The Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting northern and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations internationally due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, their distinctive customs and dress; the Maasai speak the Maa language, a member of the Nilo-Saharan family, related to the Dinka and Nuer languages. Except from some elders living in rural areas, most Maasai people speak the official languages of Kenya and Tanzania and English; the Maasai population has been reported as numbering 841,622 in Kenya in the 2009 census, compared to 377,089 in the 1989 census. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programs to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their villages to experience their culture and lifestyle, in return for a fee; the Maasai arrived via the South Sudan.
Most Nilotic speakers in the area, including the Maasai, the Turkana and the Kalenjin, are pastoralists, are famous for their fearsome reputations as warriors and cattle-rustlers. The Maasai and other groups in East Africa have adopted customs and practices from neighboring Cushitic-speaking groups, including the age set system of social organization and vocabulary terms. According to their oral history, the Maasai originated from the lower Nile valley north of Lake Turkana and began migrating south around the 15th century, arriving in a long trunk of land stretching from what is now northern Kenya to what is now central Tanzania between the 17th and late 18th century. Many ethnic groups that had formed settlements in the region were forcibly displaced by the incoming Maasai, while other Southern Cushitic groups, were assimilated into Maasai society; the Nilotic ancestors of the Kalenjin absorbed some early Cushitic populations. The Maasai territory reached its largest size in the mid-19th century, covered all of the Great Rift Valley and adjacent lands from Mount Marsabit in the north to Dodoma in the south.
At this time the Maasai, as well as the larger Nilotic group they were part of, raised cattle as far east as the Tanga coast in Tanganyika. Raiders used spears and shields, but were most feared for throwing clubs which could be thrown from up to 70 paces. In 1852, there was a report of a concentration of 800 Maasai warriors on the move in what is now Kenya. In 1857, after having depopulated the "Wakuafi wilderness" in what is now southeastern Kenya, Maasai warriors threatened Mombasa on the Kenyan coast; because of this migration, the Maasai are the southernmost Nilotic speakers. The period of expansion was followed by the Maasai "Emutai" of 1883–1902; this period was marked by epidemics of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and smallpox. The estimate first put forward by a German lieutenant in what was northwest Tanganyika, was that 90% of cattle and half of wild animals perished from rinderpest. German doctors in the same area claimed that "every second" African had a pock-marked face as the result of smallpox.
This period coincided with drought. Rains failed in 1897 and 1898; the Austrian explorer Oscar Baumann travelled in Maasai lands between 1891 and 1893, described the old Maasai settlement in the Ngorongoro Crater in the 1894 book Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle: "There were women wasted to skeletons from whose eyes the madness of starvation glared... warriors scarcely able to crawl on all fours, apathetic, languishing elders. Swarms of vultures followed them from high, awaiting their certain victims." By one estimate two-thirds of the Maasai died during this period. Starting with a 1904 treaty, followed by another in 1911, Maasai lands in Kenya were reduced by 60% when the British evicted them to make room for settler ranches, subsequently confining them to present-day Samburu, Laikipia and Narok districts. Maasai in Tanganyika were displaced from the fertile lands between Mount Meru and Mount Kilimanjaro, most of the fertile highlands near Ngorongoro in the 1940s. More land was taken to create wildlife reserves and national parks: Amboseli National Park, Nairobi National Park, Maasai Mara, Samburu National Reserve, Lake Nakuru National Park and Tsavo in Kenya.
Maasai are pastoralist and have resisted the urging of the Tanzanian and Kenyan governments to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. They have demanded grazing rights to many of the national parks in both countries; the Maasai people stood against slavery and lived alongside most wild animals with an aversion to eating game and birds. Maasai land now has East Africa's finest game areas. Maasai society never condoned traffic of human beings, outsiders looking for people to enslave avoided the Maasai. There are twenty-two geographic sectors or sub tribes of the Maasai community, each one having its own customs, appearance and dialects; these subdivisions are known as'nations' or' iloshon'in the Maa language: the Keekonyokie, Purko, Siria, Loitai, Matapato, Loodokolani, Moitanik, Samburu, Laikipia, Larusa, Salei and Parakuyo. Recent advances in genetic analyses have helped shed some light on the ethnogenesis of the Maasai people. Genetic genealogy, a tool that use
Lauryn Eagle is an Australian professional boxer and water skiing champion. She was on The Celebrity Apprentice Australia and is a former Miss Teen International 2004. Coming from a water skiing family, her father Peter won the Australian title eleven times and sister Sarah placed second at the 2007 World Championships, she first started racing when she was nine years old. In 2003, she placed second in the Junior Division and at the next World Championships in 2005 she won the women's division title in the F2 class. In 2006, she won the Australian Marathon Champs, she finished third at the 2007 World Championship in May in the Formula 1 Division. She retired shortly from racing after her father's death in 2008. In 2009 Lauryn returned to racing placing third at the 2009 World Championships, 7th in the 2011 World Championships after suffering a big fall in the third race. Turning professional in 2010, she went 2–0–1 with 1 knockout that year and in 2011 she would suffer two split decision losses.
