The M2 machine gun or Browning.50 caliber machine gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning. Its design is similar to Browning's earlier M1919 Browning machine gun, chambered for the.30-06 cartridge. The M2 uses the much larger and much more powerful.50 BMG cartridge, developed alongside and takes its name from the gun itself. It has been referred to in reference to its M2 nomenclature; the design has had many specific designations. It is effective against infantry, unarmored or armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications and low-flying aircraft; the Browning.50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament by the United States from the 1930s to the present. It was used during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Falklands War, the Soviet–Afghan War, the Gulf War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan in the 2000s and 2010s, it is the primary heavy machine gun of NATO countries, has been used by many other countries as well.
The M2 has been in use longer than any other firearm in U. S. inventory except the.45 ACP M1911 pistol designed by John Browning. The current M2HB is manufactured in the U. S. by General Dynamics and U. S. Ordnance for use by the U. S. government, for allies via Foreign Military Sales, as well as by foreign manufacturers such as FN Herstal. Machine guns were used in World War I, weapons of larger than rifle caliber began appearing on both sides of the conflict; the larger rounds were needed to defeat the armor, being introduced to the battlefield, both on the ground and in the air. During World War I, the Germans introduced a armored airplane, the Junkers J. I; the armor made aircraft machine guns using conventional rifle ammunition ineffective. The American Expeditionary Force's commander General John J. Pershing asked for a larger caliber machine gun. Pershing asked the Army Ordnance Department to develop a machine gun with a caliber of at least 0.50 inches and a muzzle velocity of at least 2,700 feet per second.
U. S. Col. John Henry Parker, commanding a machine gun school in France, observed the effectiveness of a French 11 mm incendiary armor-piercing round; the Army Ordnance Department ordered eight experimental Colt machine guns rechambered for the French 11 mm cartridge. The French 11 mm round was found to be unsuitable. Pershing wanted a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s. Development with the French round was dropped. Around July 1917, John M. Browning started redesigning his.30-06 M1917 machine gun for a larger and more powerful round. Winchester worked on the cartridge, a scaled-up version of the.30-06. Winchester added a rim to the cartridge because the company wanted to use the cartridge in an anti-tank rifle, but Pershing insisted the cartridge be rimless; the first.50 caliber machine gun underwent trials on 15 October 1918. It fired at less than 500 rounds per minute, the muzzle velocity was only 2,300 ft/s. Cartridge improvements were promised; the gun was heavy, difficult to control, fired too for the anti-personnel role, was not powerful enough against armor.
While the.50 caliber was being developed, some German T Gewehr 1918 anti-tank rifles and ammunition were seized. The German rounds had a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s, an 800 gr bullet, could penetrate armor 1 in thick at a range of 250 yd. Winchester improved the.50 caliber round to have similar performance. The muzzle velocity was 2,750 ft/s. Efforts by John M. Browning and Fred T. Moore resulted in the water-cooled.50 caliber M1921 Browning machine gun and an aircraft version. These guns were used experimentally from 1921 until 1937, they had the ammunition fed only from the left side. Service trials raised doubts whether the guns would be suitable for aircraft or for anti-aircraft use. A heavy barrel M1921 was considered for ground vehicles. John M. Browning died in 1926. Between 1927 and 1932, S. H. Green studied the design problems of the needs of the armed services; the result was a single receiver design that could be turned into seven types of.50 caliber machine guns by using different jackets and other components.
The new receiver allowed left side feed. In 1933, Colt manufactured several prototype Browning machine guns. With support from the Navy, Colt started manufacturing the M2 in 1933. FN Herstal has manufactured the M2 machine gun since the 1930s. General Dynamics, U. S. Ordnance and Ohio Ordnance Works Inc. are other current manufacturers. A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled barrel was designated the M2 HB; the added mass and surface area of the heavy barrel compensated somewhat for the loss of water-cooling, while reducing bulk and weight: the M2 weighs 121 lb with a water jacket, but the M2 HB weighs 84 lb. Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system was developed called QCB; the lightweight "Army/Navy" prefixed AN/M2 "light-barrel" version of the Browning M2 weighing 60 pounds was developed, became the standard.50-caliber aviation machine gun of the World War II-era for American military aircraft of nearly every type replacing Browning's own air-cooled.30 caliber machine gun design in nearly all
Øystein Linnebo is a Norwegian philosopher. As of August 2012 he is employed in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Oslo, having earlier held a position as Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck College, University of London, he is a fellow of the Norwegian Academy of Letters. Linnebo earned his MA in Mathematics from the University of Oslo in 1995 and his PhD in Philosophy at Harvard University in June 2002. Linnebo's primary areas of concentration are philosophy of logic, philosophy of mathematics, metaphysics, as well as philosophy of language and philosophy of science, he is known for his numerous publications in many top international journals in his field including: The Review of Symbolic Logic, The Journal of Philosophy, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic as well as editing a special edition of Synthese. Additionally, he is the author of the articles "Plural Quantification" and "Platonism in the Philosophy of Mathematics" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, he is an "Area Editor" for philosophy of mathematics on PhilPapers.
