Maarten van Heemskerck
Maerten van Heemskerck or Marten Jacobsz Heemskerk van Veen was a Dutch portrait and religious painter, who spent most of his career in Haarlem. He was a pupil of Jan van Scorel, adopted his teacher's Italian-influenced style, he spent the years 1532–6 in Italy. He produced many designs for engravers, is known for his depictions of the Wonders of the World. Heemskerck was born in the village of Heemskerk, North Holland, halfway between Haarlem, he was the son of a farmer called Jacob Willemsz. Van Veen. According to his biography by Karel van Mander, he began his artistic training with the painter Cornelius Willemsz in Haarlem, but was recalled to Heemskerk by his father to work on the family farm. However, having contrived an argument with his father he left again, this time for Delft, where he studied under Jan Lucasz, before moving on to Haarlem, where he became a pupil of Jan van Scorel, learning to paint in his teacher's innovative Italian-influenced style. Heemskerck went to lodge at the home of the wealthy curate of the Sint-Bavokerk, Pieter Jan Foppesz.
They knew each other. The artist painted him in a now famous family portrait, considered the first of its kind in a long line of Dutch family paintings, his other works for Foppesz included two life size figures symbolising the Sun and the Moon on a bedstead, a picture of Adam and Eve "rather smaller but after living models". His next home was in the house of Justus Cornelisz, on the edge of Haarlem. Before setting off for Italy on a Grand Tour in 1532, Heemskerck painted a scene of St. Luke painting the Virgin for the altar of St. Luke in the Bavokerk. An inscription, incorporated into a tromp l'oeil label on the painting begins "This picture is a remembrance from its painter, Marten Heemskerck, he travelled around the whole of northern and central Italy, stopping at Rome, where he had letters of introduction from van Scorel to the influential Dutch cardinal William of Enckenvoirt. It is evident of the facility with which he acquired the rapid execution of a scene-painter that he was selected to collaborate with Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Battista Franco and Francesco de' Rossi on the redecoration of the Porta San Sebastiano at Rome as a triumphal arch in honour of Charles V. Giorgio Vasari, who saw the battle-pieces which Heemskerk produced, said they were well composed and boldly executed.
While in Rome where he made numerous drawings of classical sculpture and architecture, many of which survive in two sketchbooks now in the Kupferstichkabinett Berlin. He was to use them as source material throughout the rest of his career. Among these are the Capitoline Brutus, van Heemskerck being the first known artist to make a sketch of this now famous bust. On his return to the Netherlands in 1536, he settled back at Haarlem, where he became president of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, married twice, secured a large and lucrative practice; the alteration in his style, brought about by his experience of Italy was not universally admired. According to van Mander, "in the opinion of some of the best judges he had not improved it, except in one particular, that his outline was more graceful than before", he painted large altarpieces for his friend, the art maecenas and martyr of the Protestant Reformation, Cornelis Muys. Muys had returned from a period in France to the Netherlands in 1538 and became prior of the St. Agatha cloister in Delft.
This lucrative and high-profile work in Delft earned Heemskerck a commission for an altarpiece in the Nieuwe Kerk for their Guild of St. Luke. In 1553 he became curate of the Sint-Bavokerk. In 1572 he left Haarlem for Amsterdam, to avoid the siege of Haarlem which the Spaniards laid to the place, he was one of the first Netherlandish artists to make drawings for reproduction by commercial printmakers. He intended to aid the engraver. Heemskerck produced designs for a set of engravings, showing eight, rather than the usual seven wonders of the ancient world, his addition to the conventional list was the Colosseum in Rome, unlike the others, he showed in ruins, as it was in his own time, with the speculative addition of a giant statue of Jupiter in the centre. They were engraved by Philip Galle and published in 1572. Many works by van Heemskerck survive. Adam and Eve and St. Luke painting the Likeness of the Virgin and Child in presence of a poet crowned with ivy leaves, a parrot in a cage – an altar-piece in the gallery of Haarlem, the Ecce Homo in the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent, are characteristic works of the period preceding van Heemskerck's visit to Italy.
