MTV is an American cable channel, launched on August 1, 1981. Based in New York City, it serves as the flagship property of the ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks division of ViacomCBS headquartered in New York City. MTV aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys", but in the years since its inception, the network toned down its focus on music in favor of original reality programming targeting teenagers and young adults. Despite its success, the network's programming and influence have been the subject of controversy over the years. MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video".

In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer. In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States; the series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard.

The channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television. The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.

The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the creator of New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. From its launch on August 1, 1981 until March 18, 2009, the "Music Television" caption was included underneath the logo. Many fans recognize this logo because of its unique design. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs.

MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster; the first music video shown on MTV was The Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" available only to homes in New Jersey. This was followed by the video for Pat Benatar's "You Better Run"; the screen went black sporadically when an employee at MTV inserted a tape into a VCR. MTV's lower third graphics that appeared near the beginning and end of music videos used the recognizable Kabel typeface for about 25 years, but th


Gounki is an abstract strategy game in which pieces can combine and disperse to affect their movement possibilities. Played on an eight-by-eight square grid, the goal is to move one of your own pieces off the opposite end of the board while preventing your opponent from doing the same, it was invented by Christophe Malavasi in 1997. Gounki is played on an eight-by-eight square; each player has eight round pieces and eight square pieces, placed alternatively on his first two rows On each turn, the player chooses whether to make a movement or a deployment. Rounds pieces move one step in diagonal, always forward. Squares pieces move one step on the left, on the right, or forward; when a player moves his pieces, he may stack them above some of his other pieces, as long as he does not try to combine more than three elementary pieces altogether. If a combined piece comprises X rounds and Y squares, it may move up to X steps like a round, or up to Y steps like a square. Combined pieces cannot: Change direction during a movement: a double square cannot move diagonally by combining a movement on the side and a movement forward.

Play a square movement and a round movement during the same turn. Jump above other pieces. Move a piece and let part of it on its starting point. Just like in chess: if an opponent's piece is where you mean to go during a movement, it is captured; the second kind of move is the deployment. When deploying a piece, you separate all the simple pieces making a composed pieces. You separate a simple piece by moving its parent composed piece like this simple piece. After this movement, the simple piece is separated from its parent piece. All the rounds are deployed all the squares, or all the squares followed by all the rounds, it means you should not, for instance, deploy a round, a square a round again. You can deploy above your own pieces, as long. You should not: Capture during a deployment. Thus, deployments involving opponent pieces are not possible. Change direction between deployment of two simple pieces of the same kind. Deploy a piece partially. Step back. Pieces mays rebound against the side during their deployments.

Examples: A round-round-square on b2 can have a b2-b4 movement or a b2*a3,b4,c4 deployment rebounding on left side. Using a rebound, square-square-round on a3 can deploy and recombine over itself: a3*b4,a4,b4+ This game has been played on 8 March 2004 between Matthieu Walraet and MGounki. Matthieu Walraet is the best ranked human player for now. play real time games against human or robot opponents

Dannemora (town), New York

Dannemora is a town in Clinton County, New York, United States. The population was 4,898 at the 2010 census; the town is named after an important iron-mining region. The town of Dannemora contains a village called Dannemora, the south part of, located in the town of Saranac. Both village and town are on the west border of west of Plattsburgh; the area was first settled around 1838. A prison was opened in 1845; the town of Dannemora was formed in 1854 from the town of Beekmantown. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Dannemora has a total area of 65.8 square miles, of which 59.1 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles, or 10.27%, is water. The west town line is the border of Franklin County. Most of the town is within the Adirondack Park on the west side of the county. However, the statute defining the Adirondack Park excludes Dannemora and nearby Altona, due to the prison facilities located in both towns. New York State Route 374 is an east-west highway in Dannemora. Chazy Lake is a large water body.

The Great Chazy River begins at the north end of Chazy Lake and is an east-flowing tributary of Lake Champlain. Upper Chateaugay Lake, near the western border of the town, empties through the Chateaugay Narrows into Lower Chateaugay Lake in Franklin County, which marks the beginning of the Chateaugay River, a north-flowing tributary of the Saint Lawrence River; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,149 people, 850 households, 584 families residing in the town. The population density was 87.0 people per square mile. There were 1,253 housing units at an average density of 21.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 56.30% White, 32.34% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 8.95% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 15.87% of the population. There were 850 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families.

Of all households 26.6% were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.91. The age distribution was 10.3% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 53.6% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 367.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 446.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,805, the median income for a family was $43,850. Males had a median income of $27,045 versus $25,132 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,614. About 13.6% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.3% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Note: The census counts prisoners based on where they are incarcerated. With the all-male state prison in Dannemora, the data listed above, except for household and family data, is to be skewed in comparison with the remainder of the town population and the population of neighboring non-prison towns with regard to ethnicity and the female:male ratio, because a disproportionate percentage of the prison population is male and black or Hispanic.

Chazy Lake: A lake centrally located in the town. Chazy Lake: A hamlet on the west side of Chazy Lake. Clinton Correctional Facility: One of New York State's maximum security prisons is located in the village of Dannemora; the site formerly housed the state's mental hospital for the criminally insane. Dannemora: The village of Dannemora is on the south town line, located on NY-374. Dannemora Mountain: A small mountain north of the village. Ledger Corners: A location near the north town line on NY-374. Lyon Mountain: The hamlet of Lyon Mountain is in the western part of the town. Lyon Mountain Correctional Facility: Formerly a minimum security prison located in the western part of the town. Seine Bay: A small bay in Chazy Lake north of the community of Chazy Lake. Upper Chateaugay Lake: A lake in the northwest corner of the town. Dannemora, Sweden Town of Dannemora official website Village of Dannemora Historical views of Dannemora Adirondack information Hamlet of Lyon Mountain Northern New York American-Canadian Genealogical Society