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MU90 Impact

The MU90 Impact is an advanced lightweight anti-submarine torpedo of the 3rd generation developed by France and Italy for navies of France, Germany, Denmark and Poland. It is designed to compete with and outperform the United States-built Mark 54 in the anti-submarine role, has been developed in a special MU90 Hard Kill version for torpedo anti-torpedo defence; the MU90 is built by a consortium of French and Italian companies. The MU90 was the result of separate projects in Italy from the 1980s. In France, a project under the direction of Thomson Sintra created the "Murène" in 1989, while in Italy Whitehead started work on an A244 replacement known as the A290. In 1990 the first attempts to merge the two efforts started, a process, completed in 1993 with the formation of EuroTorp; the French intended to use the new torpedo on their frigates, Atlantique 2 aircraft, Lynx helicopters and NFH90 helicopters. They wanted 1000 units, but the end of the Cold War saw their requirement cut to 600 in 1991, 450 in 2000 and 300 torpedoes in 2008.

The project has cost France €1,150m in 2012 prices at a unit cost of €1.6m, or €3.8m including development costs. 25 torpedoes per year will be delivered to France until 2014. The MU90 is capable against any current or perceived threat, including a bottomed stationary mini-submarine, known versions of anechoic coatings, various decoys, it is capable of launch speeds up to 400 knots, allowing it to be dropped from maritime patrol aircraft flying at high speeds, or rocket-assist launchers. Powered by an electric pump-jet, it can be run at "silent" speeds to avoid giving its location away to the submarine, or "dash" at speeds over 29 knots, it uses a shaped charge warhead that can penetrate any known submarine hull, in particular Soviet double hull designs, while remaining just as deadly in shallow waters where conventional warheads are less effective. In 1986 France and Italy began a collaboration to develop an anti-submarine missile based on the Italian Otomat missile. France dropped out of the programme but Italy has fitted the MBDA MILAS missile to its Durand de la Penne-class destroyers and FREMM anti-submarine frigates.

MILAS is an 800 kg missile. After deciding that its Mark 46 torpedoes were inadequate, Australia set up the JP2070 project in 1998 to buy torpedoes for its Adelaide-class frigates, Anzac-class frigates, AP-3C Orion aircraft, S-70B-2 Seahawk helicopters and planned SH-2G Super Seasprite helicopters; the Seasprites were cancelled and the Orions and Seahawks were removed from the MU90 programme on budget grounds. The A$639m project to buy a classified number of MU90 has been criticised by the Australian National Audit Office on the grounds of cost, insufficient test firings which failed to reveal defects in the torpedo, the lack of commonality with the Navy's air-launched torpedoes; the MU90 reached IOC in November 2012. Australia Denmark Egypt France Germany Italy Morocco Poland Sting Ray - British equivalent Mark 54 Lightweight Torpedo - US Navy's equivalent APR-3E torpedo - Russian equivalent Yu-7 torpedo - Chinese equivalent

Common Type System

In Microsoft's. NET Framework, the Common Type System is a standard that specifies how type definitions and specific values of types are represented in computer memory, it is intended to allow programs written in different programming languages to share information. As used in programming languages, a type can be described as a definition of a set of values, the allowable operations on those values; the specification for the CTS is contained in Ecma standard 335, "Common Language Infrastructure Partitions I to VI." The CLI and the CTS were created by Microsoft, the Microsoft. NET framework is an implementation of the standard. To establish a framework that helps enable cross-language integration, type safety, high performance code execution. To provide an object-oriented model that supports the complete implementation of many programming languages. To define rules that languages must follow, which helps ensure that objects written in different languages can interact with each other; the CTS defines the rules that ensures that the data types of objects written in various languages are able to interact with each other.

The CTS specifies the rules for type visibility and access to the members of a type, i.e. the CTS establishes the rules by which assemblies form scope for a type, the Common Language Runtime enforces the visibility rules. The CTS defines the rules governing virtual methods and object lifetime. Languages supported by. NET can implement all or some common data types…When rounding fractional values, the halfway-to-even method is used by default, throughout the Framework. Since version 2, "Symmetric Arithmetic Rounding" is available by programmer's option, it is used to communicate with other languages The common type system supports two general categories of types: Value types Value types directly contain their data, instances of value types are either allocated on the stack or allocated inline in a structure. Value types can be built-in, user-defined, or enumerations. Reference types Reference types store a reference to the value's memory address, are allocated on the heap. Reference types can be pointer types, or interface types.