In addition to being a Professorial fellow at the Northern Institute of Philosophy, University of Aberdeen he has been awarded many grants. Most he led a research project as part of a European Research Council Starting Grant entitled "Plurals and Paradox: Towards a Type-Free Account" which ran from January 2010 until December 2013. In 2018, he published Thin Objects: An Abstractionist Account, an abstractionist approach to thin objects. Øystein Linnebo at U of London Øystein Linnebo at Bristol Staff Homepage at the University of Oslo
Mandello del Lario is an Italian town and comune in the province of Lecco, in Lombardy, on Lake Como. Since 1921, Mandello del Lario has been home to Moto Guzzi—the Italian motorcycle manufacturer, now a subsidiary of Piaggio & Co. SpA; the village each year since 2001 has hosted GMG. The Grigna massif is located in Mandello's communal territory. Saint George's church has a single hall with a visible truss ceiling and a quadrangular apse with a cross-vaulted ceiling, its present aspect is due to restoration work which began in the 14th century, to a building which had existed since the 11th century. A holy-water font decorated with a geometrical twisting floral motif on the font and with a relief showing a cross on the sides, is preserved from the original building. In the nave are numerous votive frescoes dating back to the 15th century. Official website
Zia Us-Salam is a Pakistani footballer, who plays for Khan Research Laboratories as a midfielder. He is the captain of Khan Research Laboratories, he won five National Challenge Cup with the club. He made his international debut on 19 November 2012, against Singapore in a 4–0 loss. Zia made his international debut on 19 November 2012 in a friendly match against Singapore in a 4–0 loss, he made his competitive debut in 2013 SAFF Championship against Nepal in a 1–1 draw, coming on as a 72nd minute substitute for Muhammad Riaz. He played his first full international against Bangladesh in the competition, as Pakistan won the match 1–2. Zia has not made an appearance for national team since; as of match played 13 January 2019 Khan Research LaboratoriesPakistan Premier League: 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2018–19 National Football Challenge Cup: 2010, 2011, 2012,2015, 2016 Zia Us-Salam at National-Football-Teams.com
The Miami Showband were an Irish showband in the 1960s and 1970s led by singer Dickie Rock and by Fran O'Toole. They had seven number one records on the Irish singles chart. Band members Fran O'Toole, Tony Geraghty, Brian McCoy were killed in the Miami Showband killings in 1975 during The Troubles when returning from a performance in County Down, Northern Ireland; the band was established in Dublin in 1962 by impresario Tom Doherty. He recruited an existing group, the Downbeats Quartet, comprising Joe Tyrell, Tony Bogan, Clem Quinn, Martin Phelan, augmented them with singer Dickie Rock, trumpeter Tommy O'Rourke and vocalist Murty Quinn, bass player Denis Murray; the group's first engagement was at the Palm Beach Ballroom in Portmarnock, as the town of Palm Beach in Florida is near to Miami, they were named the Miami Showband. They became one of the top showbands in the country, their first single, a version of the Elvis Presley album track "There's Always Me" reached number one in the Irish charts in December 1963.
They had four further number one hits over the next two years: "I'm Yours" and "From the Candy Store on the Corner", "Every Step of the Way" and "Wishing It Was You". "Every Step of the Way" was the first song by an Irish artist to go straight in as a number one single in the Irish charts. In 1966, they were chosen to sing Ireland's entry in the Eurovision Song Contest, their song "Come Back To Stay" reached the top of the charts, they appeared on British TV, on Sunday Night at the London Palladium and Thank Your Lucky Stars. In 1967, four members of the band—Murty Quinn, Tommy O'Rourke, Denis Murray and Martin Phelan—split away to form their own group, The Sands, they were replaced by songwriter and singer Fran O'Toole, Paul Ashford, Pat McCarthy, Des Lee and Brian McCoy. The group's final number one came with "Simon Says" in 1968. McCarthy and Tony Bogan left, were replaced by Danny Ellis and Martin Brannigan; the group released an album, The Wind Will Change Tomorrow, in 1970, in the early 1970s played a residency in Las Vegas and performed at Carnegie Hall.
