Leicester City F.C.
Leicester City Football Club, known as the Foxes, is an English professional football club based at the King Power Stadium in Leicester. They compete in the Premier League, Englands top tier of football, having been promoted as champions of the Football League Championship in 2013–14, this signalled a return to the top flight of English football after a decade away. The club was founded in 1884 as Leicester Fosse F. C. playing on a field near Fosse Road and they moved to Filbert Street in 1891, were elected to the Football League in 1894 and adopted the name Leicester City in 1919. They moved to the nearby Walkers Stadium in 2002, which was renamed the King Power Stadium after a change of ownership in 2011, Leicester City won the 2015–16 Premier League, their first top-level football championship. They are one of six clubs to have won the Premier League since its inception in 1992. A number of newspapers described their title win as the greatest sporting upset ever, multiple bookmakers had never paid out at such long odds for any sport.
Due to the magnitude of the title win, it went down in English football history as one of the games finest ever achievements. The clubs previous highest ever finish was second place in the top flight, throughout Leicesters history, they have spent all but one season within the top two leagues of English football. They hold a joint-highest seven second-tier titles, the club have been FA Cup finalists four times, in 1948–49, 1960–61, 1962–63 and 1968–69. This is a tournament record for the most defeats in the final without having won the competition, City have several promotions to their name, two play-off final wins, and one League One title. In 1971, they won the FA Community Shield, and in 2016 and they have won the League Cup three times in 1964,1997 and 2000, as well as being runners up in 1964–65 and 1999. Formed in 1884 by a group of old boys of Wyggeston School as Leicester Fosse, before moving to Filbert Street in 1891, the club played at five different grounds, including Victoria Park south-east of the city centre and the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground.
The club joined the Midland League in 1891, and were elected to Division Two of the Football League in 1894 after finishing second. Leicesters first ever Football League game was a 4–3 defeat at Grimsby Town, with a first League win the following week, the same season saw the clubs largest win to date, a 13–0 victory over Notts Olympic in an FA Cup qualifying game. In 1907–08 the club finished as Second Division runners-up, gaining promotion to the First Division, the club were relegated after a single season which included the clubs record defeat, a 12–0 loss against Nottingham Forest. In 1919, when League football resumed after World War I, the club was reformed as Leicester City Football Club, particularly appropriate as the borough of Leicester had recently been given city status. However the 1930s saw a downturn in fortunes, with the relegated in 1934–35 and, after promotion in 1936–37. City reached the FA Cup final for the first time in their history in 1949, the club, was celebrating a week when a draw on the last day of the season ensured survival in Division Two
Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough of West Midlands, England lying on the River Rea, a small river that runs through Birmingham. It is the largest and most populous British city outside London, the city is in the West Midlands Built-up Area, the third most populous urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,440,986 at the 2011 census. Birminghams metropolitan area is the second most populous in the UK with a population of 3.8 million and this makes Birmingham the 8th most populous metropolitan area in Europe. By 1791 it was being hailed as the first manufacturing town in the world, perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz. The damage done to the infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition.
Today Birminghams economy is dominated by the service sector and its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121. 1bn, and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors, Birminghams sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League and lawn tennis both originating from the city. Its most successful football club Aston Villa has won seven league titles, people from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the citys nickname of Brum. This originates from the citys name, which may in turn have been derived from one of the citys earlier names. There is a distinctive Brummie accent and dialect, Birminghams early history is that of a remote and marginal area. The main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era, within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years, by 1700 Birminghams population had increased fifteenfold and the town was the fifth-largest in England and Wales. The importance of the manufacture of goods to Birminghams economy was recognised as early as 1538. Equally significant was the emerging role as a centre for the iron merchants who organised finance, supplied raw materials. The 18th century saw this tradition of free-thinking and collaboration blossom into the phenomenon now known as the Midlands Enlightenment
Enderby is a small town and civil parish in Leicestershire, on the southwest outskirts of the city of Leicester. The parish includes the neighbourhood of St Johns, which is east of the village separated from it by the M1 motorway, the 2011 Census recorded the parishs population as 6,314. The village is either side of the B4114 between Fosse Shopping Park and Narborough, the parish includes Fosse Shopping Park, Grove Park Commercial Centre and Everards Brewery. The parish is bounded by the City of Leicester and the parishes of Braunstone Town, Glen Parva, Narborough. The course of the Fosse Way Roman road passes through the parish, near St Johns is the deserted village of Alderby by the River Soar. Enderby Hall was the home of the Smith family when the paternal line ended. The hall was left to Charles Loraine who took the name Charles Loraine Smith, Enderby was in the UK Parliament constituency of Blaby between 1974 and 2010, when this was replaced with the South Leicestershire constituency. It is currently represented in the House of Commons by Alberto Costa of the Conservative Party, a disused railway line known locally as ‘Whistle Way’ is north of the village, and has since become the western edge of the Enderby and Narborough areas.
