient to drive the much heavier M103, the resulting performance of the tank was dismal, being severely underpowered and very fuel intensive. This presented a host of problems for the vehicle, most prominently the extremely limited range of just 80 miles. Though this was corrected with the introduction of the AV-1790-2 diesel unit, it would remain cumbersome. For ease of production, many of the components of the tank were made from cast plate. This design scheme was much more mass efficient than traditional uniform plate armor. Despite being similarly protected than the T29-series of prototypes which preceded it, the frontal hull glacis was a compound pike, welded at the center seam, with up to 10 inches thick armor at the direct front.
Larger than that of the M48 and M60, the turret was a massive single-piece cast design, the M103 was designed specifically to mount the 120mm M58 gun, fitted in the M89 turret mount. Using standard Armor-Piercing Ballistic Cap Tracer Rounds, it was capable of penetrating 221mm of 30-degree sloped rolled-homogenous armor at 1000 yards and it could penetrate 124mm 60-degree sloped rolled-homogenous armour at 1000 yards and 114mm at 2000 yards. The commander could select from 34 rounds of either M358 Armor-Piercing Ballistic Cap Tracer Rounds or the M469 HEAT shells, mounted at the rear of the turret and in the hull
In British service it was given the service name Chaffee after the United States Army General Adna R. Chaffee, Jr. who helped develop the use of tanks in the United States armed forces. While long removed from American and British service, it is found in service as a light tank in third-world countries. British combat experience in the North African campaign identified several shortcomings of the M3 Stuart light tank, the M3/M5 design was dated though, the 75 mm gun reduced storage space, and the armor was insufficient. The weight increase without increased power gave it unsatisfactory performance, the program was stopped in March 1943 to allow standardization on a medium tank - the M4 medium. The powerplant and transmission of the M5 were used together with some aspects of the T7, every effort was made to keep the weight of the vehicle under 20 tons. The armor was light, with the glacis plate only 25 mm thick. A new lightweight 75 mm gun was developed, a derivative of the gun used in the B-25H Mitchell bomber, the gun had the same ballistics as the 75 mm M3 in use by American tanks but used a thinly walled barrel and different recoil mechanism.
The design featured -16 in - tracks and torsion bar suspension, the torsion bar system was to give a smoother ride than the vertical volute suspension used on most US armored vehicles. At the same time, the chassis was expected to be a used for other vehicles, such as self-propelled guns. It had a low silhouette and a three-man turret. On October 15,1943, the first pilot vehicle was delivered, the design was judged a success and a contract for 1,000 was immediately raised by the Ordnance Department. This was subsequently increased to 5,000, production began in 1944 under the designation Light Tank M24. It was produced at two sites, from April at Cadillac and from July at Massey-Harris, by the time production was stopped in August 1945,4,731 M24s had been produced. The M24 Chaffee was intended to replace the aging and obsolete Light Tank M5, the first thirty-four M24s reached Europe in November 1944 and were issued to the U. S. 2nd Cavalry Group in France. These were issued to Troop F, 2nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron and Troop F, 42nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, which each received seventeen M24s.
During the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, these units and their new tanks were rushed to the southern sector, the M24 started to enter widespread use in December 1944, but they were slow in reaching the front-line combat units. By the end of the war, many armored divisions were mainly equipped with the M3/M5 Stuart. Some armored divisions did not receive their first M24s until the war was over, reports from the armored divisions that received them prior to the end of hostilities were generally positive
The.30 refers to the caliber of the bullet, and the 06 refers to the year the cartridge was adopted—1906. It replaced the. 30-03, 6mm Lee Navy, and. 30-40 Krag cartridges and it remains a very popular sporting round, with ammunition produced by all major manufacturers. In the early 1890s, the U. S. military adopted the smokeless powder. 30-40 Krag rimmed cartridge, the 1894 version of that cartridge used a 220-grain round-nose bullet. Around 1901, the U. S. started developing an experimental rimless cartridge for a Mauser action with box magazine and that led to the 1903. 30-03 rimless service round that used the same 220-grain round-nose bullet as the Krag. The. 30-03 achieved a velocity of 2,300 ft/s. Consequently, the round-nosed U. S. 30-03 service cartridge was falling behind. For these reasons, the U. S. military developed a new, cartridge in 1906, the cartridge was loaded with Military Rifle 21 propellant, and its maximum range was claimed to be 4,700 yd. The M1903 Springfield rifle, which had been introduced alongside the. 30-03 cartridge, was modified to accept the new.
