MSNBC is an American cable television channel that provides NBC News coverage as well as its own reporting and political commentary on current events. MSNBC is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Broadcast, Cable and News division of NBCUniversal. MSNBC and its website were founded in 1996 under a partnership between Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit, hence the network's naming. Although they had the same name, and MSNBC maintained separate corporate structures and news operations. was headquartered on the Microsoft campus in Redmond, while MSNBC operated out of NBC's headquarters in New York City. Microsoft divested itself of its stakes in the MSNBC channel in 2005 and in in July 2012. The general news site was rebranded as, a new was created as the online home of the cable channel. In the late summer of 2015, MSNBC revamped its programming. MSNBC sought to sharpen its news image by entering into a dual editorial relationship with its organizational parent NBC News.

MSNBC Live, the network's flagship daytime news platform, was expanded to cover over eight hours of the day. Phil Griffin is the president and director of day-to-day operations at MSNBC; as of September 2018 87 million households in the United States were receiving MSNBC. In 2019, MSNBC ranked second among basic cable networks averaging 1.8 million viewers, behind rival Fox News. MSNBC was established under a strategic partnership between Microsoft. NBC executive Tom Rogers was instrumental in developing this partnership. James Kinsella, a Microsoft executive, served as president of the online component,, represented the tech company in the joint venture. Microsoft invested $221 million for a 50 percent share of the cable channel. MSNBC and Microsoft shared the cost of a $200 million newsroom in Secaucus, New Jersey, for The network took over the channel space of NBC's 2-year-old America's Talking network, although in most cases cable carriage had to be negotiated with providers who had never carried AT.

MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996. The first show was anchored by Jodi Applegate and included news and commentary. During the day, rolling news coverage continued with The Contributors, a show that featured Ann Coulter and Laura Ingraham, as well as interactive programming coordinated by Applegate, John Gibson, John Seigenthaler. Stories were longer and more detailed than the stories CNN was running. NBC highlighted their broadcast connections by airing stories directly from NBC's network affiliates, along with breaking news coverage from the same sources. MSNBC increased its emphasis on politics. After completing its seven-year survey of cable channels, the Project for Excellence in Journalism said in 2007 that, "MSNBC is moving to make politics a brand, with a large dose of opinion and personality."In January 2001, Mike Barnicle's MSNBC show started, but it was canceled in June 2001 because of high production costs. In June, Microsoft chief executive officer Steve Ballmer said that he would not have started MSNBC had he foreseen the difficulty of attracting viewers.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, NBC used MSNBC as an outlet for the up-to-the-minute coverage being provided by NBC News as a supplement to the longer stories on broadcast NBC. With little financial news to cover, CNBC and CNBC Europe ran MSNBC for many hours each day following the attacks; the year boosted the profile of Ashleigh Banfield, present during the collapse of Building 7 while covering the World Trade Center on September 11. Her Region In Conflict program capitalized on her newfound celebrity and showcased exclusive interviews from Afghanistan. In the aftermath of September 11, MSNBC began calling itself "America’s NewsChannel" and hired opinionated hosts like Alan Keyes, Phil Donahue, Pat Buchanan, Tucker Carlson. On December 23, 2005, NBC Universal announced its acquisition of an additional 32 percent share of MSNBC from Microsoft, which solidified its control over television operations and allowed NBC to further consolidate MSNBC's backroom operations with NBC News and its other cable properties.

NBC exercised its option to purchase Microsoft's remaining 18 percent interest in MSNBC. In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program, he focused his attention on the Fox News Channel and Bill O'Reilly, its principal primetime commentator. On June 7, 2006, Rick Kaplan resigned as president of MSNBC after holding the post for two years. Five days Dan Abrams, a nine-year veteran of MSNBC and NBC News, was named general manager of MSNBC with immediate effect. NBC News senior vice president Phil Griffin would oversee MSNBC while continuing to oversee NBC News’ Today program, with Abrams reporting to Griffin. On June 29, 2006, Abrams announced the revamp of MSNBC's primetime schedule. On July 10, Tucker started airing at 4 p.m. and 6 p.m. ET, while Rita Cosby's Live & Direct was canceled. Cosby was made the primary anchor for MSNBC Investigates at 10 and 11 p.m. ET, a new program that took over Cosby and Carlson's timeslots.

According to the press release, MSNBC Investigates promised to "complement MSNBC's exi

Narrow-gauge railways in Russia

The Imperial Russian narrow railway track gauge was 3 ft 6 in, the current track gauge is predominantly 750 mm. In Soviet Russia, narrow-gauge railways were common in forestry and peat industries in low inhabited places, they have one main line and number of temporary branches. There was a passenger service to villages and towns for workers; as of the mid 2010s, a number of industrial railways survive in places with bad roads, but every year some railways are closing. A government railway operator, RZD, closed all owned common 750 mm railways, but still have a number of children's railways with standard rolling stock; the most well-known narrow-gauge railways are Alapayevsk narrow-gauge railway, Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway, Karinskaya narrow-gauge railway. Children's railways are located in many big cities. Sakhalin Railway; this railway was built by Japan. The network was extended to the northern part of the island in the Soviet era, it was the last Russian railway in 3 ft 6 in and underwent conversion to 1,520 mm from 2003 to 2019.

