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Maarten van Heemskerck

Maerten van Heemskerck or Marten Jacobsz Heemskerk van Veen was a Dutch portrait and religious painter, who spent most of his career in Haarlem. He was a pupil of Jan van Scorel, adopted his teacher's Italian-influenced style, he spent the years 1532–6 in Italy. He produced many designs for engravers, is known for his depictions of the Wonders of the World. Heemskerck was born in the village of Heemskerk, North Holland, halfway between Haarlem, he was the son of a farmer called Jacob Willemsz. Van Veen. According to his biography by Karel van Mander, he began his artistic training with the painter Cornelius Willemsz in Haarlem, but was recalled to Heemskerk by his father to work on the family farm. However, having contrived an argument with his father he left again, this time for Delft, where he studied under Jan Lucasz, before moving on to Haarlem, where he became a pupil of Jan van Scorel, learning to paint in his teacher's innovative Italian-influenced style. Heemskerck went to lodge at the home of the wealthy curate of the Sint-Bavokerk, Pieter Jan Foppesz.

They knew each other. The artist painted him in a now famous family portrait, considered the first of its kind in a long line of Dutch family paintings, his other works for Foppesz included two life size figures symbolising the Sun and the Moon on a bedstead, a picture of Adam and Eve "rather smaller but after living models". His next home was in the house of Justus Cornelisz, on the edge of Haarlem. Before setting off for Italy on a Grand Tour in 1532, Heemskerck painted a scene of St. Luke painting the Virgin for the altar of St. Luke in the Bavokerk. An inscription, incorporated into a tromp l'oeil label on the painting begins "This picture is a remembrance from its painter, Marten Heemskerck, he travelled around the whole of northern and central Italy, stopping at Rome, where he had letters of introduction from van Scorel to the influential Dutch cardinal William of Enckenvoirt. It is evident of the facility with which he acquired the rapid execution of a scene-painter that he was selected to collaborate with Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Battista Franco and Francesco de' Rossi on the redecoration of the Porta San Sebastiano at Rome as a triumphal arch in honour of Charles V. Giorgio Vasari, who saw the battle-pieces which Heemskerk produced, said they were well composed and boldly executed.

While in Rome where he made numerous drawings of classical sculpture and architecture, many of which survive in two sketchbooks now in the Kupferstichkabinett Berlin. He was to use them as source material throughout the rest of his career. Among these are the Capitoline Brutus, van Heemskerck being the first known artist to make a sketch of this now famous bust. On his return to the Netherlands in 1536, he settled back at Haarlem, where he became president of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, married twice, secured a large and lucrative practice; the alteration in his style, brought about by his experience of Italy was not universally admired. According to van Mander, "in the opinion of some of the best judges he had not improved it, except in one particular, that his outline was more graceful than before", he painted large altarpieces for his friend, the art maecenas and martyr of the Protestant Reformation, Cornelis Muys. Muys had returned from a period in France to the Netherlands in 1538 and became prior of the St. Agatha cloister in Delft.

This lucrative and high-profile work in Delft earned Heemskerck a commission for an altarpiece in the Nieuwe Kerk for their Guild of St. Luke. In 1553 he became curate of the Sint-Bavokerk. In 1572 he left Haarlem for Amsterdam, to avoid the siege of Haarlem which the Spaniards laid to the place, he was one of the first Netherlandish artists to make drawings for reproduction by commercial printmakers. He intended to aid the engraver. Heemskerck produced designs for a set of engravings, showing eight, rather than the usual seven wonders of the ancient world, his addition to the conventional list was the Colosseum in Rome, unlike the others, he showed in ruins, as it was in his own time, with the speculative addition of a giant statue of Jupiter in the centre. They were engraved by Philip Galle and published in 1572. Many works by van Heemskerck survive. Adam and Eve and St. Luke painting the Likeness of the Virgin and Child in presence of a poet crowned with ivy leaves, a parrot in a cage – an altar-piece in the gallery of Haarlem, the Ecce Homo in the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent, are characteristic works of the period preceding van Heemskerck's visit to Italy.