This branch line used to link the now disused Enderby Warren Quarry with the Birmingham to Peterborough Line about 1⁄2 mile southwest of Narborough railway station, there was neither a passenger service nor an Enderby station. Enderby is home to Fosse Shopping Park, one of Britains biggest out-of-town shopping parks, the village centre has a newsagents, petrol station, beauty salon, library, cafe and hand car wash. It has two Co-operative Food stores within metres of each other, one owned by Central England Co-operative, Enderby has a leisure centre with swimming pool, squash courts and sports hall for badminton and 5-a-side football. There is a nine-hole pay-and-play golf course, the head office of clothing retailer Next plc is located in Enderby. Enderby is near the M1 and M69 motorways, the B4114 and B582 both run through Enderby. Rail transport is provided by the nearby Narborough railway station on the Birmingham to Peterborough Line, trains are operated by CrossCountry and provide regular services to Leicester, Hinckley and Birmingham.
It has parking for 1000 cars, buses run every 15 minutes into Leicester city centre from 7am to 7pm, Mondays to Saturdays. Stops include Smith Way and St. Nicholas Circle, timetable The schools that Enderby children usually attend are, Danemill Primary School Brockington College Lutterworth College Enderby Town Football Club was founded in 1900. It played in the local Leicestershire Senior League until 1969, and it changed its name to Leicester United F. C. in 1983 and was dissolved in 1996. Enderby Town Football Club was the club of Chris Balderstone after he stopped playing football for Huddersfield Town, Carlisle United, Doncaster Rovers
Rugby is a market town in Warwickshire, close to the River Avon. The town has a population of 70,628 making it the second largest town in the county, the enclosing Borough of Rugby has a population of 100,500. Rugby is 13 miles east of Coventry, on the edge of Warwickshire. The town is credited with being the birthplace of rugby football, Early Iron age settlement existed in the Rugby area, and a few miles outside what is now Rugby, existed a Roman settlement known as Tripontium. Rugby was originally a small Anglo-Saxon farming settlement, and was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Rocheberie, Rugby obtained a charter to hold a market in 1255, and soon developed into a small country market town. Rugby School was founded in 1567 with money left in the will of Lawrence Sheriff, a locally born grocer, Rugby School was originally intended as a school for local boys, but over time became a mostly fee-paying private school. The Lawrence Sheriff School was eventually founded in the late 19th century to carry on Sheriffs original intentions, Rugby remained a sleepy country market town until the 19th century and the coming of the railways.
In 1838 the London and Birmingham Railway was constructed past it, Rugby became an important railway junction, and the proliferation of rail yards and workshops attracted workers. Rugbys population grew from just 2,500 in 1835, to over 10,000 by the 1880s, in the 1890s and 1900s heavy engineering industries began to set up in the town, and Rugby rapidly grew into a major industrial centre. Rugby expanded rapidly in the decades of the 20th century as workers moved in. By the 1940s, the population of Rugby had grown to over 40,000, in the postwar years, Rugby became well served by the motorway network, with the M1 and M6 merging close to the town. Rugby is most famous for the invention of rugby football, which is played throughout the world, the invention of the game is credited to William Webb Ellis whilst breaking the existing rules of a football match played in 1823 at Rugby School. Rugby School is one of Englands oldest and most prestigious public schools, a substantial part of the 2004 dramatisation of the novel, starring Stephen Fry, was filmed on location at Rugby School.