30-06 Springfield cartridge. Modifications to the rifle included shortening the barrel at its breech and resizing the chamber, other changes to the rifle included elimination of the troublesome rod bayonet of the earlier Springfield rifles. The M1906 maximum range was originally overstated, when the M1906 cartridge was developed, the range tests had been done to only 1,800 yards, distances beyond that were estimated, but the estimate for extreme range was wrong by almost 40 percent. The range discrepancy became evident during World War I, before the widespread employment of light mortars and artillery, long-range machine gun barrage or indirect fires were considered important in U. S. infantry tactics. When the US entered World War I, it did not have machine guns, so it acquired British. When those weapons were replaced with US machine guns firing the M1906 round. Firing tests performed around 1918 at Borden Brook Reservoir, patrone was inroduced in 1914 and used a 197. 5-grain s. S. - schweres Spitzgeschoß boat-tail bullet which had a maximum range of approximately 5,140 yd.
Its maximum range was approximately 5,500 yd. Additionally, wartime surplus totaled over 2 billion rounds of ammunition. Army regulations called for training use of the oldest ammunition first, as a result, the older. 30-06 ammunition was expended for training, stocks of.30 M1 Ball ammunition were allowed to slowly grow until all of the older M1906 ammunition had been fired. By 1936, it was discovered that the range of the.30 M1 Ball ammunition with its boat-tailed spitzer bullets was beyond the safety limitations of many ranges. An emergency order was made to manufacture quantities of ammunition that matched the ballistics of the earlier M1906 cartridge as soon as possible
M1919 Browning machine gun
The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The M1919 saw service as an infantry, mounted, aircraft. Many M1919s were rechambered for the new 7. 62×51mm NATO round, the M1919 was an air-cooled development of the standard US machine gun of World War I, the John M. Browning-designed water-cooled M1917. The emergence of machine guns in the 1950s pushed the M1919 into secondary roles in many cases. The United States Navy converted many to 7. 62mm NATO, many NATO countries converted their examples to 7.62, and these remained in service well into the 1990s, as well as up to the present day in some countries. A similar conversion of the M1917 produced the larger M2 Machine Gun, using the basic operating principles and layout. The M1919 is distinguished by its size and the use of a pierced cheese-grater-like guard around the barrel used on most versions. The M1919 originally fired the.30 cal M1906 ball cartridge, a metal M1 link was adopted, forming a disintegrating belt.
The cocking handle was pulled back with the palm of the hand facing up. This advanced the first round of the belt in front of the bolt for the extractor/ejector on the bolt to grab the first cartridge, the cocking handle was pulled and released a second time. This removed the first cartridge from the belt, advanced the next round into position to be grabbed and moved the first round down into the chamber of the ready for firing. As the bolt went into battery, the extractor grabbed the next round on the belt that was advanced and was resting in the feedway waiting to be loaded. If the trigger was held down, the gun would continue to fire in full automatic, the guns original design was as a water-cooled machine gun. When it was decided to try to lighten the gun and make it air-cooled, gunners were trained to manage the barrel heat by firing in controlled bursts of three to five rounds, with a delay between bursts to delay its heating. When the gun was ready to fire, a round would be in the chamber and the bolt and barrel group would be locked together, with the locking block at the rear of the bolt.
As the assembly of bolt and barrel extension recoiled to the rear of the gun upon firing, the recoiling barrel extension struck the accelerator assembly, a half-moon shaped spring-loaded piece of metal pivoting from the receiver below the bolt and behind the barrel extension. The tips of the accelerators two curving fingers engaged the bottom of the bolt and caused it to move rapidly to the rear. The extractor-ejector was a mechanism that pivoted over the front of the bolt, the rearward movement of the bolt caused the rear end of the feed lever to pull to the right, causing the feeding pawl at the other end to move left over the belt
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history. Officially, East Pakistan had earlier called for its seccession from the unity of Pakistan on 26 March 1971, the remaining 10,324 to 15,000 prisoners were civilians, either family members of the military personnel or collaborators. It is estimated that between 300,000 and 3,000,000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh, as a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people fled the country at the time to seek refuge in neighbouring India. Which made it difficult to govern both wings. In addition, there were religious and racial tensions between Bengalis and multi-ethnic Pakistanis as Bengalis looked a lot different from their dominant Western Pakistanis. The Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman stressed his political position to resolve the crises by presenting his Six Points. The Awami Leagues election dominancy feared many Pakistanis that would allow the Bengalis to draft the constitution on towards the six-points, the mission was not supported by the elements in the National Security Council and was subsequently vetoed.