An altar-piece executed for the St. Laurence Church of Alkmaar in 1539–1543, composed of at least a dozen large panels, which including portraits of historical figures, preserved in Linköping Cathedral, Sweden since the Reformation, shows his style after his return from Italy, he painted a crucifixion for the Riches Claires at Ghent in 1543, an altar-piece for the Drapers' Company at Haarlem, finished in 1546 and now in the gallery of the Hague. They show how Heemskerck studied and repeated the forms which he had seen in the works of Michelangelo and Raphael at Rome, in the frescoes of Andrea Mantegna and Giulio Romano in Lombardy, but he never forgot his Dutch o

Jie Zhitui

Jie Zhitui known as Jie Zitui, was a Han aristocrat who served the Jin prince Chong'er during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. Chinese legend holds that when Chong'er ascended to power as the duke of Jin, Jie either refused or was passed over for any reward, despite his great loyalty during the prince's times of hardship. Jie retired to the forests of Jin in what is now central Shanxi with his mother; the duke so desired to repay Jie's years of loyalty that, when Jie declined to present himself at court, he ordered a forest fire to compel the recluse out of hiding. Instead and his mother were killed by the fire on Mt Mian. By the Han, Jie was being revered in central Shanxi as a Taoist immortal, he was annually commemorated with a ritual avoidance of fire that, despite many official bans became China's Cold Food and Qingming Festivals. Jie Zhitui or Jiezhi Tui is the name given to him in the oldest surviving records, with Jie Zitui or Jiezi Tui coming later. Sima Qian treats his name as though it were Jie Tui, with "Jiezi" serving as an honorific equivalent to "Master" or "Viscount Jie".

A single 2nd-century source has "Jiezi Sui". Others state that the entire name Jiezi Tui was a posthumous title and that his real name had been Wang Guang. Jie was a Jin aristocrat and composer for the Chinese zither during the Spring and Autumn Period of China's Zhou dynasty, he served at the court of the Jin prince Chong'er in Pu during the reign of Chong'er's father Duke Guizhu. A passage of the Huainanzi relates that, when Master Jie sang "The Dragon and the Snake", Prince Chong'er "broke down in tears". Giles considered Jie to be the same person as the "Jiezi Tui", mentioned as having been a minister in Chu at the age of 15. In 655 BC, Jie followed Chong'er into exile among the Di tribes north of the Chinese when the Rong beauty Li Ji plotted against the sons of the other wives of the Duke of Jin, her son Xiqi and his successor Zhuozi were killed by the minister Li Ke, who offered the throne to Chong'er in 651 BC. The prince declined. Hearing about them, he and his court fled from the Di, arriving at the state of Qi in Shandong in 644 BC.

Soon after, Qi fell into a civil war over its own succession. Prince Chong'er and his growing entourage travelled to the courts of Cao, Zheng and Qin. In 636 BC, Duke Renhao lent Qin's army for an invasion against Duke Yiwu's son Yu, defeating him at Gaoliang. Jie was passed over for reward; the 4th-century-BC commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals credited to Zuo Qiuming contains the earliest surviving record of Jie's story, in a section now placed beside Confucius's entry on Duke Yiwu's death in 637 BC. In it, a Thucydidean dialogue between Jie and his mother explains how he finds the duke's other retainers to be thieves for taking credit and receiving rewards when Heaven itself was responsible for Chong'er's restoration, his lord showed himself to be unworthy by failing to reward him despite his failure to appear at court. His mother asks him to at least go before the duke, but he explains he has criticized the other nobles so harshly that he could not return and is resolved to withdraw into the wilderness.

She leaves with him. When the duke realized his mistake, he sought out Jie but failed, he set aside the produce of the fields of Mianshang to endow sacrifices in Jie's honor, "a memento... of my neglect and a mark of distinction for the good man". The annals compiled c. 239 BC under Qin's chancellor Lü Buwei opine that Duke Chong'er never became a king because he proved less capable in success than he had been in adversity. Its account of Jie's fate—which omits mention of his mother—begins with the moral that "it is easy to hold onto others if you offer them honor and wealthut it is difficult... if you offer them poverty and debasement". Lü's scholars do not suggest that the duke overlooked Jie, but that he was "far from the vulgar crowd" and embarrassed by the behavior the duke's other close retainers, he posts a poem upon the palace gates. Chong'er hears of it, recognizes its author, goes into mourning for his old friend, changing his clothes and sleeping away from the palace, he offers a million "fields" of land and a position as senior minister to anyone—noble or common—who is able to find Jie for him.