Hughes set up a colony in America for the sons of the English gentry. The town of Rugby, Tennessee still exists, Rugby is a birthplace of the jet engine. Much of his work was carried out at nearby Lutterworth, holography was invented in Rugby by the Hungarian inventor Dennis Gabor in 1947. In the 19th century, Rugby became famous for its once important railway junction which was the setting for Charles Dickenss story Mugby Junction, Rugby includes the areas of New Bilton and Hillside. The spread of Rugby has nearly reached the villages of Clifton-upon-Dunsmore, Dunchurch, the town centre is mostly Victorian and early 20th century, however a few much older buildings survive, along with some more modern developments
Royal Leamington Spa, commonly known as Leamington Spa, Leamington, or simply Leam to locals /ˈlɛmɪŋtən/ is a spa town in Warwickshire, England. Following the popularisation of the qualities of its water in the eighteenth century. It is named after the River Leam which flows through the town, the town contains especially fine ensembles of Regency architecture, particularly in parts of the Parade, Clarendon Square and Lansdowne Circus. The town comprises six electoral wards, Milverton, Crown, the total population for those wards in 2011 was 49,491. Formerly known as Leamington Priors, Leamington began to develop as a town at the start of the 19th century and it was first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Lamintone. For 400 years, the settlement was under the control of Kenilworth Priory and its name came from Anglo-Saxon Leman-tūn or Lemen-tūn = farm on the River Leam. The spa waters had been known in Roman times and the rediscovery in 1784 by William Abbotts and Benjamin Satchwell, six of the seven wells were drilled for, only the original spring at the site of the Aylesford Well, adjacent to the Parish Church occurred naturally.
Early development of the old centre was on the southern bank of the River Leam. Later builders began concentrating the towns expansion on the north of the river. In 1767 Parliament passed an Act, proposed by Edward Willes, following a survey of the area by John Tomlinson in 1768, the land was estimated to be 990 acres and was subsequently divided, and new public roads were laid out. After the division on the south of the river most of the land east of the village was owned by the Willes family, to the north of the river most of the land was owned by the Willes family, the Earl of Warwick, and Bertie Greatheed. The main landholders of the village and adjacent land were the Earl of Aylesford, in the following decades some of the land was sold. By 1901, the population of Leamington had grown from a few hundred to nearly 27,000, in 1814, the Royal Pump Rooms and Baths were opened close to the River Leam. This grand structure attracted many visitors, expecting cures by bathing in pools of salty spa water and it included the worlds first gravity fed piped hot water system in modern times, which was designed and installed by the engineer William Murdoch.
Leamington became a spa resort attracting the wealthy and famous, and construction began of numerous Georgian townhouses to accommodate visitors. With the spread of the popularity, and the granting of a Royal prefix in 1838 by Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria had visited the town as a Princess in 1830, a statue of Queen Victoria was almost destroyed by a German bomb during the Second World War, and was moved one inch on its plinth by the blast. The statue was not returned to its position, and the incident is recorded on a plaque on its plinth
Roads in the United Kingdom
Roads in the United Kingdom form a network of varied quality and capacity. Road distances are shown in miles or yards and UK speed limits are indicated in miles per hour or by the use of the speed limit symbol. Some vehicle categories have various lower maximum limits enforced by speed limiters, enforcement of UK road speed limits increasingly uses speed guns, automated in-vehicle systems and automated roadside traffic cameras. A unified numbering system is in place for Great Britain, whilst in Northern Ireland, the earliest specifically engineered roads were built during the British Iron Age. The road network was expanded during the Roman occupation, some of these survive and others were lost. New roads were added in the Middle Ages and from the 17th century onwards, certain aspects of the legal framework remain under the competence of the United Kingdom parliament. Although some roads have much older origins, the network was subject to development from the 1950s to the mid-1990s. From then, construction of roads has become controversial with direct action campaigns by environmentalists in opposition.
In the UK, vehicles drive on the left and on multi-lane carriageways drivers are expected to keep to the left lane except when overtaking, in Great Britain, the Highway Code applies to drivers. In Northern Ireland, the Highway Code for Northern Ireland applies, UK speed limits are shown in mph. With a few exceptions, they are in multiples of 10, unless a lower speed limit is posted on a road, the national speed limit applies, which varies between class of vehicles and the type of road. In a built-up area, unless signs indicate otherwise, a limit of 30 miles per hour applies, other limits are shown in the table. For a road to be classed as a carriageway, the two directions of traffic flow must be physically separated by a central reservation. Roads in the UK are classified as M, A, or B roads, as well as categories of more minor roads, for internal purposes. These numbers follow a zonal system, there is no available explanation for the allocation of road numbers in Northern Ireland. The majority of the major routes are motorways, and are designed to carry long distance traffic.
