Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Core i3, i5, i7, i9, workstation Xeon series; as of 2017, Pentium processors have little more than their name in common with earlier Pentiums, which were Intel's flagship processor for over a decade until the introduction of the Intel Core line in 2006. They are based on both the architecture used in that of Core processors. In the case of Atom architectures, Pentiums are the highest performance implementations of the architecture. Pentium processors with Core architectures prior to 2017 were distinguished from the faster, higher-end i-series processors by lower clock rates and disabling some features, such as hyper-threading and sometimes L3 cache; the name Pentium is derived from the Greek word penta, meaning "five", a reference to the prior numeric naming convention of Intel's 80x86 processors, with the Latin ending -ium.
In 2017, Intel split Pentium into two line-ups. Pentium Silver aiming for low-power devices and shares architecture with Atom and Celeron. Pentium Gold aiming for entry-level desktop and using existing architecture, such as Kaby Lake or Coffee Lake. During development, Intel identifies processors with codenames, such as Prescott, Coppermine, Klamath, or Deschutes; these become known after the processors are given official names on launch. The original Pentium-branded CPUs were expected to be named 586 or i586, to follow the naming convention of prior generations. However, as the firm wanted to prevent their competitors from branding their processors with similar names, Intel filed a trademark application on the name in the United States, but was denied because a series of numbers was considered to lack trademark distinctiveness. Following Intel's prior series of 8086, 80186, 80286, 80386, 80486 microprocessors, the firm's first P5-based microprocessor was released as the original Intel Pentium on March 22, 1993.
Marketing firm Lexicon Branding was hired to coin a name for the new processor. The suffix -ium was chosen as it could connote a fundamental ingredient of a computer, like a chemical element, while the prefix pent- could refer to the fifth generation of x86. Due to its success, the Pentium brand would continue through several generations of high-end processors. In 2006, the name disappeared from Intel's technology roadmaps, only to re-emerge in 2007. In 1998, Intel introduced the Celeron brand for low-priced microprocessors. With the 2006 introduction of the Intel Core brand as the company's new flagship line of processors, the Pentium series was to be discontinued. However, due to a demand for mid-range dual-core processors, the Pentium brand was repurposed to be Intel's mid-range processor series, between the Celeron and Core series, continuing with the Pentium Dual-Core line. In 2009, the "Dual-Core" suffix was dropped, new x86 microprocessors started carrying the plain Pentium name again.
In 2014, Intel released the Pentium 20th Anniversary Edition, to mark the 20th anniversary of the Pentium brand. The processors are unlocked and overclockable. In 2017, Intel splits Pentium into two line-ups, Pentium Silver aiming for low-power devices and shares architecture with Atom and Celeron and Pentium Gold aiming for entry-level desktop and using existing architecture, such as Kaby Lake or Coffee Lake The original Intel P5 or Pentium and Pentium MMX processors were the superscalar follow-on to the 80486 processor and were marketed from 1993 to 1999; some versions of these were available as Pentium OverDrive. In parallel with the P5 microarchitecture, Intel developed the P6 microarchitecture and started marketing it as the Pentium Pro for the high-end market in 1995, it introduced out-of-order execution and an integrated second-level cache on dual-chip processor package. The second P6 generation replaced the original P5 with the Pentium II and rebranded the high-end version as Pentium II Xeon.
It was followed by a third version named the Pentium Pentium III Xeon respectively. The Pentium II line added the MMX instructions that were present in the Pentium MMX. Versions of these processors for the laptop market were named Mobile Pentium II and Mobile Pentium III versions were named Pentium III-M. Starting with the Pentium II, the Celeron brand was used for low-end versions of most Pentium processors with a reduced feature set such as a smaller cache or missing power management features. In 2000, Intel introduced a new microarchitecture named NetBurst, with a much longer pipeline enabling higher clock frequencies than the P6-based processors; these were named Pentium 4, the high-end versions have since been named Xeon. As with Pentium III, there are both Mobile Pentium 4 and Pentium 4 M processors for the laptop market, with Pentium 4 M denoting the more power-efficient versions. Enthusiast versions of the Pentium 4 with the highest clock rates were named Pentium 4 Extreme Edition; the Pentium D was the first multi-core Pentium, integrating two Pentium 4 chips in one package and was available as the enthusiast Pentium Extreme Edition.
In 2003, Intel introduced a new processor based on the P6 microarchitecture named Pentium M, much more power-efficient than the Mobile Pentium 4, Pentium 4 M, Pentium III M. Dual-core versions of the Pentium M were developed under the code name Yonah and sold under the marketing names Core Duo and Pentium Dual-Core. Unlike Pentium D, it
A floating-point unit is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. Typical operations are addition, multiplication, square root, bitshifting; some systems can perform various transcendental functions such as exponential or trigonometric calculations, though in most modern processors these are done with software library routines. In general purpose computer architectures, one or more FPUs may be integrated as execution units within the central processing unit; when a CPU is executing a program that calls for a floating-point operation, there are three ways to carry it out: A floating-point unit emulator Add-on FPU Integrated FPU Historically systems implemented floating point via a coprocessor rather than as an integrated unit. This could be an entire circuit board or a cabinet. Where floating-point calculation hardware has not been provided, floating point calculations are done in software, which takes more processor time but which avoids the cost of the extra hardware.