The only person who does discover Jie, finds him carrying a pot and a large umbrella in the remote mountains. Asked if he knows where Jie Zhitui might live, the hermit replies that Jie "does not wish to be discovered" and "wants to remain hidden". Complaining "How is it that I alone know this?" he wandered away beneath his umbrella, never to be seen again. The account in Sima Qian's 1st-century BC Records repeats the Zuozhuan account with greater detail. Sima specifies that Jie hid himself out of disgust at what he took as Hu Yan's insincere and overdramatic retirement on the journey from Qin to Jin, which Chong'er declined with similar overstatement. Sima interrupts Jie's story, though, to make excuses for the duke's tardiness in remembering and rewarding Jie; the beginning of Chong'er's reign was distracte

Angerstein family

Angerstein is a German-Swedish family from Angerstein, Holy Roman Empire, with indications of ultimate origins from Hungary. The Swedish branch immigrated through Anders Angerstein, along with accompanying smiths. In time, Anders Angerstein settled by the Angerstein forge in Dalarna, his issue extended the holdings, including Vira bruk and Bispberg, inter alia, with craft production authorisation by the Swedish Board of Mines, remaining in the family until the 19th century. Donations were extended to cultural heritage protected interiors of the Hedemora church in the Diocese of Västerås. In 1981, the former Angerstein steelworks were transformed into the Steelworks Museum of Vikmanshyttan, maintained as a museum of regional industrial history. Anders Angerstein, German-Swedish ironmaster sv:Johan Angerstein, Swedish ironmaster Johan Angerstein, Swedish assessor Reinhold Angerstein, Swedish metallurgist, entrepreneur sv:Uno Angerstein, Swedish officer, artist Angersteingatan, Solhaga Gamla Vikmanshyttan Steelworks Museum of Vikmanshyttan

2011 White House shooting

The 2011 White House shooting occurred on November 11, 2011, when Oscar Ramiro Ortega-Hernandez, an unemployed 21-year-old man, fired a semi-automatic rifle at the White House, the official residence of the U. S. President in Washington, D. C. At least seven bullets hit the second floor. Neither the president nor First Lady Michelle Obama were home at the time, although their youngest daughter and the first lady's mother, Marian Shields Robinson, were. No one was injured, it took four days for the Secret Service to realize. Michelle Obama learned of the shooting from an usher summoned Mark J. Sullivan, director of the Secret Service, to find out why the first family had not been informed. In September 2013, Ortega-Hernandez pleaded guilty to one count of property destruction and one count of discharging a firearm during a crime of violence, thereby avoiding the charge of attempting to assassinate the President. In March 2014, he was sentenced to 25 years' imprisonment. In September 2014, The Washington Post published an investigative report detailing errors that the Secret Service made on the night of the shooting that led to the crime going undiscovered.

A House of Representatives hearing followed and Julia Pierson, director of the Secret Service, resigned the following week. It was the first shooting at the White House since Francisco Martin Duran's attempted assassination of President Bill Clinton in 1994. Oscar Ramiro Ortega-Hernandez, an unemployed 21-year-old man, left his home in Idaho Falls, Idaho on October 23, three weeks prior to the shooting, he told his friends and family. According to friends, Ortega-Hernandez had become paranoid before leaving, saying that the United States government was controlling citizens and that President Barack Obama "had to be stopped"; the mother of Ortega-Hernandez's former fiancée stated that he had been well-mannered for the four years she had known him, but had started making bizarre statements. On July 8, he had told an acquaintance that Obama was planning to put GPS tracking devices into children and that the world would end in 2012. In September, he made a video for Oprah Winfrey, explaining that he was Jesus and asking to appear on her television show.

