The M2 Bradley, or Bradley IFV, is an American infantry fighting vehicle, a member of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle family. It is manufactured by BAE Systems Land & Armaments, United Defense; the Bradley is designed for reconnaissance and to transport a squad of infantry, providing them protection from small arms fire, while providing firepower to both suppress and eliminate most threats to friendly infantry. It is designed to be maneuverable and to be fast enough to keep up with heavy armor during an advance; the M2 holds a crew of three: a commander, a gunner and a driver, as well as six equipped soldiers. The total cost of the program is $5,664,100,000, the average unit costs $3,166,000; the Bradley IFV was developed in response to the amphibious Soviet BMP family of infantry fighting vehicles, to serve as both an Armored personnel carrier, a tank-killer. Design began in 1963 and entered production in 1981. One specific design requirement was that it should be as fast as the new M1 Abrams main battle tank so that they could maintain formations while moving, something which the older M113 armored personnel carrier could not do, as it had been designed to complement the older M60 Patton.
The Bradley is equipped with the M242 25 mm autocannon as its main weapon. The M242 has a single barrel with remote feed selection; the gun has 300 ready rounds in two ready boxes, with another 600 rounds in storage. The two ready boxes allow a selectable mix of rounds, such as the M791 APDS-T, M792 HEI-T rounds; the 25 mm automatic gun is used for clearing bunkers and firing on armored vehicles. While the 25 mm automatic gun is not the weapon of choice for engaging tanks, vehicle commanders, CALL and Army Infantry Center personnel reported isolated instances in which the 25 mm automatic gun had killed tanks. However, Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity officials stated that, on the basis of their assessment of combat vehicles in the Persian Gulf war, for the 25 mm automatic gun to kill a tank, the tank would have to be hit at close range in its more vulnerable areas. Subsequent ammunition developments resulted in the M919 APFSDS-T round, which contains a finned depleted-uranium penetrator similar in concept to armor-piercing munitions used in modern tanks.
The M919 was used in combat during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It is armed with an M240C machine gun mounted coaxially to the M242, with 2,200 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition. For engaging heavier targets, the Bradley has a TOW missile system on board, changed from the M2A1 model onwards to fire TOW II missiles. M2 infantry Bradleys have turreted firing ports for a number of M231 Firing Port Weapons or FPWs, providing a button-up firing position to replace the top-side gunners on the old ACAV, though the M231 is employed. Initial variants carried six, but the side ports were plated over with the new armor used on the A2 and A3 variants, leaving only the two rear-facing mounts in the loading ramp; the use of aluminum armor and the storage of large quantities of ammunition in the vehicle raised questions about its combat survivability. Spaced laminate belts and high hardness steel skirts have been added to versions to improve armor protection, although this increased overall weight to 33 tons. However, actual combat operations have not shown the Bradley to be deficient as losses have been few.
In friendly fire incidents in Desert Storm, many crew members survived hits that resulted in total losses for lighter USMC LAV-25 vehicles. All versions are equipped with two four-barreled smoke grenade launchers on the front of the turret for creating defensive smoke screens, which can be loaded with chaff and flares. In December 2018, the Army revealed it would be installing the Iron Fist on M2 Bradleys of one armored brigade as a near-term active protection system to enhance protection against anti-tank rockets and missiles; the Bradley has a welded aluminum unit or monocoque structure to which the armor is attached on the outside. The suspension is by torsion cranks. Six small rubber rimmed, divided road wheels on each side straddle the location flanges sticking up from the tread; these were of aluminum, but were changed to steel as vehicle weight increased. The steel treads sit on flat hard rubber tires; the Bradley is capable in cross-country open terrain, in accordance with one of the main design objectives of keeping pace with the M1 Abrams main battle tank.
Whereas the M113 would float without much preparation, the Bradley was designed to float by deploying a flotation curtain around the vehicle. This caused. Armor upgrades have negated this capability; the M2, named after World War II General Omar Bradley, carries a crew of three and a six-man dismountable infantry squad. Since entering service with the U. S. Army in 1981, 4,641 M2s have been produced. After the troubled development history of the Bradley additional problems occurred after production started as described in a book by Air Force Colonel James G. Burton, Burton advocated the use of comprehensive live fire tests to be used against loaded military vehicles to check for survivability; the Army and Navy agreed and established the Joint Live Fire testing program in 1984. When testing the Bradley, disagreements occurred between Burton and the Ballistic Research Laboratory at Aberd
Bloodlines of Salem is a Salt Lake City-based family-history group in the United States of America. Its purpose was described as providing a "place where visitors share ideas and information about the Salem witch trials of 1692, its participants and their families. Many visitors have proved their descents from one or more of the participants; the trials unfolded more than three centuries ago and continue to figure prominently in the studies of history and religion. As amateur and professional researchers, or'Salemologists,' however, their study of the trials isn't limited to their lineages." A person is eligible to register a membership with the group if he or she proposes in writing 1) a desire to register, 2) an agreement with the group promise to "remember the Salem Witch Trials and its participants by associating their families and preserving their lineages," "share commercial and historical information about the trials and its participants," and "educate others about group and promise," and 3) a name, city of residence and contact information.