For a particular computer architecture, the floating point unit instructions may be emulated by a library of software functions. Emulation can be implemented on any of several levels: in the CPU as microcode, as an operating system function, or in user space code; when only integer functionality is available the CORDIC floating point emulation methods are most used. In most modern computer architectures, there is some division of floating-point operations from integer operations; this division varies by architecture. CORDIC routines has been implemented in the Intel 8087, 80287, 80387 up to the 80486 coprocessor series as well as in the Motorola 68881 and 68882 for some kinds of floating-point instructions as a way to reduce the gate counts of the FPU sub-system. Floating-point operations are pipelined. In earlier superscalar architectures without general out-of-order execution, floating-point operations were sometimes pipelined separately from integer operations. Since the early 1990s, many microprocessors for desktops and servers have more than one FPU.
The modular architecture of Bulldozer microarchitecture uses a special FPU named FlexFPU, which uses simultaneous multithreading. Each physical integer core, two per module, is single threaded, in contrast with Intel's Hyperthreading, where two virtual simultaneous threads share the resources of a single physical core; some floating-point hardware only supports the simplest operations – addition and multiplication. But the most complex floating-point hardware has a finite number of operations it can support – for example, none of them directly support arbitrary-precision arithmetic; when a CPU is executing a program that calls for a floating-point operation, not directly supported by the hardware, the CPU uses a series of simpler floating-point operations. In systems without any floating-point hardware, the CPU emulates it using a series of simpler fixed-point arithmetic operations that run on the integer arithmetic logic unit; the software that lists the necessary series of operations to emulate floating-point operations is packaged in a floating-point library.
In some cases, FPUs may be specialized, divided between simpler floating-point operations and more complicated operations, like division. In some cases, only the simple operations may be implemented in hardware or microcode, while the more complex operations are implemented as software. In some current architectures, the FPU functionality is combined with units to perform SIMD computation. In the 1980s, it was common in IBM PC/compatible microcomputers for the FPU to be separate from the CPU, sold as an optional add-on, it would only be purchased if needed to enable math-intensive programs. The IBM PC, XT, most compatibles based on the 8088 or 8086 had a socket for the optional 8087 coprocessor; the AT and 80286-based systems were socketed for the 80287, 80386/80386SX based machines for the 80387 and 80387SX although early ones were socketed for the 80287, since the 80387 did not exist yet. Other companies manufactured co-processors for the Intel x86 series; these included Weitek. Coprocessors were available for the Motorola 68000 family, the 68881 and 68882.
These were common in Motorola 68020/68030-based workstations like the Sun 3 series. They were commonly added to higher-end models of Apple Macintosh and Commodore Amiga series, but unlike IBM PC-compatible systems, sockets for adding the coprocessor were not as common in lower end systems. There are add-on FPUs coprocessor units for microcontroller units /single-board computer, which serve to provide floating-point arithmetic capability; these add-on FPUs are host-processor-independent, possess their own programming requirements and are pro
Digital signal processing
Digital signal processing is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations. The signals processed in this manner are a sequence of numbers that represent samples of a continuous variable in a domain such as time, space, or frequency. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP applications include audio and speech processing, sonar and other sensor array processing, spectral density estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image processing, signal processing for telecommunications, control systems, biomedical engineering, among others. DSP can involve linear or nonlinear operations. Nonlinear signal processing is related to nonlinear system identification and can be implemented in the time and spatio-temporal domains; the application of digital computation to signal processing allows for many advantages over analog processing in many applications, such as error detection and correction in transmission as well as data compression.
DSP is applicable to static data. To digitally analyze and manipulate an analog signal, it must be digitized with an analog-to-digital converter. Sampling is carried out in two stages and quantization. Discretization means that the signal is divided into equal intervals of time, each interval is represented by a single measurement of amplitude. Quantization means. Rounding real numbers to integers is an example; the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem states that a signal can be reconstructed from its samples if the sampling frequency is greater than twice the highest frequency component in the signal. In practice, the sampling frequency is significantly higher than twice the Nyquist frequency. Theoretical DSP analyses and derivations are performed on discrete-time signal models with no amplitude inaccuracies, "created" by the abstract process of sampling. Numerical methods require a quantized signal, such as those produced by an ADC; the processed result might be a set of statistics. But it is another quantized signal, converted back to analog form by a digital-to-analog converter.