An altar-piece executed for the St. Laurence Church of Alkmaar in 1539–1543, composed of at least a dozen large panels, which including portraits of historical figures, preserved in Linköping Cathedral, Sweden since the Reformation, shows his style after his return from Italy, he painted a crucifixion for the Riches Claires at Ghent in 1543, an altar-piece for the Drapers' Company at Haarlem, finished in 1546 and now in the gallery of the Hague. They show how Heemskerck studied and repeated the forms which he had seen in the works of Michelangelo and Raphael at Rome, in the frescoes of Andrea Mantegna and Giulio Romano in Lombardy, but he never forgot his Dutch
Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria, was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, estimated to be 100 metres in overall height. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323, it became an abandoned ruin, it was the third longest surviving ancient wonder, surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains of the lighthouse on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour. In 2016 the Ministry of State of Antiquities in Egypt had plans to turn submerged ruins of ancient Alexandria, including those of the Pharos, into an underwater museum. Pharos was a small island located on the western edge of the Nile Delta. In 332 BC Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria on an isthmus opposite Pharos.
Alexandria and Pharos were connected by a mole spanning more than 1,200 metres, called the Heptastadion. The east side of the mole became the Great Harbour, now an open bay. Today's city development lying between the present Grand Square and the modern Ras el-Tin quarter is built on the silt which widened and obliterated this mole, the Ras el-Tin promontory represents all, left of the island of Pharos, the site of the lighthouse at its eastern point having been weathered away by the sea; the lighthouse was constructed in the 3rd century BC. After Alexander the Great died, the first Ptolemy announced himself king in 305 BC, commissioned its construction shortly thereafter; the building was finished during the reign of the second Ptolemy. It took twelve years to complete, at a total cost of 800 talents, served as a prototype for all lighthouses in the world; the light was produced by a furnace at the top, the tower was said to have been built with solid blocks of limestone. Strabo reported that Sostratus had a dedication inscribed in metal letters to the "Saviour Gods".
Pliny the Elder wrote that Sostratus was the architect, disputed. In the second century AD the satirist Lucian wrote that Sostratus inscribed his name under plaster bearing the name of Ptolemy; this was so that when the plaster with Ptolemy's name fell off, Sostratus's name would be visible in the stone. Judith McKenzie writes that "The Arab descriptions of the lighthouse are remarkably consistent, although it was repaired several times after earthquake damage; the height they give varies only fifteen per cent from c. 103 to 118 m, on a base c. 30 by 30 m square."The fullest description of the lighthouse comes from Arab traveler Abou Haggag Youssef Ibn Mohammed el-Balawi el-Andaloussi, who visited Alexandria in A. D. 1166. The Arab authors indicate that the lighthouse was constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone, the tower was made up of three tapering tiers: a lower square section with a central core, a middle octagonal section, and, at the top, a circular section. At its apex was positioned a mirror which reflected sunlight during the day.
Extant Roman coins struck by the Alexandrian mint show that a statue of Triton was positioned on each of the building's four corners. A statue of Poseidon or Zeus stood atop the lighthouse; the Pharos's masonry blocks were interlocked, sealed together using molten lead, to withstand the pounding of the waves. Al-Masudi writes; the lighthouse was badly damaged in the earthquake of 956, again in 1303 and 1323. The stubby remnant disappeared in 1480, when the then-Sultan of Egypt, built a medieval fort on the larger platform of the lighthouse site using some of the fallen stone; the 10th-century writer al-Mas'udi reports a legendary tale on the lighthouse's destruction, according to which at the time of Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan the Byzantines sent a eunuch agent, who adopted Islam, gained the Caliph's confidence, secured permission to search for hidden treasure at the base of the lighthouse. The search was cunningly made in such a manner that the foundations were undermined, the Pharos collapsed.
The agent managed to escape in a ship waiting for him. In 1968 the lighthouse was rediscovered. UNESCO sponsored an expedition to send a team of marine archaeologists, led by Honor Frost, to the site, she confirmed the existence of the ruins representing part of the lighthouse. Due to the lack of specialized archaeologists and the area becoming a military zone, exploration was put on hold. French archaeologists led by Jean-Yves Empereur re-discovered the physical remains of the lighthouse in late 1994 on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour; some of these remains were brought up and were lying at the harbour on public view at the end of 1995. Subsequent satellite imaging has revealed further remains, it is possible to see the ruins. The secretariat of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage are working with the Government of Egypt on an initiative to add the Bay of Alexandria on a Worl
Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)
The Nieuwe Kerk is a Protestant church in the city of Delft in the Netherlands. The building is located on opposite to the City Hall. In 1584, William the Silent was entombed here in a mausoleum designed by Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser. Since members of the House of Orange-Nassau have been entombed in the royal crypt; the latest are Queen Juliana and her husband Prince Bernhard in 2004. The private royal family crypt is not open to the public; the church tower, designed by Pierre Cuypers and completed in 1872, is the second highest in the Netherlands, after the Domtoren in Utrecht. The New Church the church of St. Ursula, is the burial place of the princes of Orange; the church is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, crafted by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about the year 1621, the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the marketplace outside the church. The tower was built 1396-1496 by Jacob van der Borch, who built the Dom in Utrecht during the years 1444-1475.
