The MTV Video Music Award for Video of the Year is the most prestigious competitive-award and final award handed out at the annual MTV Video Music Awards. It was first awarded in 1984 and presented to The Cars for the video "You Might Think". Kendrick Lamar and Taylor Swift are the only performers to have won the award for a video they co-directed: Lamar for "Humble" in 2017 and Swift for "You Need to Calm Down" in 2019; the current holder is Swift for the video "You Need to Calm Down". Eminem is the most nominated artist in this category with 6 nominations, he is the only artist to be nominated in the category consecutively for 4 years; the only multiple winners of this award are Eminem, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift. David Lee Roth, U2, Lady Gaga are the only performers to have two Video of the Year nominations in one night, with Gaga being the only to take home the award for her video "Bad Romance"; the most nominated group in this category is U2, with four nominated videos, no wins. En Vogue is the first female group to be nominated in this category.
Missy Elliott is the only female rapper to be nominated in the category twice, with one win. Only two artists have won Video of the Year and been honored with the Video Vanguard Award in the same night; as the other general categories, the public is able to vote for the winner via MTV's website since 2009. American acts have won the award more than any other nationality, though award-winning videos have been performed by musicians originating from the United Kingdom three times, from Barbados twice and from Australia and Ireland once. Rock, R&B, acid jazz and hip-hop performers are among the winners. Winners are highlighted in bold. Notes: "†" indicates Grammy Award-winning music videos. "‡" indicates Grammy Award nominated music videos. Grammy Award for Best Music Video MTV Europe Music Award for Best Video Official website
The Perfect Event was a tag team in World Championship Wrestling and the World Wrestling Federation from 2000-2001. The team consisted of Chuck Palumbo, they are former WCW World Tag Team Champions. Stasiak feuded with Curt Hennig and "stole" his "Perfect" gimmick while Palumbo feuded with Lex Luger and "stole" his "Total Package" gimmick. Although solo players, within a month of active duty on the WCW roster, they paired together, their team name being an amalgam of their then-nicknames'PerfectShawn' and'The Main Event', respectively; the team was part of The Alliance stable months after WCW's closure in 2001. Perfect Event formed in late May 2000 feuding with KroniK and defeated them in June 2000 for the WCW Tag Team Titles. Despite being green in the ring, they were booked over established stars, won titles and enjoyed a constant push by way of Dusty Finishes, they feuded with Tony Marinara, M. I. A. KroniK and The Filthy Animals; the duo became known for using a Lex Flexer, Lex Luger's own custom dumbbell taken by Palumbo, as an illegal weapon in their matches.
The Perfect Event grew a notoriety for hijacking the WCW production truck and blatantly messing with opponent's entrances. In August and Palumbo helped form The Natural Born Thrillers with Mike Sanders, Sean O'Haire, Mark Jindrak, Reno, they were "coached" by Kevin Nash. Johnny the Bull, a tag team partner of Palumbo on in WWE, would join the group following the formation. Palumbo and Stasiak won the WCW Tag Team Championship two more times before splitting in early January 2001 when they won a tag team battle royal with Sean O'Haire and Mark Jindrak for a future tag team title shot. After the conclusion of the match Mike Sanders declared both teams victorious and that any combination of the four would face The Insiders; the Perfect Event split up when Palumbo and Sean O'Haire would be the two chosen members of the Natural Born Thrillers who would face and defeat Page and Nash for the tag titles at Sin on January 14, 2001. Palumbo and O'Haire continued to team together while Stasiak and Mark Jindrak started teaming together.
