MIT Lincoln Laboratory

The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense federally funded research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security. The Laboratory provides a technical base for military electronics ranging from radars to reentry physics. Research and development activities focus on long-term technology development as well as rapid system prototyping and demonstration; these efforts are aligned within key mission areas. The laboratory works with industry to transition new concepts and technology for system development and deployment; the laboratory maintains several field sites around the world. Created in 1951 as a federally funded research and development center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory was focused on improving the nation's air defense system through advanced electronics; the laboratory's inception was prompted by the Air Defense Systems Engineering Committee's 1950 report that concluded the United States was unprepared for the threat of an air attack.

Because of MIT's management of the Radiation Laboratory during World War II, the experience of some of its staff on the Air Defense Systems Engineering Committee, its proven competence in electronics, the U. S. Air Force suggested that MIT could provide the research needed to develop an air defense that could detect and intercept air threats. James R. Killian president of MIT, was not eager for MIT to become involved in air defense, he asked the Air Force if MIT could first conduct a study to evaluate the need for a new laboratory and to determine its scope. Killian's proposal was approved, a study named Project Charles was carried out between February and August 1951; the final Project Charles report stated that the United States needed an improved air defense system and unequivocally supported the formation of a laboratory at MIT dedicated to air defense problems. This new undertaking was called Project Lincoln and the site chosen for the new laboratory was on the Laurence G. Hanscom Field, where the Massachusetts towns of Bedford and Lincoln meet.

A Project Bedford and a Project Lexington were in use, so Major General Putt, in charge of drafting the charter for the new laboratory, decided to name the project for the town of Lincoln. The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Air Defense System is the beginning of MIT Lincoln Laboratory's history of developing innovative technology; the system was conceived to meet the challenge of providing air defense to the continental United States. SAGE was designed to collect and relay data from a multitude of radars, all enough that defense responses could be initiated if needed; the key to this system was a computer. MIT's Whirlwind computer, built in the 1940s, looked to be a possible candidate for the system. However, the Whirlwind was not reliable or fast enough for the processing needed for analyzing data coming in from dozens of even 100, radars. Jay Forrester, an MIT professor instrumental in the development of the Whirlwind, found the breakthrough to enable the computer to achieve outstanding reliability and doubled speed—the magnetic core memory.

The magnetic core memory revolutionized computing. Computers became machines that were not just fast calculators. Industry followed this development adopting the magnetic core memory that expanded the capabilities of computers; the TX-0 computer, in essence, a transistorized version of Whirlwind, was built in 1955 and made operational in 1956. It was smaller and faster than Whirlwind. Whirlwind II was not completed, but the AN/FSQ-7, based on elements of its design, became the command and control system for the SAGE air defense network - and Lincoln Laboratory Division 6 participated in this development. Lincoln Laboratory established a reputation for pioneering advanced electronics in air defense systems. Many of the technical developments that evolved into improved systems for the airborne detection and tracking of aircraft and ground vehicles have formed the basis for current research. Since MIT Lincoln Laboratory's establishment, the scope of the problems has broadened from the initial emphasis on air defense to include programs in space surveillance, missile defense, surface surveillance and object identification, cyber security, homeland protection, high-performance computing, air traffic control, intelligence and reconnaissance.

The core competencies of the laboratory are in sensors, information extraction, integrated sensing, decision support, all supported by a strong advanced electronic technology activity. Lincoln Laboratory conducts research and development pertinent to national security on behalf of the military services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, other government agencies. Projects focus on the prototyping of new technologies and capabilities. Program activities extend from fundamental investigations, through simulation and analysis, to design and field testing of prototype systems. Emphasis is placed on transitioning technology to industry; the work of Lincoln Laboratory revolves around several mission areas: Space Control Air and Maritime Defense Technology Communication Systems Cyber Security and Information Sciences Intelligence and Reconnaissance Systems and Technology Advanced Technology Tactical Systems Homeland Protection Air Traffic Control Engineeri

Murray Craven

Murray Dean Craven is a Canadian former professional ice hockey centre who played 18 seasons in the National Hockey League between 1982–83 and 1999–2000 and is vice president of the Vegas Golden Knights. Craven played his junior hockey with his hometown Medicine Hat Tigers, his success there saw him selected by the Detroit Red Wings with their first-round pick in the 1982 NHL Entry Draft, he proceeded to make the Wings' NHL squad out of training camp at age 18, recorded 4 goals and 11 points in 31 games before being returned to Medicine Hat. He would see 15 more games of NHL action in 1983–84, again splitting the year between Detroit and Medicine Hat. By this time he was dominating the WHL, recording 94 points in just 46 games. On the eve of the 1984–85 season, Craven was dealt to the Philadelphia Flyers as the centrepiece of a deal for aging superstar Darryl Sittler; the deal proved to be an absolute heist for Philadelphia, as Sittler struggled through one final season before retiring while Craven stepped straight into the Flyers' lineup as one of their top forwards.