On his 21st birthday in October, he made a 45-minute speech on various topics including a warning of the dangers of secret societies. Ortega-Hernandez had a 2-year-old son with his former fiancée. Ortega-Hernandez arrived in Washington on November 9 with 180 rounds of ammunition and a Romanian-made Cugir semiautomatic rifle that he had purchased from a gun shop in Idaho. On the morning of the shooting, he was reported for suspicious behavior in a local park. Police questioned him. After photographing him, police officers let. On November 11, Ortega-Hernandez parked his vehicle on Constitution Avenue, 750 yards directly south of the White House, he fired. Gunfire was reported around 9 pm. One bullet hit an antique window on the White House's second floor near the first family's formal living room. One bullet lodged in a window frame, others ricocheted off the roof, causing small pieces of wood and concrete to fall to the ground. At least seven bullets struck the second floor. A woman in a taxi nearby witnessed the shooting and wrote on Twitter, "Driver in front of my cab STOPPED and fired 5 gun shots at the White House.

It took the police a while to respond." President Obama, his wife Michelle, their oldest daughter Malia were not home at the time of the shooting, although their younger daughter Sasha and Michelle's mother Marian Shields Robinson were. When the shooting occurred, Malia was expected to arrive at any moment. Secret Service agents rushed to respond. Snipers scanned the South Lawn. A supervisor decided that the noises were backfires from a nearby construction site and told the agents, "No shots have been fired... stand down", to the surprise of several officers. According to Carol D. Leonnig, agents who thought the building had been fired upon "were ignored", with one reporting she had been afraid to doubt her superior's assertion. By the end of the night, it was confirmed that a shooting had occurred, although the Secret Service believed that gunfire was not aimed at the White House, but rather was the result of a gang fight nearby. A Secret Service dispatcher called emergency services and gave incorrect descriptions of both vehicles and suspects.

It took four days for the Secret Service to realize. The evidence was only noticed when a housekeeper discovered broken glass and pieces of cement on the Truman Balcony around midday on November 15. President Obama was visiting Indonesia when the discovery was made. Michelle Obama had returned to the White House on the morning of November 15, going to sleep shortly after arriving. An usher went to check on her that day and began talking about the shooting, assuming she knew about the incident. According to Leonnig, the first lady was "furious", wondering why the director of the Secret Service, Mark J. Sullivan, who had accompanied her on her flight back to Washington, had not told her about it. Leonnig stated that Sullivan was subsequently summoned to a meeting with the first lady, during which she raised her voice so loudly she could

Building engineering physics

The term building engineering physics was introduced in a report released in January 2010 commissioned by The Royal Academy of Engineering. The report, entitled Engineering a Low Carbon Built Environment: The Discipline of Building Engineering Physics, presents the initiative of many at the Royal Academy of Engineering in developing a field that addresses our fossil fuel dependence while working towards a more sustainably built environment for the future; the field of building engineering physics combines the existing professions of building services engineering, applied physics and building construction engineering into a single field designed to investigate the energy efficiency of old and new buildings. The application of building engineering physics allows the construction and renovation of high performance, energy efficient buildings, while minimizing their environmental impacts. Building engineering physics addresses several different areas in building performance including: air movement, thermal performance, control of moisture, ambient energy, light and biology.

This field employs creative ways of manipulating these principal aspects of a building’s indoor and outdoor environments so that a more eco-friendly standard of living is obtained. Building engineering physics is unique from other established applied sciences or engineering professions as it combines the sciences of architecture and human biology and physiology. Building engineering physics not only addresses energy efficiency and building sustainability, but a building's internal environment conditions that affect the comfort and performance levels of its occupants. Throughout the 20th century, a large percentage of buildings were constructed dependent on fossil fuels. Rather than focusing on energy efficiency and engineers were more concerned with experimenting with “new materials and structural forms” to further aesthetic ideals. Now in the 21st century, building energy performance standards are pushing towards a zero carbon standard in old and new buildings alike; the threat of global change and the need for energy independence and sustainability has prompted governments across the globe to adopt firm carbon reducing standards.