The next category is the A roads, which form the route network. A primary route is defined as, primary destinations are usually cities and large towns, to which, as a result of their size, a high volume of traffic is expected to go
Coventry City F.C.
Coventry City Football Club is a professional football club in Coventry, West Midlands, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. Coventry City formed as Singers F. C. in 1883 and they won their only major trophy in 1987 when they beat Tottenham Hotspur 3–2 to win the FA Cup. They are one of five clubs to have ever won the FA Cup and FA Youth Cup in the same season. They returned to Wembley in April 2017, beating Oxford United 2-1 to win the English Football League Trophy. Following eleven seasons in the second-tier Football League Championship, Coventry were relegated to Football League One in 2012, Coventry have qualified for European competitions twice. In the 1970–71 season, they competed in the European Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, despite beating Bayern Munich 2–1 in their home leg, they had lost 1–6 in the first leg in Munich to go out of the competition. They were unable to compete in the 1987–88 UEFA Cup Winners Cup due to the ban on English clubs at that time, from 1899 to 2005, Coventry City played at Highfield Road.
A return to the Ricoh Arena was announced on 21 August 2014 by the club after a one-year absence,1883 – The club is founded by employees of Singer, the cycle firm, with William Stanley one of the leading lights. 1898 – The clubs name is changed from Singers F. C. to Coventry City,1899 – The club move to Highfield Road following stints at Dowells Field and Stoke Road. 1901 – The club suffer their worst ever defeat with an 11–2 loss against Worcester-based Berwick Rangers in the round of the FA Cup. 1919 – The club are voted into the Football League, where they have remained ever since,1928 – In February, and with Coventry struggling near the foot of Division Three South, the clubs worst ever attendance is recorded. Only 2,059 turn up for the match against Crystal Palace,1932 – Centre-forward Clarrie Bourton heads the Football League scoring lists with 49 goals. The following season he scored 40 goals,1934 – City record their biggest ever victory a 9–0 league drubbing of Bristol City. 1936 – Coventry City win the Third Division South championship after a final day 2–1 victory over Torquay United.
1958 – Goalkeeper Alf Wood becomes the oldest player to start a game for the club and he played against Plymouth Argyle in the FA Cup aged 43 years and 207 days. 1961 – Former Fulham player and PFA chairman Jimmy Hill is appointed following an embarrassing FA Cup defeat at home to non-league Kings Lynn. 1964 – Jimmy Hill guides Coventry to promotion from Division Three as champions after a final day 1–0 victory over Colchester United,1967 – Coventry City promoted as Second Division champions to the top flight for the first time in their history. This made manager and BBC Sport presenter Jimmy Hill a legend at the club, Coventrys record attendance was set in this year – officially recorded as 51,455, against Wolverhampton Wanderers, the team that finished a close second to Coventry at the top of the table
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. Historically part of Warwickshire, Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and it is the second largest city in the West Midlands region, after Birmingham, with a population of 345,385 in 2015. Coventry is 95 miles northwest of central London,19 miles east-south-east of Birmingham,24 miles southwest of Leicester and 11 miles north of Warwick. Coventry Cathedral was built after the destruction of the 14th century cathedral church of Saint Michael by the German Luftwaffe in the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940, Coventry motor companies have contributed significantly to the British motor industry. The city has two universities, Coventry University in the city centre and the University of Warwick on the southern outskirts. The Romans founded a settlement in Baginton, next to the River Sowe, and another formed around a Saxon nunnery, founded c. AD700 by St Osburga, that was left in ruins by King Canutes invading Danish army in 1016.
Earl Leofric of Mercia and his wife Lady Godiva built on the remains of the nunnery, in time, a market was established at the abbey gates and the settlement expanded. By the 14th century, Coventry was an important centre of the cloth trade, the bishops of Lichfield were often referred to as bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, or Lichfield and Coventry. Coventry claimed the status of a city by ancient prescriptive usage, was granted a charter of incorporation in 1345, the plays that William Shakespeare witnessed in Coventry during his boyhood or teens may have influenced how his plays, such as Hamlet, came about. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coventry became one of the three main British centres of watch and clock manufacture and ranked alongside Prescot, in Lancashire, in the late 19th century, Coventry became a major centre of bicycle manufacture. The industry energised by the invention by James Starley and his nephew John Kemp Starley of the Rover safety bicycle, by the early 20th century, bicycle manufacture had evolved into motor manufacture, and Coventry became a major centre of the British motor industry.
