The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the U. S. defense contractor derives its name from the radar component of the weapon system. The AN/MPQ-53 at the heart of the system is known as the "Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target", a backronym for PATRIOT; the Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U. S. Army's primary High to Medium Air Defense system, replaced the MIM-23 Hawk system as the U. S. Army's medium tactical air defense system. In addition to these roles, Patriot has been given the function of the U. S. Army's anti-ballistic missile system, now Patriot's primary mission; the system is expected to stay fielded until at least 2040. Patriot uses high-performance radar systems. Patriot was developed at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, which had developed the Safeguard ABM system and its component Spartan and hypersonic speed Sprint missiles; the symbol for Patriot is a drawing of a Revolutionary War-era Minuteman.
Patriot systems have been sold to the Netherlands, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Republic of China, Spain, United Arab Emirates and Romania. South Korea purchased several second-hand Patriot systems from Germany after North Korea test-launched ballistic missiles to the Sea of Japan and proceeded with underground nuclear testing in 2006. Jordan purchased several second-hand Patriot systems from Germany. Poland hosts training rotations of a battery of U. S. Patriot launchers; this started in the town of Morąg in May 2010 but was moved further from the Russian border to Toruń and Ustka due to Russian objections. On December 4, 2012, NATO authorized the deployment of Patriot missile launchers in Turkey to protect the country from missiles fired in the civil war in neighboring Syria. Patriot was one of the first tactical systems in the U. S. Department of Defense's to employ lethal autonomy in combat; the Patriot system gained notoriety during the Persian Gulf War of 1991 with the claimed engagement of over 40 Iraqi Scud missiles, but those claims became a source of controversy.
The system was used against Iraqi missiles in 2003 Iraq War, has been used by Saudi and Emirati forces in the Yemen conflict against Houthi missile attacks. The Patriot system achieved its first undisputed shootdowns of enemy aircraft in the service of the Israeli Air Defense Command. Israeli MIM-104D batteries shot down two Hamas UAVs during Operation Protective Edge on August 31, 2014 and on September 23, 2014, an Israeli Patriot battery shot down a Syrian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 which had penetrated Israeli airspace, achieving the first shootdown of a manned enemy aircraft in the world for the system. Prior to the Patriot, Raytheon was involved in a number of surface to air missile programs, including FABMDS, AADS-70 and SAM-D. In 1975, the SAM-D missile engaged a drone at the White Sands Missile Range. During 1976, it was renamed the PATRIOT Air Defense Missile System; the MIM-104 Patriot would combine several new technologies, including the MPQ-53 passive electronically scanned array radar and track-via-missile guidance.
Full-scale development of the system began in 1976 and it was deployed in 1984. Patriot was used as an anti-aircraft system, but during 1988, it was upgraded to provide limited capability against tactical ballistic missiles as PAC-1; the most recent upgrade, called PAC-3, is a nearly total system redesign, intended from the outset to engage and destroy tactical ballistic missiles. The Patriot system has four major operational functions: communications and control, radar surveillance, missile guidance; the four functions combine to provide a coordinated, integrated, mobile air defense system. The Patriot system is modular and mobile. A battery-sized element can be installed in less than an hour. All components, consisting of the fire control section and launchers, are a truck- or trailer-mounted; the radar set and launchers are mounted on M860 semi-trailers, which are towed by Oshkosh M983 HEMTTs. Missile reloading is accomplished using a M985 HEMTT truck with a Hiab crane on the back; this crane is larger than the standard Grove cranes found on regular M977 HEMTT and M985 HEMTT cargo body trucks.
The truck/crane, called a Guided Missile Transporter, removes spent missile canisters from the launcher and replaces them with fresh missiles. Because the crane nearly doubles the height of the HEMTT when not stowed, crews informally refer to it as the "scorpion tail." A standard M977 HEMTT with a regular-sized crane is sometimes referred to as the Large Repair Parts Transporter. The heart of the Patriot battery is the fire control section, consisting of the AN/MPQ-53 or −65 Radar Set, the AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station, the OE-349 Antenna Mast Group, the EPP-III Electric Power Plant; the system's missiles are transported on and launched from the M901 Launching Station, which can carry up to four PAC-2 missiles or up to sixteen PAC-3 missiles. A Patriot battalion is equipped with the Information Coordination Central, a command station designed to coordinate the launches of a battalion and uplink Patriot to the JTIDS or MIDS network; the AN/MPQ-53/65 Radar Set is a passive electronically scanned array radar equipped with IFF, electronic counter-countermeasure, track-via-miss
Lindsay is an American docuseries that documents actress Lindsay Lohan's rehabilitation recovery and work following a public period of struggles in her personal life and career. The series premiered on March 9, 2014 on the Oprah Winfrey Network, concluded on April 20, 2014. Premiere ratings were described as "modest" and dropped, while critical reception was mixed. In July 2013, an Oprah Winfrey Network spokesperson confirmed that Oprah Winfrey had reached a deal to do a one-on-one interview with Lohan for Oprah's Next Chapter, to be followed by an eight-episode series; the interview was Lohan's first interview post-rehab. Filming of Lindsay began in August 2013 in New York City. Network promotion described the series as an "no-holds-barred account" of Lohan's life, it was directed by Amy Rice, who co-directed the 2009 HBO documentary By the People: The Election of Barack Obama. The premiere had 693,000 viewers, described as "so-so" by The Hollywood Reporter and "modest" by Entertainment Weekly.
It had the highest ratings of OWN's 2014 unscripted premieres, with young women 18–34, ratings were up 231% from the previous year. In comparison, the 2013 interview with Lohan on Oprah's Next Chapter drew 892,000 viewers. By the second episode, ratings had dropped by 24% to 527,000 viewers, with OWN's target demographic of women 25–54 years old, ratings dropped by 36%; the penultimate episode had 468,000 viewers and the two-hour finale ratings were down to 406,000. David Hinckley of New York Daily News said the first episode was "surprisingly routine" adding "it's unlikely she could do anything in front of Oprah's cameras that would slam into or clear the bar she has set in the past." Brian Lowry of Variety described the first episode as boring, said that OWN and Lohan were "using each other" adding that "'Lindsay' says far more about OWN than it does about Lohan." Liz Smith found the series "compelling" and "usually painful to watch", she said that " had no part in the editing." Daniel D'Addario of Salon called the series "an unmitigated disaster" and "a strange clash of dueling brands" and criticized the way the network handled the disclosure of Lohan's miscarriage.
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Gong Jun is a Chinese actor. In 2015, Gong made his acting debut in the historical wuxia web drama Sword Chaos. In 2017, Gong gained recognition for his leading role in the BL action comedy drama Advance Bravely, he gained further recognition for his role as the 11th prince in the fantasy historical drama Lost Love in Times. Due to the success of the drama, Gong starred in a 12-episode spin-off of the drama as the main character; the same year, Gong made his big-screen debut in the fantasy suspense film Rebirth Partner. In 2018, Gong starred in the xianxia campus drama Fantasy Westward Journey; the same year, he was cast in the youth campus drama ART ON!. In 2019, Gong starred in the historical romance drama Lust For Gold, followed by romance fantasy drama Flavor It's Yours. Gong is set to star in the youth romance drama The Sweet Love Story, based on Zhao Qianqian's novel of the same name