A significant way to meet these stringent standards is in the construction of buildings that minimize environmental impacts, as well as the refurbishing of older buildings to meet carbon emission standards. The application of building engineering physics can aid in this transition to reduce energy dependent buildings, provide for the demands of a growing population and better standard of living; the 2010 RAEng report expressed the expectation that growth in the application of this field would due to the introduction of regulations requiring the calculation of carbon emissions to demonstrate compliance, principally the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. As of 2010, the discipline of building engineering physics had not been adapted in the construction industry. Sutton, Jane. "Engineering a Low-Carbon Built Environment". Royal Academy of Engineering. Retrieved 19 March 2010. King, Doug. Engineering a Low Carbon Build Environment: The Discipline of Building Engineering Physics. London: Engineering a Low Carbon Build Environment: The Discipline of Building Engineering Physics

Vermeer's Hat

Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World is a book by the Canadian historian Professor Timothy Brook, in which he explores the roots of world trade in the 17th century through six paintings by the Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer. It focuses on growing ties between Europe and the rest of the world and the impact of China on the world, during what Brook sees as an "age of innovation" and improvisation. Brook argues that globalization, taken to be a modern phenomenon had its roots in the 17th century; the growth in trade and exploration was facilitated in part by advances in navigation and in shipbuilding technology and according to the author, was driven along when European nations such as "England, the Netherlands and France started to fight their way into the trade."By studying and analyzing the paintings of Johannes Vermeer, beginning with his landscape View of Delft, examining the scant documents detailing his life, the author builds up a picture of the world in which Vermeer lived.

In the case of the port in Delft in the Netherlands, for example, he finds evidence of the Dutch East India Company's operations. This is said to be the world's first multinational corporation, which competing traders were forced to join; the painting entitled Officer and Laughing Girl, shown on the front cover of the book and to which the title alludes, speaks to Brook of the interest people had in the world, reflected in the maps of the world seen on walls in paintings, showing a patriotic pride which went along with the emergence of the Netherlands from Spanish occupation, the painting is used to examine trade between Europe and North America. The huge felt hat itself, Brook says, is made of beaver under-fur and the origin of that would be via French traders operating in North America; this being before the discovery of the Northwest Passage, the French had been commissioned to find a route to China, the beaver fur helped them "cover their costs." From here, the narrative goes on to talk of other commodities which were available in abundance and traded in the Americas, such as sugar, copper, wood in the 18th century, slaves from Africa, the metallic artefacts and guns which were given in exchange.

In the painting Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window, there is a large Chinese porcelain bowl in the foreground, Brook uses this to introduce the subject of trade with China. Chinese porcelain was just becoming more available and featured in many paintings; the porcelain grew popular in households in Vermeer's time as its price came down and it became affordable to less wealthy families. In sharp contrast to the necessary outward-looking gaze of countries in Europe, the stereotypical view of China was that it had "an adequate resource base for most of its needs, an advanced technology and was not having to look outside of itself for things that it needed." However, Brook maintains that the Chinese did venture out of their country to trade during lengthy periods when they were not prohibited from doing so, that the Chinese wanted to control the terms of their trade. They did not want traders setting up colonies in their sovereign territory. According to Brook, the Chinese not going out exploring the world did put them at a technological and linguistic disadvantage as they had a limited world view and lacked experience of the cosmopolitan world outside their borders.

This wasn't so much of a problem in Vermeer's time but was to become more of an issue as Europe's empires grew in the 18th century and 19th centuries. In the book, the author uses the metaphor of Indra's net: Writing in The Spectator, Sarah Burton explains that Brook uses this metaphor, its interconnectedness, "to help understand the multiplicity of causes and effects producing the way we are and the way we were." She adds: "In the same way, the journeys through Brook's picture-portals intersect with each other, at the same time shedding light on each other. Writing in The Guardian, Kathryn Hughes describes Vermeer's Hat as "an exhilarating book" and "a brilliant attempt to make us understand the reach and breadth of the first global age." She states that "What Brook wants us to understand is that these domains, the local and the transnational, were intimately connected centuries before anyone came up with the world wide web."Also in The Guardian, Jerry Brotton describes Vermeer's Hat as "the finest book on Vermeer I've read in years."

He states that "by deftly unravelling their stories, he gives us a picture of Vermeer unwittingly sitting in at the birth of the modern global world" and concludes that "This is a fabulous book that drags Vermeer away from our complacent Eurocentric assumptions of his insular domesticity."In the Literary Review, Lisa Jardine describes the book as an "enthralling" "jewel of a study". In the Washington Post, Michael Dirda writes: "Vermeer's Hat... provides not only valuable historical insight but enthralling intellectual entertainment."In The Independent, TH Barrett states that " is too good a scholar to treat Vermeer's paintings as straightforward windows into the past, but he doe