Kulebaki Factory Railway is located in Kulebaki. Alapayevsk narrow-gauge railway is located in the Sverdlovsk Alapayevsk. Altsevo peat railway is located in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, closed in 2015. Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway the largest mountain railway in Russia. Belorucheiskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Vologda Oblast. Dymnoye peat railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Gladkoye narrow-gauge railway is located in Leningrad Oblast. Gorokhovskoye peat railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Gusevskoye peat railway is located in Vladimir Oblast. Kerzhenets peat railway is located in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, closed in 2014. Kobrinskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Konetsgorskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, closed in 2018. Kudemskaya narrow-gauge railway has appeared in ranking one of the 10 most beautiful railway lines of the world in the year 2010. Kushaverskoye peat railway is located in Novgorod Oblast. Laryan narrow-gauge railway is located in Leningrad Oblast.

Loyginskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Lundanskaya narrow gauge railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Mesherskoye peat railway is located in Ryazan Oblast. Mokeiha-Zybinskoe peat railway is located in Yaroslavl Oblast, closed in 2016. Narrow-gauge railway of Decor-1 factory, is located in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Narrow-gauge railway of Caprolactam factory, is located in the Dzerzhinsk, closed in 2013. Narrow-gauge railway of KSM-2 factory, is located in the Tver. Nyubskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Pereslavl Railway Museum is located in Yaroslavl Oblast. Pelgorskoye peat railway is located in Leningrad Oblast. Pishchalskoye peat railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Pizhemskaya narrow gauge railway, is located in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Ronga narrow gauge railway, is located in the Mari El. Oparinskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Otvorskoye peat railway is located in Kirov Oblast. Sharya Forest Museum Railway is located in Kostroma Oblast.

Solotchinskoye peat railway is located in Ryazan Oblast. Tumskaja–Golowanowa Datscha railway line, closed in 2008, part of the Gorky Railway Tyosovo peat railway is located in Novgorod Oblast. Udimskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Zelennikovskaya narrow-gauge railway is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, closed in 2018. Kambarka Engineering Works List of Russian narrow gauge railways rolling stock This site contains material of Russian narrow-gauge railways. Uzd.spb A complete list of Russian and other ex-Soviet. «The site of the railroad» S. Bolashenko. Pereslavl Railway Museum.

David Peck

David Peck is a Canadian international development consultant, public speaker and writer, active in the academic and international development sectors. He is the Founder of SoChange, a regular contributor to, The MindMarket, a lecturer at Humber College in Hamilton, Ontario. He has worked with Stephen Lewis, David Miller, Jigme Thinley, Plan Canada and UNICEF, he attained an MA in Philosophy from the University of Guelph in 2004. On, his podcast Face. It is conducted in an interview format, topics have included entertainment and social change, he manages SoChange, a social enterprise that works alongside members of the corporate and non-governmental communities in areas such as social change, entrepreneurship fundraising, advocacy. In addition to working to raise the capacity of organizations such as Humber College, World Vision, Campbell Soup Company, Asian Outreach and others, SoChange has spearheaded events such as "Why Everything Must Change", "Converge", "What’s Next: Beyond GDP", which brought together prominent social justice advocates in a conference setting, the Mosquitoes Suck Tour, which collaborates with PLAN Canada and aligns with the Canadian initiative "Spread the Net" to raise funds and awareness for malaria alleviation efforts in Africa.

In 2007, David Peck was a co-producer with GAPC Entertainment of the 2006 children's educational TVO Kids show Spellz, broadcast on TVO Kids. David Peck founded the Mosquitoes Suck Tour in 2008 with fellow comedian Matthew DiSero where they developed an entertaining performance show which aims to captivate school-age audiences; the following year, Peck was named a Global Hero by Verge Magazine. He was among 14 women who are contributing to make the world a better place; as a consultant David travels to at risk regions as he advocates for a variety of on the ground organizations. He is a regular contributor to an exclusive bi-weekly digital newsmagazine, hosted on The MindMarket. Subscribers receive the latest on social change and entrepreneurial ideas that transform the way we see the world, he is a writer and blogs on topics related to philosophy, development and ideas. To date, Peck has published two books. "Real Change is Incremental" won a Word Guild Cultural Award. In 2015, his second book, "Irreconcilable Differences" was published by PickWick Publications.

David Peck Live Official Site