President Yahya Khan postponed the inauguration of the National Assembly and this caused a shattering disillusionment to the Awami League, in early March 1971, approximately ~300 Biharis were slaughtered in rioting by Bengali mobs in Chittagong alone. The Government of Pakistan used the Bihari massacre to justify its deployment of the military in East Pakistan on 25 March when it initiated its military crackdown. Mass arrests of dissidents began and after days of strikes and non-cooperation movement. The Awami League was declared outlawed by the government and many of its members and sympathizers took refuge in Eastern India, Mujib was arrested on the night of 25/26 March 1971 at about 1,30 am and taken to Pakistan. The next action carried out was Operation Searchlight followed by Operation Barisal, on 26 March 1971, Major Ziaur Rahman of Pakistan Army declared the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. In April, the exiled Awami League leaders formed a government-in-exile in Baidyanathtala of Meherpur, the East Pakistan Rifles, Bengali officers in Pakistans army and marines, defected to the rebellion after taking refuge in different parts of India. M.
The resulting flood of impoverished East Pakistani refugees placed a strain on Indias already overburdened economy. Unlike his contemporary Yaqub who was a pacifist and knew well of the limits of force, confessing at the hearings of War Enquiry Commission, Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi reportedly comment on his actions and noted, On the night between 25/26 March 1971, Tikka struck, peaceful night was turned into a time of wailing and burning. Tikka let loose everything at his disposal as if raiding an enemy, the military action was a display of stark cruelty more merciless than the massacres at Bukhara and Baghdad by Chengiz Khan and Halaku Khan. Resorted to the killing of civilians and a scorched earth policy and his orders to his troops were, I want the land not the people
Tanks in World War II
Tanks were an important weapons system in World War II. Although tanks were the subject of research in the inter-war years. However, during World War II most armies employed tanks, Tank usage and production varied widely among the combatant nations. By wars end, a consensus was emerging regarding tank doctrine, the tank was invented by the British in World War I, with nearly simultaneous development in France. Tanks of the First World War reflected the novelty of the idea, World War I tanks moved at a walking pace, were relatively unreliable, and the best usage of them was still developing up to the wars end. In addition to support, tanks fulfilled traditional cavalry roles, provided mobile artillery support. Tank design gradually improved in the period also. Reflecting the growth of the industry, tank engines, transmissions. By the beginning of the war in September 1939, tanks were available that could travel hundreds of miles on their tracks with a number of breakdowns. The war accelerated the pace of change in design, in particular, the gun-vs-armor race of the war led to rapid improvements in firepower and armor.
The United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, the early tanks of Germany were inferior to many of their opponents tanks in the areas of armor and firepower. However, in their tactical employment the German tanks dominated all rivals early in the war, German doctrine stressed the use of rapid movement, mission-type tactics and combined-arms where tanks operated with mobile infantry and air support, this doctrine was popularly called Blitzkrieg. This doctrine required the Germans to equip their tanks with radios, in contrast, for example, almost 80 percent of French tanks lacked radios, essentially because their battle doctrine was based on a more slow-paced, deliberate conformance to planned movements. This required fewer radios at all levels, French tanks generally outclassed German tanks in firepower and armor in the 1940 campaign, but their poor command and control doctrine negated these advantages. By 1943, two-way radio was nearly universal in all armies, a trend towards heavier tanks was unmistakable as the war proceeded.
In 1939, most tanks had maximum armor of 30 mm or less, by 1945, typical medium tanks had maximum armor over 60 mm thick, with guns in the 75–85 mm range and weights of 30 to 45 t. Light tanks, which dominated most armies early in the war, which had always been considered, but were not previously a universal feature on tanks, became recognized as essential. Also, mounting the gun in a turret ensured that the tank could fire from hull down cover, hull-mounted guns required that most of the vehicle be exposed to enemy fire
Cambodian Civil War
The struggle was complicated by the influence and actions of the allies of the two warring sides. The Cambodian coup of 18 March 1970 put a pro-American, anti-North Vietnamese government in power, the North Vietnamese Army was now threatened by a newly unfriendly Cambodian government. The North Vietnamese turned over some of their conquests and provided assistance to the Khmer Rouge. The Cambodian government hastened to expand its army to combat the North Vietnamese, the U. S. was motivated by the desire to buy time for its withdrawal from Southeast Asia, to protect its ally in South Vietnam, and to prevent the spread of communism to Cambodia. American and both South and North Vietnamese forces directly participated in the fighting, the U. S. assisted the central government with massive U. S. aerial bombing campaigns and direct material and financial aid. After five years of fighting, the Republican government was defeated on 17 April 1975 when the victorious Khmer Rouge proclaimed the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea.