The monument for Hugo de Groot was made in 1781. The mechanical clock has 18 bells by Francois Hemony from 30 modern bells. In the church tower there is a bell from 1662 by Francois Hemony with a diameter of 104 centimeters. In the tower there are bells no longer in use, including 13 from 1659 by Francois Hemony, 3 from 1678 by Pieter Hemony, 3 from 1750 from Joris de Mery, 1 from Gillett and Johnston from 1929; the Kirk appears in the golden Age painting by A View of Delft. Eleven people are buried in the old vault: William the Silent Louise de Coligny Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange Elisabeth, daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Isabella Charlotte, daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau Amalia of Solms-Braunfels Three unidentified persons35 people are buried in the new vault: William II, Prince of Orange Eldest stillborn daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange William IV, Prince of Orange Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange George Willem Belgicus, son of Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau A stillborn child of Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau Eldest stillborn son of William V, Prince of Orange Willem Georg Frederik, son of William V, Prince of Orange Princess Pauline of Orange-Nassau William V, Prince of Orange Frederika Louise Wilhelmina, daughter of William V, Prince of Orange Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia Prince Ernest Casimir of the Netherlands Willem Frederik Nicolaas Karel, son of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands Wilhelmine of Prussia William I of the Netherlands Willem Frederik Nicolaas Albert, son of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands Prince Alexander of the Netherlands William II of the Netherlands Prince Maurice of the Netherlands Anna Pavlovna of Russia Princess Louise of Prussia Amalia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Sophie of Württemberg Prince Henry of the Netherlands William, Prince of Orange Prince Frederick of the Netherlands Alexander, Prince of Orange William III of the Netherlands Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Prince Claus of the Netherlands Juliana of the Netherlands Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Nieuwe Kerk Delft
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about 13 m tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia and erected in the Temple of Zeus there. A sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden framework, it represented the god Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedar wood throne ornamented with ebony, ivory and precious stones. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was lost and destroyed during the 5th century AD with no copy being found, details of its form are known only from ancient Greek descriptions and representations on coins; the statue of Zeus was commissioned by the Eleans, custodians of the Olympic Games, in the latter half of the fifth century BC for their constructed Temple of Zeus. Seeking to outdo their Athenian rivals, the Eleans employed the renowned sculptor Phidias, who had made the massive statue of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon; the great seated statue as fashioned by Phidias occupied half the width of the aisle of the temple built to house it.
"It seems that if Zeus were to stand up," the geographer Strabo noted early in the 1st century BC, "he would unroof the temple." The Zeus was a chryselephantine sculpture, made with gold panels on a wooden substructure. No copy in marble or bronze has survived, though there are recognizable but only approximate versions on coins of nearby Elis and on Roman coins and engraved gems. In the 2nd century AD, the geographer and traveler Pausanias gave a detailed description; the statue was crowned with a sculpted wreath of olive sprays, wore a gilded robe made from glass and carved with animals and lilies. In its right hand was a small chryselephantine statue of goddess of victory, its left hand held. The throne featured painted figures and wrought images and was decorated in gold, precious stones and ivory. Zeus' golden sandals rested upon a footstool decorated with an Amazonomachy in relief; the passage underneath the throne was restricted by painted screens. Pausanias recounts that the statue was kept coated with olive oil to counter the harmful effect on the ivory caused by the "marshiness" of the Altis grove.