Jaguar is owned by the Indian company, Tata Motors, with many of the citys older properties becoming increasingly unfit for habitation, the first council houses were let to their tenants in 1917. With Coventrys industrial base continuing to soar after the end of the Great War a year later, numerous private and council housing developments took place across the city in the 1920s and 1930s. The development of a southern by-pass around the city, starting in the 1930s and being completed in 1940, Coventry suffered severe bomb damage during the Second World War. There was a massive Luftwaffe air raid, part of the Coventry Blitz, firebombing on this date led to severe damage to large areas of the city centre and to Coventrys historic cathedral, leaving only a shell and the spire. More than 4,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, along with three quarters of the citys industrial plants. More than 800 people were killed, with injured and homeless. Aside from London and Plymouth, Coventry suffered more damage than any other British city during the Luftwaffe attacks, following the raids, the majority of Coventrys historic buildings could not be saved as they were in ruinous states or were deemed unsafe for any future use
A dual carriageway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are generally classed as motorways, freeways, a road without a central reservation is a single carriageway regardless of the number of lanes. Dual carriageways have improved road traffic safety over single carriageways and typically have speed limits as a result. In some places, express lanes and local/collector lanes are used within a system to provide more capacity. A very early example of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, in 1907 the Long Island Motor Parkway opened, and roughly 20% of it featured a semi-dual-carriageway design. The New York City Belt Parkway system, which was built between 1907 and 1934, pioneered the same design, however the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers instead of grass medians. In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 55 km from Milan to Varese and it featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains.
The London end of the Great West Road became Britains first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V, in 1927 the Rome bypass was opened. It ran 92 km bypassing Rome to the east, almost the entire length featured a dual-carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended all the way to Naples. Most of the routing was destroyed by the Allies in the World War II. By 1930 several US and European cities had built dual-carriageway highways, in 1932 the first German autobahn opened between Cologne and Bonn. It ran 21 km and became a precedent for future highways, although it, like the first autostrada, did not feature a dual-carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high-speed roadways. During the 1930s, Germany and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 3,200 km of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 1,300 km, opened to traffic in 1940, the 160-mile-long Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States.
By 1955 several states had built dual carriageway freeways and turnpikes, completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. In the UK, although the dual carriageway applies to any road with physically separated lanes. Such major dual carriageways usually have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking, occasionally dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way
The M69 Derby is a football match played between Coventry City and Leicester City. It takes its name from the motorway connects the two cities, which are only 24 miles apart. According to a survey by The Football Pools published in 2008, the derby has on occasion been marred by violence, the most recent in February 2008. Prior to that, another place in Coventry in October 2004 where police officers were pelted with missiles. The first fixture between the two clubs was a Second Division game on 27 September 1919 and resulted in a 1–0 win for Leicester, the biggest victory resulted in an 8–1 to Leicester in the League Cup at Highfield Road on 4 December 1964. Coventry have been beaten on two other occasions at Filbert Street, with both matches ending in a 5–1 win for Leicester. The first was in 1924–25, when Arthur Chandler scored a hat-trick, and in 1984–85, while Leicester is undefeated on their current home turf, this ended for Coventry when they lost 1-0 at the Ricoh Arena on 6 August 2011.
Coventry were in the Premier League when they last won at Leicester on 7 April 2001, the most recent game resulted in a 2–0 win for Leicester at the King Power Stadium. The table shows matches from the 1984–85 season onwards, Coventry City win Leicester City win Draw Leicester City and Nottingham Forest rivalry
Motorway service area
The vast majority of motorway services in the UK are owned by one of three companies, Welcome Break and Roadchef. Smaller operators include Extra and EuroGarages, the first service area in the UK was at Watford Gap on the M1, which opened with the motorway on 2 November 1959. As more service stations opened, the number of operating companies increased, such as Blue Boar, Kenning Motor Group, Take a Break, through acquisitions and mergers there are now only four major operators, which has led to concerns about these companies having an oligopoly. In an attempt to break this monopoly, the government proposed allowing mobile fast food vans to operate at the areas, in 2007 an AA survey concluded that service areas had improved in the previous three years, but cleanliness and pricing were still major issues. Despite concerns of residents, Beaconsfield on the M40 opened on 17 March 2009. Following a public consultation in 2007/8, the Department for Transport/Highways Agency announced that new services should be located at on-line sites, the siting of motorway service areas can be contentious, leading to protracted public inquiries, and often vociferous local campaigns against proposed schemes.