On 13 July 2012, she defeated Kiangsak Sithsaithong by a 5th-round TKO to win the World Boxing Foundation women's super featherweight title, improving her record to 3–2–1 2 knockouts. The match was criticised within the boxing media. Commentators pointed out that Eagle had not fought more than 6 rounds in her career, had not won a fight since 2010, it was noted that Sithsaithong's record was entirely against debut fighters in Thai villages. In September 2012, she did a promotional fight against Fox FM radio joc Matt Tilley in a'Champ vs Chump' promotion. Eagle won the three round fight by a TKO in the third round. Two days Eagle fought New Zealand's Nicki Bigwood winning in a unanimous decision in a six-round bout on as an undercard to former professional rugby league footballer Solomon Haumono's fight. On January 30, 2013 she won the vacant Australia female lightweight title beating Nadine Brown on points at the Sydney Entertainment Centre. Eagle has a keen interest in modeling. In 2005, she competed in Miss Teen Australia in Darwin and won the title along with Miss Congeniality.
She went to Costa Rica in Central America and competed in Miss Teen International and made a clean sweep, winning Miss Teen International, along with Most Photogenic, Miss Congeniality and Best Silhouette. In 2006, she won the FHM Lara Croft Challenge involved physical challenges of shooting, ropes, ladders, 4-wheel driving and swimming, she starred in the second season of the Celebrity Apprentice Australia where she lasted until the final episode where she finished fourth. In the August edition of MAXIM magazine, Eagle featured on a photo shoot. In March 2008, Eagle's father Peter, a 10-time Australian water-skiing champion, died when his speedboat flipped and crashed. On 19 May 2013, Eagle was arrested at Northies Cronulla Hotel and charged with failing to leave premises when requested, she had split with her boyfriend, rugby league player Todd Carney. On 9 January 2014, she was ordered by the courts to leave her Mother alone after a dispute over a family dog. On January 30, 2018 she was convicted of drug driving, fined $600 and banned from driving for six months.
Thomas Erskine Clarke is a Professor Emeritus of American Religious History at Columbia Theological Seminary, best known for his books Dwelling Place and By the Rivers of Water. Erskine Clarke graduated from the University of South Carolina in 1963, received a Master of Divinity from Columbia Theological Seminary in 1966 and a PhD from Union Presbyterian Theological Seming in 1970, he spent the 1966-67 academic year at the University of Basel in Switzerland. He has lectured or served as a consultant at a number of places including Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D. C.. During the last several years he has lectured at Cambridge University of Cambridge. In 2005 he was a Visiting Fellow, Clare Hall, Cambridge at the University of Cambridge, has been elected a Life Member of Clare Hall, he has been a frequent lecturer for seminars sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities. He is married to Nancy Legare Warren Clarke. Clarke's primary scholarly interest has focused on slavery in the American South.
His publications include Wrestlin’ Jacob: A Portrait of Religion in the Old South. Wrestlin’Jacob was selected by Choice magazine of the American Library Association as an Academic Book of the Year, he received Author of the Year Award for Wrestlin’ Jacob from the old Dixie Council of Authors and Journalists. Our Southern Zion received the Francis Makemie Award from the Presbyterian Historical Society for “the most outstanding published book-length contribution to American Presbyterian or Reformed history.” In 2019 the University of South Carolina Press published his To Count Our Days: A History of Columbia Theological Seminary. His book Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic is an "upstairs-downstairs" history of a white, slave-owing family and of a black enslaved family over four generations. At the center of the white family was a Presbyterian minister, Charles Colcock Jones, who became known among whites as the “Apostle to the Negro Slaves” for his work among the Gullah-speaking people of the Georgia lowcountry and his advocacy of humane treatment of slaves.
The focus of the “downstairs” story is on the family of Lizzy Jones who family members helped created a remarkable slavery. Dwelling Place received the Bancroft Prize given by Columbia University for a work "of exceptional merit" in American history. Clarke's book By the Rivers of Water is the story of a remarkable Southern couple who freed in the 1830s their inherited slaves and helped them settle in the African American cology at Cape Palmas, Liberia. John Leighton Wilson and Jane Bayard Wilson served as missionaries, first at Cape Palmas and in Gabon, for seventeen years, they were French imperialism in Gabon. Leighton Wilson wrote the first dictionary and grammar of the Grebo and Mpongwe languages and reported on the stunning achievement of the Vey in developing their own alphabet, his book, Western Africa, was a careful and appreciative study of West African cultures and societies that sought to refute the claims of a rising scientific racism. The Dallas Morning News called the book an "Engrossing, elegantly written history...a memorable book" and the Library Journal, Starred Review, said it is “Brimming with insights about interconnected individuals and societies struggling with conscience and dignity to make moral choices amid clashing, if not collapsing, this work is required reading for anyone interested in a sympathetic understanding of early U.
S. missionaries in West Africa, the perils of the U. S. colonization movement, Civil War tensions, or Atlantic world connections.” 2006 Bancroft Prize, Dwelling Place 2006 Mary Lawton Hodges Book Prize in Southern Studies, Dwelling Place 2006 Malcolm Bell Jr. and Muriel Barrow Bell Award, Dwelling Place Choice magazine of the American Library Association Academic Book of the Year, Wrestlin' Jacob Wrestlin' Jacob: A Portrait of Religion in Antebellum Georgia and the Carolina Low Country The Seminary Presidency in Protestant Theological Seminaries Our Southern Zion: A History of Calvinism in the South Carolina Low Country, 1690-1990 Exilic Preaching: Testimony for Christian Exiles in an Increasingly Hostile Culture Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic By the Rivers of Water: A Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey To Count Our Days: A History of Columbia Theological Seminary