The floor in front of the image was paved with black tiles and surrounded by a raised rim of marble, to contain the oil. This reservoir acted as a reflecting pool. According to the Roman historian Livy, the Roman general Aemilius Paulus saw the statue and "was moved to his soul, as if he had seen the god in person," while the 1st-century AD Greek orator Dio Chrysostom declared that a single glimpse of the statue would make a man forget all his earthly troubles. According to a legend, when Phidias was asked what inspired him—whether he climbed Mount Olympus to see Zeus, or whether Zeus came down from Olympus so that Phidias could see him—the artist answered that he portrayed Zeus according to Book One, verses 528 – 530 of Homer's Iliad: ἦ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ' ὀφρύσι νεῦσε Κρονίων ἀμβρόσιαι δ' ἄρα χαῖται ἐπερρώσαντο ἄνακτος κρατὸς ἀπ' ἀθανάτοιο μέγαν δ' ἐλέλιξεν Ὄλυμπον, he spoke, the son of Cronos, nodded his head with the dark brows, the immortally anointed hair of the great god swept from his divine head, all Olympos was shaken.
The sculptor was reputed to have immortalised Pantarkes, the winner of the boys' wrestling event at the eighty-sixth Olympiad, said to have been his "beloved", by carving Pantarkes kalos into Zeus's little finger, by placing a relief of the boy crowning himself at the feet of the statue. According to Pausanias, "when the image was quite finished Pheidias prayed the god to show by a sign whether the work was to his liking. Runs the legend, a thunderbolt fell on that part of the floor where down to the present day the bronze jar stood to cover the place." According to Roman historian Suetonius, the Roman Emperor Caligula gave orders that "such statues of the gods as were famous for their sanctity or their artistic merit, including that of Jupiter at Olympia, should be brought from Greece, in order to remove their heads and put his own in their place." Before this could happen, the emperor was assassinated in 41 AD. The sanctuary at Olympia fell into disuse; the circumstances of the statue's eventual destruction are unknown.
The 11th-century Byzantine historian Georgios Kedrenos records a tradition that it was carried off to Constantinople, where it was destroyed in the great fire of the Palace of Lausus, in 475 AD. Alternatively, the statue perished along with the temple, damaged by fire in 425 AD, but earlier loss or damage is implied by Lucian of Samosata in the 2nd century, who referenced it Timon: "they have laid hands on your person at Olympia, my lord High-Thunderer, you had not the energy to wake the dogs or call in the neighbours. The approximate date of the statue was confirmed in the rediscovery of Phidias' workshop where Pausanias said the statue of Zeus was constructed. Archaeological finds included tools for working gold and ivory, ivory chippings, precious stones and terracotta moulds. Most of the latter were used to create glass plaques, to form the statue's robe from sheets of glass, naturalistically draped and folded gilded. A cup
The Colosseum or Coliseum known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine and brick-faced concrete, it is the largest amphitheatre built; the Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir, Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian; these three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name. The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, having an average audience of some 65,000; the building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was reused for such purposes as housing, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, a Christian shrine. Although ruined because of damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is still an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is listed as one of the New7Wonders of the World.
It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and has links to the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. The Colosseum is depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin; the Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium anglicized as Flavian Amphitheatre, after Emperor Nero, whose statue once stood near its location. The building was constructed by emperors following the reign of Nero; this name is still used in modern English, but the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum, but this name may have been poetic as it was not exclusive to the Colosseum; the name Colosseum is believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby. This statue was remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown.
Nero's head was replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers, it came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome. In the 8th century, an epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy, variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; this is mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus. However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre; the Colossus did fall being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre from the nearby Colossus Solis; the statue itself was forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma. The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages.
In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as Coloseumul, le Colisée, el Coliseo and o Coliseu. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited, it was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions and porticoes; the existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down; the lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea.
Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre, in effect, placing it both symbolically and at the heart of Rome. Construction was funded by the opulent spoils taken from the Jewish Temple after the Great Jewish Revolt in 70 AD led to the Siege of Jerusalem. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the sit
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands. The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria; the personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets". Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, Trastámara of Spain.
As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe, was elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor; as a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara he inherited the Crown of Castile, developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon in his own right, as a result he is referred to as the first king of Spain; the personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century. Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realisation of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies.
His reign was dominated by war by three major simultaneous prolonged conflicts: the Italian Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Turkish advance into Europe, the conflict with the German princes resulting from the Protestant Reformation. The French wars fought in Italy, lasted for most of his reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the Tercios; the struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in the Mediterranean. The Turkish advance was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529, a lengthy war of attrition, conducted on Charles' behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, he was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary pirates. Charles opposed the Reformation, in Germany he was in conflict with Protestant nobles who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him, he could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and was forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany along denominational lines.