In 1972, the group had another major change, when Dickie Rock left to front his own band, was replaced in the Miami Showband at first by brothers Frankie and Johnny Simon and briefly, by Billy Mac. Following the sacking of Mick Roche in 1974, Fran O'Toole fronted the band, the group being billed as Fran O'Toole and the Miami; the album Miami Country was released in 1973. Line-up changes continued, by 1975 the last remaining member of the original line-up, Clem Quinn, had left; the group comprised Des Lee, Brian McCoy, Tony Geraghty, Fran O'Toole, Steve Travers and Ray Millar. On 31 July 1975, five members of the band were travelling by minibus back to Dublin from a gig in Banbridge, County Down, Northern Ireland. At the townland of Buskhill, outside of Newry, they were stopped at a bogus military checkpoint by gunmen dressed in British Army uniform, who ordered them to get out and line up by the roadside; the gunmen were members of the Ulster Volunteer Force. Two gunmen hid a time bomb on the minibus.
The remaining gunmen opened fire on the band members, killing O'Toole, McCoy and Geraghty and wounding Lee and Travers. Two serving Ulster Defence Regiment soldiers and one former UDR soldier received life sentences after having been found guilty of murder. A monument at Parnell Square North, dedicated to the dead Miami Showband members, was unveiled at a ceremony on 10 December 2007 attended by Lee and Travers; the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, said of O'Toole, McCoy and Geraghty:"Their murder was an atrocity which had such a profound impact on everyone on this island. It is remembered with sadness to this day.... We remember the affection in which they were held by breadth of Ireland, their popularity crossed all all traditions. They wanted to entertain everyone who had a love of music. At a dark time, they were a shining light for so many." After the killings, the Miami Showband continued to perform. Des Lee fronted the band until leaving in 1978 moving to South Africa; the group remained active until 1982, led by Charlie Chapman.
They split up and their management formed a new band, The New Miami, fronted by Caroline Allen. Another new band using the Miami name was formed in 1996, featuring Gerry Brown, brother of the singer Dana. In August 2005, Lee and Millar reunited on stage at a Miami Showband Memorial Concert in Dublin. Following from that, a tour was organised in 2008 with the trio being augmented by Gerry Brown, Johnny Fean, Barry Woods. Tom Doherty died on 21 April 2009. Former members Martin Phelan died 2010 and Paul Ashford born 1950, Bray, Co Wicklow, died 10 January 2011. A stamp was issued on 22 September 2010 by An Post commemorating the Miami Showband; this was one of a series of four stamps issued in Ireland to celebrate the "golden age" of the Irish Showband scene from the 1950s to the 1970s. The 55-cent stamp was designed with a 1967 publicity photograph of the band, fronted by Dickie Rock. Two of the band members killed in the massacre at Bushkill, Fran O'Toole and Brian McCoy, are featured. Nov-1963a – "There's Always Me" / "Boys" Mar-1964a – "I'm Yours" / "Please Don't Drag That String Around" Oct-1964a – "From The Candy Store on the Corner" / "Twenty Flight Rock" Dec-1964a – "Just For Old Time's Sake" / "Me Not You"
The 1962 Football Championship of Ukrainian SSR was the 32nd season of association football competition of the Ukrainian SSR, part of the Ukrainian Class B. It was the thirteenth in the Soviet Class B; the 1962 Football Championship of Ukrainian SSR was won by FC Trudovi Rezervy Luhansk. There was reorganization of professional football competitions with Class A being expanded by adding extra tier and all Class B competitions including in Ukraine were moved to the third tier; this season due to reorganization 35 out of 39 teams were relegated to lower tier by continuing next season to compete in the Ukrainian Class B competitions. Some 150 teams took part in competitions of the Soviet football championship in Class B. Collectives of the second echelon were distributed among 10 zones and represented all Union republics in the championship; the most teams in competitions represent the Russian Federation. They were competing not in five; the total number of teams was not diminished, number of games in each zone increased.
Same as in Russia, independent championship was conducted in Ukraine. In the rest two zones were competing teams of other Union republics. Competitions in Class B identified champion of Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR, the best team of Union republics zone. All of them received a right to compete next season in the 1963 Class A; the winning teams of championship of bigger cities, oblasts and republics were granted permission to play-off with teams of Class B of own republic and in case of win were to be promoted to Class B and the Class B teams that lost play-off were relegated out of teams of masters competitions. The Class B teams that placed 1 through 3 in zones were freed from relegation play-offs. None FC Trubnyk Nikopol – FC Lokomotyv Donetsk was last year known as FC Lokomotyv Stalino Note none none FC Dniprovets Dniprodzerzhynsk was last year known as FC Khimik Dniprodzerzhynsk FC Dynamo Kirovohrad was last year known as FC Zirka Kirovohrad FC Hirnyk Kryvyi Rih was last year known as FC Avanhard Kryvyi Rih Note none FC Shakhtar Oleksandriya – FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk was last year known as FC Metalurh Dnipropetrovsk Note Please, note that FC Silmash Lviv next season was reformed into better known FC Karpaty Lviv and right away admitted to the Soviet Class A.