The type of a reference type can be determined from values of self-describing types. Self-describing types are further split into arrays and class types; the class types are user-defined classes, boxed value types, delegates. The following example written in Visual Basic. NET shows the difference between reference types and value types: The output of the above example Values: 0, 123 Refs: 123, 123 Converting value types to reference types is known as boxing; as can be seen in the example below, it is not necessary to tell the compiler an Int32 is boxed to an object, because it takes care of this itself. However, an Int32 can always be explicitly boxed like this: The following example intends to show how to unbox a reference type back to a value type. First an Int32 is boxed to an object, it is unboxed again. Note that unboxing requires explicit cast.. NET Framework Blittable types Common Language Infrastructure Microsoft developer's guide describing the CTS Built-in types in the. NET Framework

Tunnel broker

In the context of computer networking, a tunnel broker is a service which provides a network tunnel. These tunnels can provide encapsulated connectivity over existing infrastructure to another infrastructure. There are a variety of tunnel brokers, including IPv4 tunnel brokers, though most the term is used to refer to an IPv6 tunnel broker as defined in RFC:3053. IPv6 tunnel brokers provide IPv6 to sites or end users over IPv4. In general, IPv6 tunnel brokers offer so called'protocol 41' or proto-41 tunnels; these are tunnels where IPv6 is tunneled directly inside IPv4 packets by having the protocol field set to'41' in the IPv4 packet. In the case of IPv4 tunnel brokers IPv4 tunnels are provided to users by encapsulating IPv4 inside IPv6 as defined in RFC:2473. Configuration of IPv6 tunnels is done using the Tunnel Setup Protocol, or using Tunnel Information Control protocol. A client capable of this is AICCU. In addition to IPv6 tunnels TSP can be used to set up IPv4 tunnels. Proto-41 tunnels may not operate well situated behind NATs.

One way around this is to configure the actual endpoint of the tunnel to be the DMZ on the NAT-utilizing equipment. Another method is to either use AYIYA or TSP, both of which send IPv6 inside UDP packets, able to cross most NAT setups and firewalls. A problem that still might occur is that of the timing-out of the state in the NAT machine; as a NAT remembers that a packet went outside to the Internet it allows another packet to come back in from the Internet, related to the initial proto-41 packet. When this state expires, no other packets from the Internet will be accepted; this therefore breaks the connectivity of the tunnel until the user's host again sends out a packet to the tunnel broker. When the endpoint isn't a static IP address, the user, or a program, has to instruct the tunnel broker to update the endpoint address; this can be done using the tunnel broker's web site or using an automated protocol like TSP or Heartbeat, as used by AICCU. In the case of a tunnel broker using TSP, the client automatically restarting the tunnel will cause the endpoint address and port to be updated.

The first implementation of an IPv6 Tunnel Broker was at the Italian CSELT S.p. A. by Ivano Guardini, the author of RFC3053There are a variety of tunnel brokers that provide their own custom implementations based on different goals. Listed here are the common implementations as used by the listed IPv6 tunnel brokers. GogoSERVER is used by the Freenet6 service, the second IPv6 tunnel broker service, going into production in 1999, it was started as a project of Viagenie and Hexago was spun off as a commercial company selling Gateway6, which powered Freenet6, as their flagship product. In June 2009, Hexago became gogo6 through a management buyout and the Freenet6 service became part of gogoNET, a social network for IPv6 professionals. On 23 March 2016 all services of Freenet6/Gogo6 were halted. SixXS's sixxsd is, it is custom built software for the purpose of tunneling at high performance with low latency. Development of sixxsd has evolved into the current v4 version of the software; the software is made available for ISPs who run SixXS PoPs.

In 2000, SixXS used shell bash scripts. Due to scalability issues and other problems sixxsd was developed. After 17 years, the SixXS tunnel sunset on 2017-06-06. CITC Tunnel Broker, run by the Saudi Arabia IPv6 Task Force, uses their own implementation of the TSP RFC named'ddtb'. List of IPv6 tunnel brokers 6in4

Shannon Doyle

Shannon Doyle is a Canadian-born women’s ice hockey player with the Connecticut Whale of the National Women's Hockey League. At the NCAA level, she accumulated 25 points with the Colgate Raiders women's ice hockey from 2010–12, 53 points with the Boston University Terriers women's ice hockey program over the course of two seasons from 2012-15. During her time with the Boston University Terriers, the program would win four consecutive Hockey East championships. In the aftermath of the 2015 Hockey East tournament, Doyle joined Kayla Tutino and captain Marie-Philip Poulin on the All-Tournament Team. On December 31, 2015, Doyle was one of three Connecticut Whale players (including Kate Buesser and Kaleigh Fratkin that were loaned to the Boston Pride; the three donned the Pride jerseys for one day and participated in the 2015 Women's Winter Classic, the first outdoor professional women’s hockey game. Colgate Raiders Rookie of the Year Shannon Doyle at NWHL Shannon Doyle at Boston University Terriers Shannon Doyle career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database Shannon Doyle career statistics at EliteProspects.com Shannon Doyle on Twitter

Barthélemy Mercier de Saint-Léger

Barthélemy Mercier de Saint-Léger was a French abbot and librarian. Lettres sur la Bibliographie instructive de M. Debure, 1763. 2 ̊ s’ils sont ou s’ils ne sont pas capables de posséder des cures?, 1772. Particularités littéraires sur la liturgie mosarabe tirées des lettres manuscrites du P. Burriel, 26 septembre 1786. A***, négociant de Rouen, à Dom A***, religieux de la Congrégation de Saint-Maur, sur le projet de décret concernant les religieux, proposé à l’Assemblée nationale par M. Treilhard, 1789. Panormitae, Ramusii Ariminensis, Pacifici Maximi,… Joan. Joviani,… Joan. Secundi,… lusus in Venerem, partim ex codicibus manuscriptis, nunc primum editi, 1791. 1791. Mediœ et infini, latinitatis by Johann Albert Fabricius, the Bibliothèques by La Croix du Maine and Antoine du Verdier, etc. and two volumes of Notices sur les poètes latins du moyen âge, jusqu'à l’an 1520. M. Parison promettait de publier, sous le titre de Merceriana, les notes détachées trouvées dans les papiers de Mercier. Works by or about Barthélemy Mercier de Saint-Léger at Internet Archive Barthélemy Mercier de Saint-Léger on data.bnf.fr