While Charles did not concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three dangerous rebellions. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained loyal to Charles throughout his rule. Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, they became important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castilian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castilian control was extended across much of Central America; the resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of active rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58; the Holy Roman Empire passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain.
The two empires would remain allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs in 1700. Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile at the Prinsenhof in the Flemish city of Ghent, part of the Habsburg Netherlands; the culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ, by Adrian of Utrecht. Charles became a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece in his infancy and became its grand master. Founded by the Burgundian Philip the Good in 1430, the order emphasised the ideals of the medieval knights and the desire for Christian unity to fight the infidel, it played an important part in the development of Charles' beliefs and he is seen in portraits without its insignia prominently displayed. It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was f
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. They are central to the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors, it provides the basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity, although not held in Judaism or Islam. In the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, chapters one through five, there are two creation narratives with two distinct perspectives. In the first and Eve are not named. Instead, God created humankind in God's image and instructed them to multiply and to be stewards over everything else that God had made. In the second narrative, God fashions places him in the Garden of Eden. Adam is told that he can eat of all the trees in the garden, except for a tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Subsequently, Eve is created from one of Adam's ribs to be Adam's companion, they are unembarrassed about their nakedness.
However, a serpent deceives Eve into eating fruit from the forbidden tree, she gives some of the fruit to Adam. These acts give them additional knowledge, but it gives them the ability to conjure negative and destructive concepts such as shame and evil. God curses the serpent and the ground. God prophetically tells the woman and the man what will be the consequences of their sin of disobeying God, he banishes them from the Garden of Eden. The story underwent extensive elaboration in Abrahamic traditions, it has been extensively analyzed by modern biblical scholars. Interpretations and beliefs regarding Adam and Eve and the story revolving around them vary across religions and sects; the story of Adam and Eve is depicted in art, it has had an important influence in literature and poetry. The story of the fall of Adam is considered to be an allegory. There is physical evidence that Eve never existed. Adam and Eve are figures from the primeval history, the Bible's mythic history of the first years of the world's existence.
The History tells how God creates the world and all its beings and places the first man and woman in his Garden of Eden, how the first couple are expelled from God's presence, of the first murder which follows, God's decision to destroy the world and save only the righteous Noah and his sons. Although the new world is as sinful as the old, God has resolved never again to destroy the world by flood, the History ends with Terah, the father of Abraham, from whom will descend God's chosen people, the Israelites. Adam and Eve are first woman. Adam's name appears first in Genesis 1 with a collective sense, as "mankind". In these chapters God fashions "the man" from earth, breathes life into his nostrils, makes him a caretaker over creation. God next creates for the man a "helper corresponding to him", from his side or rib, she is called ishsha, "woman", the text says, she is formed from ish, "man". The man receives her with joy, the reader is told that from this moment a man will leave his parents to "cling" to a woman, the two becoming one flesh.
The first man and woman are in God's Garden of Eden, where all creation is vegetarian and there is no violence. They are permitted to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; the woman is tempted by a talking serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, gives some to the man, who eats also.. God curses all three, the man to a lifetime of hard labour followed by death, the woman to the pain of childbirth and to subordination to her husband, the serpent to go on his belly and suffer the enmity of both man and woman. God clothes the nakedness of the man and woman, who have become god-like in knowing good and evil banishes them from the garden lest they eat the fruit of a second tree, the tree of life, live forever; the story continues in Genesis 3 with the "expulsion from Eden" narrative. A form analysis of Genesis 3 reveals that this portion of the story can be characterized as a parable or "wisdom tale" in the wisdom tradition; the poetic addresses of the chapter belong to a speculative type of wisdom that questions the paradoxes and harsh realities of life.
This characterization is determined by the narrative's format and the plot. The form of Genesis 3 is shaped by its vocabulary, making use of various puns and double entendres; the expulsion from Eden narrative begins with a dialogue between the woman and a serpent, identified in Genesis 3:1 as an animal, more crafty than any other animal made by God, although Genesis does not identify the serpent with Satan. The woman is willing to talk to the serpent and respond to the creature's cynicism by repeating God's prohibition against eating fruit from the tree of knowledge; the woman is lured into dialogue on the serpent's terms. The serpent assures the woman that God will not let her die if she ate the fruit, furthermore, that if she ate the fruit, her "eyes would be opened" and she would "be like God, knowing good and evil"; the woman sees