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MAN SE

MAN SE MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. It is a subsidiary of automaker Volkswagen AG. MAN SE is based in Munich, its primary output is for the automotive industry heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like marine propulsion, turbomachinery. MAN supplies trucks, diesel engines and turbomachinery. In 2016, its 53,824 employees generated annual sales of around €13.6 billion. MAN SE is owned in majority by Volkswagen AG, it is a producer of Commercial Vehicles, through its MAN Truck & Bus and MAN Latin America divisions, participation in the manufacturer Sinotruk. MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the "St. Antony" ironworks commenced operation in Oberhausen, as the first heavy-industry enterprise in the Ruhr region. In 1808, the three ironworks "St. Antony", "Gute Hoffnung", "Neue Essen" merged, to form the Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, renamed Gutehoffnungshütte. In 1840, the German engineer Ludwig Sander founded in Augsburg the first predecessing enterprise of MAN in Southern Germany: the "Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik."

It firstly became the "C. Reichenbach'sche Maschinenfabrik", named after the pioneer of printing machines Carl August Reichenbach, on the "Maschinenfabrik Augsburg"; the branch Süddeutsche Brückenbau A. G. was founded when the company in 1859 was awarded the contract for the construction of the railway bridge over the Rhine at Mainz. In 1898, the companies Maschinenbau-AG Nürnberg and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg AG merged to form Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbaugesellschaft Nürnberg A. G. Augsburg. In 1908, the company was renamed Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG, or in short, M·A·N. While the focus remained on ore mining and iron production in the Ruhr region, mechanical engineering became the dominating branch of business in Augsburg and Nuremberg. Under the direction of Heinrich von Buz, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg grew from a medium-sized business of 400 employees into a major enterprise with a workforce of 12,000 by the year 1913. Locomotion and steel building were the big topics of this phase.

The early predecessors of MAN were responsible for numerous technological innovations. The success of the early MAN entrepreneurs and engineers like Heinrich Gottfried Gerber, was based on a great openness towards new technologies, they constructed the Wuppertal monorail and the first spectacular steel bridges like the Großhesseloher Brücke in Munich in 1857 and the Müngsten railway bridge between 1893 and 1897. The invention of the rotary printing press allowed the copious printing of books and newspapers and since 1893, Rudolf Diesel puzzled for four years with future MAN engineers in a laboratory in Augsburg until his first Diesel engine was completed and functional. During 1921, the majority of M. A. N. was taken over by Sterkrade. Through well-directed equities and acquisitions of processing industries, e.g. Deutsche Werft, Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau, MAN advanced to a nationwide operating enterprise, with a workforce of 52,000 by 1921. MAN produced tractors by the name MAN Ackerdiesel between.

The decision for tractors production was made due to increasing demand from eastern Germany. At the same time the GHH's economic situation worsened; the causes for this were, among others, the reparations after World War I, the occupation of the Ruhr region and the world economic crisis. In only two years the number of MAN employees sank from 14,000 in the year 1929/30 to 7,400 in 1931/32. While the civil business was collapsing, the military business increased with the armament under the National Socialist regime. GHH/MAN enterprises supplied diesel engines for submarines, cylinders for projectiles and artillery of every description. MAN produced gun parts, including Mauser Karabiner 98k rifle bolts, their Waffenamt code was WaA53, ordnance code was "coc". The MAN works in Augsburg, which produced diesel engines for U-boats, the MAN works in Nuremberg, which built 40 percent of Germany's Panther tanks, were the target of massive Allied bombing attacks during World War II. After the end of World War II the allies split up the GHH group.

A vertical integration in which mining and steel production are consolidated was not allowed any more. The "Gutehoffnungshütte", together with the MAN firms of Southern Germany, therefore concentrated on engineering, plant construction, commercial vehicles and printing machines; this process has been supported by strategic dispositions. In 1982/83 the "Gutehoffnungshütte" plunged into a deep corporate crisis; the enterprise suffered from the late effects of a bad economic situation. This was displayed by the dramatic downturn of the commercial vehicles sales figures. Besides external factors, the chief course of these problems was the obsolete co

Paracolax tristalis

Paracolax tristalis, the clay fan-foot, is a litter moth of the family Erebidae. The species was first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1794, it is found in the Palearctic realm. The ground colour is warm the forewing has entire subbasal and postmedian lines; the wingspan is 28–35 mm. The moth flies from June to August depending on the location; the larvae feed on various deciduous trees. Kimber, Ian. "72.051 BF2494 Clay Fan-foot Paracolax tristalis". UKMoths. Retrieved 28 January 2020. "Paracolax tristalis". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved 28 January 2020. "Paracolax tristalis". Lepidoptera of Belgium. Archived 12 May 2017. "08839 Paracolax tristalis - Trübgelbe Spannereule". Lepiforum e. V. Retrieved 28 January 2020. "Gele snuituil Paracolax tristalis". De Vlinderstichting. Retrieved 28 January 2020. "Subfamily: Herminiinae". British Lepidoptera. Retrieved 28 January 2020

Citra Award for Best Leading Actress

The Citra Award for Best Leading Actress is an award given at the Indonesian Film Festival to Indonesian actresses for their achievements in lead roles. The Citra Awards, described by Screen International as "Indonesia's equivalent to the Oscars", are the country's most prestigious film awards, they are intended to recognise Indonesian achievements in film and draw the public's interest to the cinema industry. Winners were selected from all entries by a jury, but owing to efficiency concerns and widespread disapproval of winners within the Indonesian film industry, beginning in 1979 the IFF instituted a nomination system in which a committee selected the Citra Award recipients from a shortlist of three to six nominees; the Citra Awards known as the Indonesian Film Festival Awards, were first given at the IFF in early 1955. This duplication found in the Best Film and Best Leading Actor categories, was controversial. Succeeding festivals were held in 1960 and 1967. From 1973 the IFF was held annually.

This continued uninterrupted until after the 1992 IFF, when a sharp decline in film production led the festival to be discontinued. It was reinstated after receiving funds from the Indonesian government; the most recent winner is Cut Mini. A total of 74 actresses have been nominated for a Citra Award; the most recognised actress at the IFF has been Christine Hakim, who won six awards from ten nominations beginning with Cinta Pertama in 1974. Four other actresses have won multiple Citra Awards: Jenny Rachman, Lydia Kandou, Meriam Bellina, Mieke Wijaya, Tuti Indra Malaon. Four actresses – Jajang C. Noer, Nurul Arifin, Paramitha Rusady, Zoraya Perucha – have received three nominations without winning. Four films have seen multiple cast members receive nominations. Of these, only Mengejar Mas-Mas earned a win, with Dinna Olivia receiving the award; as of 2013 Dian Sastrowardoyo is the only actress to receive more than one nomination in a single year. Key