Food and fuel sold at motorway services are notoriously expensive and this is often attributed to the many regulations that apply to the areas, and the consequent need to make enough profit from sales to cover the cost of running the service station. In other countries, the authority responsible for the highway tends to subsidise these costs on the grounds that these areas are partly a public service to drivers. The leases provide that motorway services must operate 24 hours a day, with very few customers in the early morning, they need to earn the money in other ways. Under the terms of the leases, motorway services must provide free parking, free 24-hour toilet facilities. However, in 2006 it changed its mind, and the Roads Act 2007 makes provision for a Motorway Service Area Scheme to be made for proposed motorway service areas, the NRA held a competition to determine an operator for the first round of service areas to be opened. Superstop, a consortium consisting of Petrogas and Tedcastles Oil Products, the first service area, Lusk services, opened on the M1 on 8 September 2010.
Castlebellingham services opened on 29 September 2010, with Enfield services on the M4 opening shortly after in late 2010, the fourth service area, Wicklow services station opened on 29 May 2014. While other locations for service areas were planned by the NRA, no services on motorway signs have been erected on the M7, M8, and M9. The NRA has stated that it now intends to erect signs to petrol stations off the motorway instead, Motorway Services Online Motorway Services Trivia Moto Welcome Break RoadChef Motorway Services Guide
Here, just short of the Scottish border it becomes the A74 which continues to Glasgow as the M74. It is part of the east−west route between the Midlands and the east-coast ports, the section from the M1 to the M6 Toll split near Birmingham forms part of the unsigned E-road E24 and the section from the M6 Toll and the M42 forms part of E05. The motorway has major junctions with the M56 and M62 at Warrington, giving access to Chester, the M6 heads north past Wigan and Lancaster. The first section of the motorway and the first motorway in the country was the Preston By-pass and it was built by Tarmac Construction and opened by the Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 5 December 1958. In January 1959 the Preston by-pass was closed because of rapid surface deterioration over a stretch of 100 yards due to water freezing, motorists were diverted to the old road while the UK road research laboratory at Harmondsworth pondered the importance of surface water drainage. Later, other sections of the motorway were constructed, and finally it was all linked together, the second phase of construction was completed in 1960, forming the Lancaster by-pass.
Some 100 miles south, the Stafford by-pass was completed in 1962, by 1965, the remaining sections of motorway Stafford–Preston and Preston–Lancaster had been completed. 1968 saw the completion of the Walsall to Stafford link as well as the Penrith by-pass some 150 miles north in Cumberland, in 1970, the Lancaster–Penrith link was completed, along with a short section of motorway by-passing the south of Walsall. The most northerly section of the motorway opened in 1970. Junction 6 in Birmingham is widely known as Spaghetti Junction because of its complexity, on the elevated ground between Shap and Tebay, the north- and south-bound carriages split apart. At this point a road runs between the two carriageways without a link to the motorway. The section of the M6 that runs over Shap Fell in Cumbria is 1,050 ft above sea level, the northbound entry slip road at Lancaster was unusually short, presenting problems for traffic joining the motorway. The M6 crosses the River Lune at this point and unless the bridge had been made wider and this junction was upgraded from an earlier emergency-vehicles-only access point, which explains the substandard design.
The route was intended to replace the old A6, which it does along the northern section starting with the Preston Bypass. However, a closer approximation to the overall actual route of the M6 is provided by following the A45, A34, A50, A49. South of Preston, the A6 route is instead supplemented by the M61 as far as Manchester, south of Manchester, there is no true motorway replacement for the old road. Across the Pennines, the old road remains the main local through-route, in July 1972 the UK Minister for Transport Industries announced that 86 miles of UK motorway particularly prone to fog would benefit from lighting in a project which should be completed by 1973. Sections to be illuminated included the M6 between junctions 10 and 11, and between junctions 20 and 27, the road opened on 5 December 2008, the 50th anniversary of the M6 Preston By-pass