Following Palumbo and O'Haire's title victory, the Natural Born Thrillers broke up when the team of Shawn Stasiak and Mark Jindrak would become jealous of Palumbo and O'Haire. The teams would face each other at SuperBrawl Revenge on February 18, 2001, for the tag team titles, which Palumbo and O'Haire retained. Following the acquisition of WCW's intellectual unit by the World Wrestling Federation in 2001, the duo of Palumbo and Stasiak were reunited on July 9, 2001 edition of Raw is War as part of Shane McMahon's The Alliance stable feuding with the WWF wrestlers until Palumbo defected to the WWF near the end of the storyline. World Championship Wrestling WCW World Tag Team Championship The Natural Born Thrillers The New Blood The Alliance
Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens. Organisms capable of producing methane have been identified only from the domain Archaea, a group phylogenetically distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria, although many live in close association with anaerobic bacteria; the production of methane is an widespread form of microbial metabolism. In anoxic environments, it is the final step in the decomposition of biomass. Methanogenesis is responsible for significant amounts of natural gas accumulations, the remainder being thermogenic. Methanogenesis in microbes is a form of anaerobic respiration. Methanogens do not use oxygen to respire; the terminal electron acceptor in methanogenesis is not carbon. The carbon can occur in a small number of organic compounds, all with low molecular weights; the two best described pathways involve the use of acetic acid or inorganic carbon dioxide as terminal electron acceptors: CO2 + 4 H2 → CH4 + 2 H2OCH3COOH → CH4 + CO2During anaerobic respiration of carbohydrates, H2 and acetate are formed in a ratio of 2:1 or lower, so H2 contributes only ca. 33% to methanogenesis, with acetate contributing the greater proportion.
In some circumstances, for instance in the rumen, where acetate is absorbed into the bloodstream of the host, the contribution of H2 to methanogenesis is greater. However, depending on pH and temperature, methanogenesis has been shown to use carbon from other small organic compounds, such as formic acid, methylamines, tetramethylammonium, dimethyl sulfide, methanethiol; the catabolism of the methyl compounds is mediated by methyl transferases to give methyl coenzyme M. The biochemistry of methanogenesis involves the following coenzymes and cofactors: F420, coenzyme B, coenzyme M, methanopterin; the mechanism for the conversion of CH3–S bond into methane involves a ternary complex of methyl coenzyme M and coenzyme B fit into a channel terminated by the axial site on nickel of the cofactor F430. One proposed mechanism invokes electron transfer from Ni, which initiates formation of CH4. Coupling of the coenzyme M thiyl radical with HS coenzyme B releases a proton and re-reduces Ni by one-electron, regenerating Ni.
Some organisms can oxidize methane, functionally reversing the process of methanogenesis referred to as the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Organisms performing AOM have been found in multiple marine and freshwater environments including methane seeps, hydrothermal vents, coastal sediments and sulfate-methane transition zones; these organisms may accomplish reverse methanogenesis using a nickel-containing protein similar to methyl-coenzyme M reductase used by methanogenic archaea. Reverse methanogenesis occurs according to the reaction: SO42− + CH4 → HCO3− + HS− + H2O Methanogenesis is the final step in the decay of organic matter. During the decay process, electron acceptors become depleted, while hydrogen and carbon dioxide accumulate. Light organics produced by fermentation accumulate. During advanced stages of organic decay, all electron acceptors become depleted except carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a product of most catabolic processes, so it is not depleted like other potential electron acceptors.
Only methanogenesis and fermentation can occur in the absence of electron acceptors other than carbon. Fermentation only allows the breakdown of larger organic compounds, produces small organic compounds. Methanogenesis removes the semi-final products of decay: hydrogen, small organics, carbon dioxide. Without methanogenesis, a great deal of carbon would accumulate in anaerobic environments. Enteric fermentation occurs in the gut of some animals ruminants. In the rumen, anaerobic organisms, including methanogens, digest cellulose into forms nutritious to the animal. Without these microorganisms, animals such as cattle would not be able to consume grasses; the useful products of methanogenesis are absorbed by the gut, but methane is released from the animal by belching. The average cow emits around 250 liters of methane per day. In this way, ruminants contribute about 25% of anthropogenic methane emissions. One method of methane production control in ruminants is by feeding them 3-nitrooxypropanol.
Some humans produce flatus. In one study of the feces of nine adults, five of the samples contained archaea capable of producing methane. Similar results are found in samples of gas obtained from within the rectum. Among humans whose flatus does contain methane, the amount is in the range of 10% or less of the total amount of gas. Many experiments have suggested. Other research has indicated that the plants are not generating methane. Methanogens are observed in anoxic soil environments, contributing to the degradation of organic matter; this organic matter may be placed by humans through landfill, buried as sediment on the bottom of lakes or oceans as sediments, as residual organic matter from sediments that have formed into sedimentary rocks. Methanogens are a notable part of the microbial communities in continental and marine deep biosphere. Atmospheric methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide, methanogenesis in livestock and the decay of organic material is thus a considerable contributor to global warming.
It may not be a net contributor in the sense that it works on o