The Cambodian civil war led to the Cambodian Genocide, one of the bloodiest in history, during the early-to-mid-1960s, Prince Norodom Sihanouks policies had protected his nation from the turmoil that engulfed Laos and South Vietnam. On 3 May 1965, Sihanouk broke diplomatic relations with the U. S. ended the flow of American aid, and turned to the PRC, by the late 1960s, Sihanouks delicate domestic and foreign policy balancing act was beginning to go awry. He had agreed to allow the use of the port of Sihanoukville by communist-flagged vessels delivering supplies and these concessions made questionable Cambodias neutrality, which had been guaranteed by the Geneva Conference of 1954. Sihanouk was convinced that the PRC, not the U. S, on 11 September, Cambodia held its first open election. Through manipulation and harassment the conservatives won 75 percent of the seats in the National Assembly, the prince found himself in a political dilemma. One of Lon Nols first priorities was to fix the economy by halting the illegal sale of rice to the communists.
Soldiers were dispatched to the areas to forcibly collect the harvests at gunpoint. On 11 March 1967, while Sihanouk was out of the country in France, a rebellion broke out in the area around Samlaut in Battambang, with the probable encouragement of local communist cadres, the insurrection quickly spread throughout the whole region. Lon Nol, acting in the absence, responded by declaring martial law. Hundreds of peasants were killed and whole villages were laid waste during the repression, Sihanouk ordered the arrest of Chinese middlemen involved in the illegal rice trade, thereby raising government revenues and placating the conservatives. Lon Nol was forced to resign, and, in a typical move, the immediate crisis had passed, but it engendered two tragic consequences. First, it drove thousands of new recruits into the arms of the maquis of the Cambodian Communist Party
The Medium Tank M3 was an American tank used during World War II. In Britain, the tank was called by two names based on the configuration and crew size. Tanks employing US pattern turrets were called the Lee, named after Confederate general Robert E. Lee, variants using British pattern turrets were known as Grant, named after U. S. general Ulysses S. Grant. Design commenced in July 1940, and the first M3s were operational in late 1941. The U. S. Army needed a medium tank armed with a 75mm gun and, coupled with the United Kingdoms immediate demand for 3,650 medium tanks, the design was a compromise meant to produce a tank as soon as possible. They were extensively used in northern Africa and its overall performance was not satisfactory and the tank was withdrawn from combat in most theaters as soon as the M4 Sherman tank became available in larger numbers. In spite of this, it was considered by Hans von Luck to be superior to the best German tank at the time of its introduction, despite being replaced elsewhere, the British continued to use M3s in combat against the Japanese in southeast Asia until 1945.
In 1939, the U. S. Army possessed approximately 400 tanks, mostly M2 Light Tanks, the U. S. funded tank development poorly during the interwar years, and had little experience in design as well as poor doctrine to guide design efforts. The M2 Medium Tank was typical of armored fighting vehicles many nations produced in 1939. When the U. S. entered the war, the M2 design was obsolete with a 37 mm gun,32 mm frontal armor, an impractical number of secondary machine guns. The Panzer III and Panzer IVs success in the French campaign led the U. S. Army to immediately order a new tank armed with a 75 mm gun in a turret. This would be the M4 Sherman, until the Sherman reached production, an interim design with a 75 mm gun was urgently needed. The design was unusual because the main weapon — a larger caliber, the sponson mount was necessary because, at the time, American tank plants were incapable of casting a turret big enough to hold the 75mm main gun. A small turret with a lighter, high-velocity 37 mm gun sat on top of the tall hull, a small cupola on top of the turret held a machine gun.
The use of two guns was seen on the French Char B1 and the Mark I version of the British Churchill tank. In each case, two weapons were mounted to give the tanks adequate capability in firing both anti-personnel high explosive ammunition and armor-piercing ammunition for anti-tank combat, using a hull mounted gun, the M3 design could be produced faster than a tank featuring a turreted gun. It was understood that the M3 design was flawed, but Britain urgently needed tanks, steering was by differential braking, with a turning circle of 37 ft. The turret was power-traversed by a system in the form of an electric motor providing the pressure for the hydraulic motor