Table Rock Welcome Centre

The Table Rock Welcome Centre is a retail and observation complex located in Niagara Falls, Canada at the brink of the Canadian Horseshoe Falls, several hundred feet south of the former rock formation which bears its name. The complex consists of two buildings connected by an indoor pedestrian mall and anchored by "The Grand Hall", a multi-level indoor observation complex, completed in 2008; the north building constructed in 1926, houses a first-floor retail store and the Welcome Centre, Niagara's Fury, a whitewater simulation, plus the ticket offices for the tunnels Journey Behind the Falls attraction. The upper level contains multiple specialty stores, a currency exchange, additional outdoor observation plaza; the south building, constructed in 1974, has a first-floor fast food snack bar, additional retail space, a second-floor, semi-formal restaurant overlooking the Horseshoe Falls and the upper Niagara River. Owned and operated by the Niagara Parks Commission, Table Rock Centre provides the best direct path from the Horseshoe Falls observation area to the Falls Incline Railway, which transports passengers to the Fallsview Tourist Area above the Niagara Escarpment.

The first building on the site was constructed in 1827, when Thomas Barnett established his second museum of novelties, joining his first museum further upriver at the current site of the Victoria Park Restaurant. Barnett was met with stiff competition from Buffalo native Saul Davis, operator of a museum on the New York side, Prospect House, who built his own structure called Table Rock House in 1853 south of Barnett's original structure. Competition for the tourist's attention and dollar were fierce. Davis had built his structure between Barnett's museum and the Table Rock viewing area, thus was able to intercept any potential customer of Barnett's. Davis' employees were referred to as "henchmen" who would lure visitors into his complex by promising them free access to the Falls, only to renege and charge outrageous fees, while physically challenging any victimized tourist who either refused or were unable to pay these charges. One such incident in June 1870 resulted in a homicide, for which Davis was acquitted and Barnett reprimanded for.

Though victimized by Davis many times, Barnett did not resort to overcharging tourists or being disrespectful toward them. However, it was Barnett, his riverfront property was auctioned off in 1877 to satisfy debts. Davis purchased Barnett's properties and continued to run the operation until the Niagara Parks Commission and Queen Victoria Park were established under a Provincial Act in 1887. Since the 1840s, there had been a series of stairways leading from the complex to the river level where tourists could descend and walk right next to the foot of the Horseshoe Falls, dubbed Behind The Sheet; these stairs were replaced in 1889 with a hydraulic lift, by 1905, tunnels were cut inside the rock, establishing the forerunner of the Journey Behind the Falls attraction. Davis' Table Rock House, standing since 1853, was in disrepair and was demolished in 1925 to make way for a new road and replacement building. Designed by the firm of Findlay and Foulis of Sault Ste. Marie, this Collegiate Gothic building is still in service today, albeit with major modifications since that time.

After World War II, the tunnels were relined with concrete and in 1951, an observation platform was constructed just north of the Horseshoe Falls. The attraction, now called the Scenic Tunnels, continued to draw increased tourist traffic. Modifications included the addition of the second floor observation plaza, a planned "permanent" exhibit of replicas of the Royal Crown Jewels of Britain, drawing over 330,000 people in its first year; this exhibit lasted until 1973. A 25 cent admission fee to the observation plaza was removed the following year. Parking for Table Rock House was on the river side of the building which, due to the increased use of the automobile, became a hindrance. A major road design re-routed the Niagara Parkway to the west of the building in 1973, which provided a pedestrian environment between Table Rock House and the Horseshoe Falls. In 1974, the building known as Table Rock South or the annex, was constructed to expand retail space, including a second-floor, first-class restaurant.

Renovations at the site, first begun in 1992-93, connected the two buildings and created the indoor pedestrian plaza, while the first-floor gift shop was renovated in the 1926 building. In an effort to better describe the Scenic Tunnels attraction, it was renamed Journey Behind The Falls in the mid 1990s. Further aesthetic improvements were made in 1998, a more extensive renovation was completed in 2008, which saw the addition of the Grand Hall indoor observatory facing the Falls, an expansion of the north building for additional souvenir storage, as well as the new pedestrian bridge over the Niagara Parkway. Renamed Table Rock Centre, the site continues to be a top draw for visitors and a top money-maker for the Niagara Parks Commission; the Table Rock Centre complex was featured in the 1980 movie Superman II. Exterior shots of the 1926 building established it as the fictional "Honeymoon Haven Hotel" where Clark Kent and Lois Lane represented the Daily Planet in an effort to identify corruption in the honeymoon industry