In his first full season, Craven finished 5th in team scoring with 61 points and added 10 more points in the playoffs helping lead the Flyers to the Stanley Cup Finals, where they lost to the Edmonton Oilers. Craven would spend 7+ successful seasons in Philadelphia, establishing himself as a top-notch two-way forward, he again helped the Flyers to the Stanley Cup Finals in 1987, although he missed a large portion of the playoffs that year with a broken foot. In 1987–88, Craven had one of his finest seasons, reaching the 30-goal plateau for the only time in his career and leading the Flyers with 76 points. After an injury-plagued 1988–89 season, Craven recorded his first 50-assist campaign in 1989–90. However, by the early 1990s the Flyers' success of the 1980s was well behind them and they were in the midst of a stretch of five consecutive years out of the playoffs. Despite still playing well, Craven was a casualty of this period and was dealt to the Hartford Whalers for Kevin Dineen 12 games into the 1991–92 season.

Craven would finish the season with 60 points, second on the Whalers. Craven was again amongst the Whalers' leading scorers in 1992–93, but with the team about to miss the playoffs he was dealt to the Vancouver Canucks at the trade deadline, he finished the year setting career highs in assists and points, provided an offensive boost to the Canucks, although they were outed in the second round of the playoffs. In 1993–94, he scored 55 points for the Canucks and added 13 more in the playoffs en route to the finals, where he came out on the losing end for the third time, he had the unfortunate distinction of being on the losing end of the only two Cup finals between 1971 and 2001 to go the full 7 games. The winning coach of the 1994 Finals, Mike Keenan, was coach of the Flyers in 1987. Following the 1994–95 NHL lockout, Craven endured a lengthy holdout as a result of uncertainty over his free agency status, he was traded to the Chicago Blackhawks for Christian Ruuttu, although he was able to play in only 16 games.

In the playoffs, he scored 10 points to help the Blackhawks to the Conference Finals, defeating Vancouver along the way. Craven scored 47 points in his first full season in Chicago, but by the 1996–97 season he was being used in a defensive role, he finished the year with full-season career lows of just 8 goals and 35 points. Following that season, he was dealt to the San Jose Sharks. In San Jose, he continued to be a solid defensive forward, although he was hobbled by injuries. In 1998 -- 99 he was limited to 13 points. Following a poor start and a hernia surgery, he was released by San Jose midway through the 1999–2000 season ending his career. Craven finished his NHL career with 493 assists for 759 points in 1071 games, he added 27 goals and 70 points in 118 career playoff games. Craven was the former vice president of the Vegas Golden Knights, he had significant input on the design of City National Arena, the team's headquarters and practice facility. List of NHL players with 1000 games played Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database Profile at

Caladenia dorrienii

Caladenia dorrienii known as the Cossack spider orchid is a species of orchid endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has a single hairy leaf and one, two or sometimes three small creamy-white flowers with the lateral sepals and petals curving around the ovary and crossing each other, it is a rare orchid, only found in the extreme south-east of the state. Caladenia dorrienii is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and which grows in clumps, it has a single, narrow linear, hairy leaf, 6–10 cm long and 3–7 mm wide. One, two or sometimes three white to creamy-white flowers are borne on a stalk 10–25 cm tall; the flowers are 4–5 cm long and 2–3 cm wide. The sepals and petals are short, greenish-white with red lines and dark glandular tips; the dorsal sepal is erect and the lateral sepals and petals curve downwards and cross each other. The labellum is pale white broad and has smooth to toothed edges. Along its centre line there are two rows of pale red-tipped calli. Flowering occurs from September to November.

Caladenia dorrienii was first formally described by Karel Domin in 1912 from a specimen collected by Arthur Dorrien-Smith near Bridgetown. The description was published in Journal of the Linnean Botany; the specific epithet honours the collector of the type specimen. The Cossack spider orchid is only found in scattered communities between Kojonup and Boyup Brook and near West Dale in the Avon Wheatbelt and Jarrah Forest biogeographic regions where it grows in moist clay soils amongst dense small plants in wandoo woodland. Caladenia dorrienii is classified as "endangered" under the Australian Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and as "rare flora" under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950