The person won't be charged a registration fee, may use the postnominal abbreviation "MBoS," and may request at any time to cancel or change the registration. A person is eligible to register a descendant membership with the group if he or she is otherwise eligible to register a membership and proves beyond doubt his or her descent from or relationship to one or more participants of the trials with lineages showing detailed descendancy; the person won't be charged a registration fee, may use the postnominal abbreviation "DBoS," may request at any time to cancel or change the registration, must include proof of parentage for each generation, beginning with his or her own, so that the person named first in a generation was a child or relative of the couple named in the following generation. The group was founded in 2007 in Salt Lake City, home of the worldwide Family History Library, to encourage and provide resources to persons who are or suspect they are descendants and relatives of trials participants, or enjoy an interest in the trials.
The current head of BLoS, as of October 2013, is Steven Hale. Group researchers investigate and publish evidence of notable descendants and relatives of trials participants, its 2007 investigation discovered that "Harry Potter" film actor Tom Felton is a relative of several participants including Lt. Nathaniel Felton and John Proctor, hanged during the trials, its 2008 investigation discovered that U. S. President George W. Bush is a descendant or relative of up to 217 participants including as an 8th great-grandson of Mary Parker, hanged during the trials. Comedian Lucille Ball American Red Cross Founder Clara Barton Author Ray Bradbury U. S. President George H. W. Bush U. S. President George W. Bush LGBT activist Konrad Juengling Fashion designer Alexander McQueen, CBE Actress Sarah Jessica Parker Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, second in line to the British throne Actor Tom Felton List of people of the Salem witch trials Salem witch trials Timeline of the Salem witch trials Bloodlines of Salem Salem Office of Tourism & Cultural Affairs Inc. Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project
Hariharan Raja Sharma known as H. Raja is an Indian politician, he started his political-social life as an RSS pracharak. He was a MLA representing the Karaikudi constituency in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly from 2001 to 2006, he is one of the national secretaries of the Bharatiya Janata Party. H. Raja was born to a brahmin family in a village called Melattur near Thanjavur to Hariharan Sharma, his father Hariharan Sharma worked as a professor in Alagappa University and died at the age of 88 in October 2017. H. Raja was a Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh activist before he joined the BJP in 1980, he was elected as an MLA of the Karaikudi constituency from 2001-2006. He assumed several roles in BJP including district convener in 1991, followed by state secretary, state general secretary and national secretary in 2014, he lost to Karti Chidambaram. H. Raja is known for his rhetoric against political opponents, he used to call them as anti-Indians. Once he called journalists. On March 22, 2018, H. Raja is much known for his communal speeches for which the High court requested the Chennai police to check his mental healthOn 10 December 2017, Venkaiah Naidu, Vice President of India condemned H.
Raja when the latter asked communist leader D. Raja to shoot his own daughter. On October 9, 2017,The police filed a case against H. Raja for his malicious public speech against Periyar and Christians in 2014; the Madras High Court has directed the Chennai police to register an FIR against him for his alleged statement that would instigate violence between members of the two communities. On September 17, 2017,BJP national secretary H. Raja failed in his bid to become the President of the Bharat Scouts and Guides, after managing to secure only 52 of the 286 votes polled. He, refused to accept the result and called for the election to be countermanded. On 22 October 2017, Actor Vishal, president of the Tamil Film Producers Council criticised Bharatiya Janata Party national secretary H. Raja for conceding that he had watched parts of actor Vijay’s latest release Mersal online. Mr. Raja had told a Tamil private television channel that he had watched online a few scenes of the movie "which people said, had content which had hurt their sentiments."
On October 24, 2017,The BJP leader H. Raja was under fire over his remarks on the film Mersal's GST and Digital India monologues, was given police protection; that did not stop him from stoking further controversy by saying Mersal film hero Vijay is a Christian and hence the reason for the criticism of GST in his film. Posting a photo of actor Vijay's voter's ID and official letterhead, on his Twitter account, H. Raja indicated that the popular star is a Christian and his full name is C. Vijay JosephOn March 6, 2018, A remark was posted from the verified Facebook page of BJP National Secretary H. Raja, stating, "Who is Lenin? What is his connection to India? What is the connection of communists to India?" Lenin's statue was destroyed in Tripura. Today Lenin's statue, tomorrow Tamil Nadu's EVR Ramaswami's statue; as soon as the DMK opposed the comment, H. Raja distanced himself from the Facebook post and said that the page was maintained by various administrators; the post was soon deleted. On October 22, 2018, BJP Leader H Raja Apologises To Madras High Court for caught on camera abusing the police and the judiciary.
</ref> On September 2019, A village in Tamil Nadu called Veppur where people printed and pasted poster across the village opposing his arrival for the upcoming Vinayagar Chathurthi festival. On the day of Vinayagar Chathurthi, the police of the village imposed 144 to prevent the entry of H. Raja and further communal fight that could be caused because of his statement. On September 17, 2019 H Raja announced his party would trouble the schools run by DMK leaders if opposition parties resorted to protest against ‘Hindi imposition’. Raja told this to media during his trip to Sirkazhi. Raja is the chairman of Passenger Amenities Committee which addresses the grievances of the passengers and ensures cleanliness and safety of the passengers; this committee approved the printing of passenger train tickets in regional languages such as Tamil, Gujarati or Odia. H. Raja had represented as MLA of Karaikudi in the Tamil Nadu Assembly from 2001 to 2006. H. Raja electoral performances in the Indian general elections.
H. Raja contested in Bharat Scouts and Guides in 2017 for the post of president and managed to secure only 52 of the 286 votes polled and lost against P. Mani who got 234 votes; however Raja refused to accept his defeat and said the election has to be countermanded