In DSP, engineers study digital signals in one of the following domains: time domain, spatial domain, frequency domain, wavelet domains. They choose the domain in which to process a signal by making an informed assumption as to which domain best represents the essential characteristics of the signal and the processing to be applied to it. A sequence of samples from a measuring device produces a temporal or spatial domain representation, whereas a discrete Fourier transform produces the frequency domain representation; the most common processing approach in the time or space domain is enhancement of the input signal through a method called filtering. Digital filtering consists of some linear transformation of a number of surrounding samples around the current sample of the input or output signal. There are various ways to characterize filters. Linear filters satisfy the superposition principle, i.e. if an input is a weighted linear combination of different signals, the output is a weighted linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
A causal filter uses only previous samples of the output signals. A non-causal filter can be changed into a causal filter by adding a delay to it. A time-invariant filter has constant properties over time. A stable filter produces an output that converges to a constant value with time, or remains bounded within a finite interval. An unstable filter can produce an output that grows without bounds, with bounded or zero input. A finite impulse response filter uses only the input signals, while an infinite impulse response filter uses both the input signal and previous samples of the output signal. FIR filters are always stable. A filter can be represented by a block diagram, which can be used to derive a sample processing algorithm to implement the filter with hardware instructions. A filter may be described as a difference equation, a collection of zeros and poles or an impulse response or step response; the output of a linear digital filter to any given input may be calculated by convolving the input signal with the impulse response.
Signals are converted from time or space domain to the frequency domain through use of the Fourier transform. The Fourier transform converts the time or space information to a magnitude and phase component of each frequency. With some applications, how the phase varies with frequency can be a significant consideration. Where phase is unimportant the Fourier transform is converted to the power spectrum, the magnitude of each frequency component squared; the most common purpose for analysis of signals in the frequency domain is analysis of signal properties. The engineer can study the spectrum to determine which frequencies are present in the input signal and which are missing. Frequency domain analysis is called spectrum- or spectral analysis. Filtering in non-realtime work can be achieved in the frequency domain, applying the filter and converting back to the time domain; this can be an efficient implementation and can g
Metrowerks was a company that developed software development tools for various desktop, handheld and gaming platforms. Its flagship product, CodeWarrior, comprised an IDE, linkers, debuggers and related tools. In 2005 it was absorbed into Freescale. Founded by Greg Galanos in 1985 as Metropolis Computer Networks in Hudson, Metrowerks developed software development tools for the Apple Macintosh and UNIX workstations, its first product was a Modula-2 compiler developed by Niklaus Wirth, the creator of the ALGOL W, Pascal and Modula-2 programming languages. It had limited success with this product. In 1992, it began an effort to develop development tools for Macintosh computers based on the newly announced PowerPC processor as well as legacy support for 68k chipsets, it shipped the first commercial release of CodeWarrior in May 1994 at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference. The release was a great success. Metrowerks received much credit for helping Apple succeed in its risky transition to a new processor.
In March 1994 Metrowerks had its initial public offering, trading under the symbol MTWKF and continued to trade on Canadian exchanges. In 1994, Metrowerks opened a small sales and R&D office in Austin, Texas to be closer to the manufacturers of the new PowerPC chips, IBM and Motorola. Metrowerks would move its corporate headquarters to Austin along with Greg Galanos and Jean Belanger. By 1996 Metrowerks had begun expanding its CodeWarrior product line to target platforms besides Macintosh computers, including: Mac OS PowerPC Mac OS 68k General Magic's Magic Cap OS BeOS Microsoft Windows x86 NEC v8xx, VRxxxx General MIPS General PowerPC embedded General 68k embedded General Coldfire embedded General ARM embedded PlayStation, PS2 and PSP Nintendo 64 and GameCube Sega Saturn Java tools Nokia SymbianOS PalmPilotIn August 1999, Motorola's semiconductor sector acquired Metrowerks for $100 million in cash. After the acquisition, Jean Belanger moved to become VP of business development in SPS and after a short stint as Director of Software Strategy for SPS, Greg Galanos left to become a General Partner and Managing Director at SOFTBANK Venture Capital, known as Mobius Venture Capital since December 2001.
David Perkins SVP of Business Development at Metrowerks, assumed the title of President and CEO. Metrowerks subsequently acquired a small number of other companies including HIWARE AG, Embedix and AMC. In 2002, David Perkins assumed the role of Corporate Vice President of NCSG at Motorola SPS. In late 2003, Jim Welch left to become CEO of Wireless Valley Communications and Matt Harris became the new CEO of Metrowerks. In early 2005 Matt Harris left Metrowerks to become CEO of Volantis at which time Freescale management decided to absorb Metrowerks and not treat it as a wholly owned subsidiary. In 2003, Motorola spun off its semiconductor group as a separate company named Freescale Semiconductor. CodeWarrior for Mac OS had made the transition to Apple's new Mac OS X operating system, supporting the Carbon development environment. However, Apple invested in their own development tools for OS X, distributed free of charge and always up to date; the increasing prominence of the Cocoa development environment marginalized CodeWarrior, the surprise announcement of the Mac's switch to Intel processors – mere weeks after Freescale had sold the Metrowerks Intel compiler tools to Nokia – signalled the end of CodeWarrior on the Mac.
In July 2005, Freescale discontinued CodeWarrior for Mac OS. In October 2005, Freescale retired the Metrowerks name but continues to develop CodeWarrior and other developer technologies as part of Freescale's Developer Technology Organization. Metrowerks' logo of the iconic factory worker and other visual branding was created by illustrator Bill Russell Addendum: Freescale's website now says, "CodeWarrior for Mac OS has been discontinued and is no longer sold or supported." It has several downloadable updates, but the most recent modification date is 15 August 2005
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte