Mawnan is a civil parish in south Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated in the former administrative district of Kerrier and is bounded to the south by the Helford River, to the east by the sea, to the west by Constantine parish; the population including Bareppa was 1,454 in the 2001 census, including Carnhell Green and rising to 1,476 at the 2011 census. The church town of the parish is Mawnan Church known as Mawnan, but the only large village in the parish is Mawnan Smith, situated three miles south of Falmouth; the parish is rural and, as well as Mawnan Smith, it includes the hamlets of Carlidnack, Penwarne, Helford Passage and Durgan. The parish contains several Victorian gardens, now open to the public: Glendurgan, Trebah and Penjerrick; the coastline and cliffs south-east of the church town from Toll Point to Rosemullion Head forms the Rosemullion SSSI, noted for its geological and biological interest. Marine species found here include Mytilus mussels, various seaweeds and sea sponges, such as Botryllus schlosseri.
Mawnan lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park, it is suggested that Mawnan takes its name from a 6th-century Saint Maunanus, a Breton monk who landed here about AD 520. There are two Anglican churches: the 13th century parish church, the Church of St Mawnan and St Stephen in Mawnan Church and the 19th century Church of St Michael in Mawnan Smith village. John Rogers was rector here in 1807; the land for St Michael's Church was given by the Rogers family of Carwinion and the building was completed in 1874. The village of Mawnan Smith has a Methodist chapel. There is a Roman Catholic church dedicated to St Edward the Confessor in Old Church Road, completed in 1965. Notable country houses in the parish include Bosloe, Carwinion, Nansidwell and Bareppa. At Glendurgan and Trebah are fine 19th century developed by the Fox family of Falmouth. Mawnan Parish website Mawnan Smith Community website Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Mawnan
Lostwithiel is a civil parish and small town in Cornwall, United Kingdom at the head of the estuary of the River Fowey. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,739; the Lostwithiel electoral ward had a population of 4,639 at the 2011 census. The name Lostwithiel comes from the Cornish "lostwydhyel" which means "tail of a wooded area"; the origin of the name Lostwithiel is a subject much debated. In the 16th century it was thought that the name came from the Roman name Uzella, translated as Les Uchel in Cornish. In the 17th century popular opinion was that the name came from a translation of Lost and Withiel, the lion in question being the lord who lived in the castle. Current thinking is that the name comes from the Old Cornish Lost Gwydhyel meaning "tail-end of the woodland"; the view from Restormel Castle looking towards the town shows. Lostwithiel is a historic borough; the Lostwithiel constituency elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons, but was disenfranchised by the Reform Act 1832.
It remained a municipal borough until the 1960s. The seal of the borough of Lostwithiel was a shield charged with a castle rising from water between two thistles, in the water two fish, with the legend "Sigillum burgi de Lostwithyel et Penknight in Cornubia", its mayoral regalia includes a silver oar. The town is situated in the Fowey river valley, positioned between the A390 road from Tavistock to Truro and the upper tidal reaches of the river. Lostwithiel railway station is on the Cornish Main Line from Plymouth to Penzance, it is situated on the south side of the town, just across the medieval bridge. The line was built for the Cornwall Railway which built its main workshops here, but the surviving workshop buildings were transformed into apartments in 2004. A branch line takes china clay trains to Fowey; the town contains the suburbs of Bridgend to the east and Rosehill and Victoria to the west of the River Fowey. Lostwithiel's most notable buildings are Restormel Castle. There is a small museum devoted to the history of the town.
Once a stannary town, for a period the most important in Cornwall, it is now much reduced in importance. There is a fine early fourteenth-century bridge with five pointed arches, nearby the remains of the Lostwithiel Stannary Palace, with its Coinage Hall – this was the centre of royal authority over tin-mining, and'coinage' meant the knocking off of the corner of each block of tin for the benefit of the Duchy of Cornwall; the small Guildhall has an arcaded ground floor. The old Grammar School has been converted into dwellings; the town has a playing field known as King George V Playing Field. Lostwithiel has several large parks including Coulson Park, named after Nathaniel Coulson, raised in Lostwithiel after being abandoned by his father; the town is host to a number of annual cultural activities including an arts and crafts festival, a beer festival, a week-long carnival in the summer and cider festivals in the October, a Dickensian evening in December. There are two primary schools in Lostwithiel: Lostwithiel Primary School.
Both schools are academies. Lostwithiel Primary School is part of the Peninsula Learning Trust Multi Academy Trust and St Winnow C E School is part of The Saints Way Multi Academy Trust; the majority of children aged between 11 and 16 attend Bodmin College. Lostwithiel Educational Trust is a local charity which makes "grants to local schools and churches, as well as to individuals, for educational purposes" From Lostwithiel railway station trains operated by Great Western Railway run every two hours towards Plymouth or Penzance; some through services to and from London Paddington station and those operated by CrossCountry between Penzance and Scotland stop. National Express provides a regular coach service to London which runs via Plymouth for connections to other destinations; the coach stop is located outside the Royal Talbot Hotel. Bus stops in Lostwithiel are outside the Royal Talbot Cott Road phone box. Lostwithiel was twinned with Pleyber-Christ in Brittany, France in 1979; the people in the Twinning Associations of both towns meet up every year, alternating between Lostwithiel and Pleyber Christ.
Battle of Lostwithiel List of topics related to Cornwall Lostwithiel Town Council The History of Parliament Trust, Borough, from 1386 to 1868 Lostwithiel.org.uk run by Lostwithiel Business Group Lostwithiel at Curlie GENUKI page Lostwithiel Bridge and its Memories – The Reverend Canon E Boger, 1887 Lostwithiel OCS Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Lostwithiel
Budock Water is a village and former manor in the civil parish of Budock, England, United Kingdom. The village is situated two miles west of Falmouth. According to the 2001 census Budock parish had a population of 1,399; this had increased to 1,537 at the 2011 census. The parish includes the smaller villages of Lamanva and Treverva and encompasses 2,400 acres of land; the hamlets of Bareppa and Mongleath are in the parish. Arable farming in the parish includes early potatoes and daffodils. Budock Water village has a public house called the Trelowarren Arms and there is a hotel in the parish which has a restaurant, open to non-residents; the Penmorvah was known as a popular night club called "Manderley" and is opposite the legendary Penjerrick Garden, open to the public on certain days of the week. The village had a post office until 2009 when it was closed following the central government review of rural post offices, but the shop remains as another hub for the village. There is a regular bus service connecting the village with both Falmouth and Helston as well as the outlying villages in the area.
The earliest recorded rector of Budock was in 1207, although it is believed that the link to Budoc, a Celtic saint, dates back to 470 AD. The parish church, which has a western tower, is of the 13th and of the 15th century: the box pews which in most churches were removed in the Victorian period remained. Falmouth was part of the parish of Budock; the church contains a monumental brass to John III Killigrew of Arwennack, the first Governor of Pendennis Castle and his wife Elizabeth Trewennard. Besides the parish church, the village had a Wesleyan Methodist Chapel built around 1814, rebuilt in 1843. Declining congregations resulted in this chapel being closed and sold, that building is now used as a meadery restaurant. There is no longer an active Methodist Chapel at Treverva, used by the famous Treverva Choir. At Rosemerryn is a substantial house of about 1730; the Crag, was a house built by Alfred Waterhouse in 1865 incorporating some Cornish elements: subsequently a hotel, it burnt down in 1981.
There are two Cornish crosses in the parish. There is a cross base at Nangitha; the village school closed in 1990. The original building was converted into a private house. Local children benefit from a playing field in the middle of the village, donated by a local landowner, equipped with swings and climbing frames. There is a village hall, used by clubs and organisations ranging from the toddlers group, bingo, a monthly luncheon club, yoga classes, a martial arts group, zumba sessions right up to the Over 60s Club. Budock woods remains a popular wooded area adjoining the village. One area of the woods was noted to have a great many bluebell flowers, but these suffered after the great storms on 25 January 1990 that toppled many of the mature beech and sweet chestnut trees that they were growing beneath. A jungle garden located at Penjerrick Garden is open to visitors on certain days. Tony Kellow would rank as one of its most famous sons, he won the "Golden Boot" in 1980/81 for being the Football League's highest goal scorer in all four divisions.
A memorial to him stands near the Trelowarren Arms and a shrine in his honour is in the pub where Tony was a popular figure. He still holds the record for goals scored at Exeter City who sold him to Blackpool for a record fee; the Budock Parish History Group A Short Study of an Ancient Parish. The Budock Parish History Group A Short Study of an Ancient Parish Volume II. Budock Parish official website
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Cornwall Council is the unitary authority for the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom, not including the Isles of Scilly, which has its own council. The council, its predecessor Cornwall County Council, has a tradition of large groups of independent councillors, having been controlled by independents in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the 2013 elections, it is run by an Independent-Liberal Democrat coalition. Cornwall Council provides a wide range of services to more than half a million Cornish residents. In 2014 it had an annual budget of more than £1 billion and was the biggest employer in Cornwall with a staff of 12,429 salaried workers, it is responsible for services including: schools, social services, rubbish collection, roads and more. Before April 2009, Cornwall was administered as a non-metropolitan county by the Cornwall County Council with six districts, Carrick, North Cornwall and Restormel; the Council of the Isles of Scilly still remains a separate unitary authority. On 5 December 2007, the Government confirmed that Cornwall was one of five councils that would move to unitary status.
This was enacted by statutory instrument as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, The changes took effect on 1 April 2009. On that date the six districts and Cornwall County Council were abolished and were replaced by Cornwall Council; the council has 123 councillors, the independent Local Government Boundary Commission for England is proposing that Cornwall Council should have 87 councillors in future. On the creation of the new unitary authority it was decided that the name of the new council would be Cornwall Council; the Council logo features a Cornish chough and the 15 Cornish golden bezants on a black field as used in the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall. The campaign for Cornish devolution began in 2000 with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention, a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. In 2009, Liberal Democrat MP Dan Rogerson introduced a bill in parliament seeking to take power from Whitehall and regional quangos and pass it to the new Cornwall Council, with the intention of transforming the new council into an assembly along the lines of National Assembly for Wales.
In November 2010, British Prime Minister David Cameron suggested in comments to the local press that his government would "devolve a lot of power to Cornwall - that will go to the Cornish unitary authority." In 2011, the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg said he would meet a cross party group, including the six Cornish MPs, to look at whether more powers could be devolved to Cornwall. The subsequent Localism Act 2011 was expected to achieve this but it proved incapable. However, the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016 is intended to devolve some powers to Cornwall Council, helping to bring social and care services together, giving control over bus services and local investment. Among the services provided by the council is a public library service which consists of a main library in Truro and smaller libraries in towns and some villages throughout Cornwall. There are the following special libraries: Cornwall Learning Library, Cornish Studies Library, the Education Library Service, the Performing Arts Library, as well as a mobile library service based at Threemilestone.
Cornwall Council is promoting ten cultural projects as part of a five-year culture strategy. One project is the development of a National Theatre of Cornwall, a collaboration of the Hall for Cornwall, Kneehigh Theatre, Eden Project and Wildworks. Cornwall Council has based its idea on the successful National Theatres of Wales. Another of the projects is the proposed creation of a National Library of Cornwall to resolve inadequacies with the current storage of archives, it is hoped that this will bring some important documents concerning Cornish history back to Cornwall as well as providing better public access to those records held. Cornwall Council is involved in the project to build a Stadium for Cornwall. Cornwall Council backs the campaign for the Cornish to be recognised as a National Minority in the UK; the council's chief executive Kevin Lavery wrote a letter to the Government in 2010, writing, "Cornwall Council believes that the UK Government should recognise the Cornish as a national minority under the terms of the Framework Convention."
Adding that, "Cornwall Council believes that the Government's current restricted interpretation is discriminatory against the Cornish and contradicts the support it gives to Cornish culture and identity through its own departments." Cornwall Council's support was reaffirmed as council policy in 2011 with the publication of the Cornish National Minority Report 2, signed and endorsed by the leaders of every political grouping on the council. The council took an active role in the promotion of the options for registering Cornish ethnicity and national identity on the 2011 UK Census; the Cornish people were recognised as a National Minority by the British Government on 24 April 2014 and incorporated into the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities giving the Cornish the same status as the United Kingdom's other Celtic peoples, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. Since 2008 Cornwall Council and the former county council, together with Cornwall Enterprise, Cornwall Sustainable Energy Partnership, have been involved with a Protocol of Cooperation between Cornwall and the Conseil général du Finistère in Brittany.
The protocol aims to allow the two regions to work more on topics of common interest and engage in a knowledge exchange with the possibility of jointly applying for European fun
Newlyn is a seaside town and fishing port in south-west Cornwall, UK. Newlyn lies on the shore of Mount's Bay and forms a small conurbation with the neighbouring town of Penzance, it is part of the Penzance civil parish. The principal industry is fishing, although there are a wide variety of yachts and pleasure boats, in the harbour, as Newlyn is becoming an popular holiday destination, with many pubs and restaurants. Although the parish is now listed under Penzance there is an electoral ward in separate existence called Newlyn and Mousehole; the population as of the 2011 census was 4,432. The settlement is recorded as Nulyn in 1279 and as Lulyn in 1290, the name is thought to be derived from the Cornish for "pool for a fleet of boats", thought to refer to the shallows offshore known as Gwavas Lake, traditionally the principal mooring for the fishing fleet in the area. Before the rise of Newlyn as an important settlement the landing rights and most property within the Newlyn area were owned by the Manor of Alverton.
Newlyn's history has been linked to its role as a major fishing port. The natural protection afforded by the Gwavas Lake led to many local fishermen using this area as a preferred landing site; the Spanish Raid of 1595 destroyed Penzance and Paul as well as Newlyn. In 1620 the Mayflower stopped off at Newlyn old quay to take on water. A plaque on the quay reads: To the memory of Bill Best Harris 1914 – 1987 Historian and son of Plymouth whose researches indicated that the MAYFLOWER 16 – 8 – 1620 docked at the Old Quay Newlyn for water and supplies making it the last port of call in England The water supply at Plymouth being the cause of fever and cholera in the city Let debate begin In 1755, the Lisbon earthquake caused a tsunami to strike the Cornish coast more than 600 miles away from the epicentre; the sea rose ten feet in ten minutes at Newlyn, ebbed at the same rate. The 19th century French writer, Arnold Boscowitz, claimed that "great loss of life and property occurred upon the coasts of Cornwall".
Before the 19th century, "Newlyn" referred only to the area near the old quay. The part of the village that now contains the fish market was known as "Streetanowan", this was separated at high tide from "Newlyn Town" the site of the lower part of the modern harbour being reclaimed land and a beach. In fact Newlyn comprises three discrete hamlets all separated by bodies of water, being Tolcarne, Street-an-Nowan and Trewarveneth. Newlyn was part of the ancient parish of Paul, it was common for villagers to climb the steep route from "Newlyn Cliff" to Paul via the area, now known as Gwavas to worship at Paul Church. Until the mid-20th century an ancient stone cross was present on this route at "Park an Grouse", this cross was one site of veneration of the Cornish sea deity Bucca, the name'Bucca' has been used as a nickname for people who reside in Newlyn: the location of the cross is now unknown. In 1851 Newlyn became the separate ecclesiastical parish of Newlyn St Peter; the church of St Peter was built in the Early English style in 1859–66.
The interior is embellished with various works of art including the altarpiece and a statue of the Madonna and Child. "The ensemble is an outstanding example of Anglo-Catholic embellishment of the period ". There is a Cornish cross by the road near the churchyard. In the 1880s a number of artists formed an artists' colony; the painters of Newlyn came to be known as the Newlyn School. In 1896 Newlyn was the scene of the Newlyn riots following protests over the landing of fish on a Sunday by fishermen from the North of England, the local Cornish fishermen being members of the Methodist church and as such strong supporters of sabbatarianism. In 1915, the Ordnance Survey tidal observatory was established in the harbour and for the next six years measurements of tidal height were taken every 15 minutes. In 1937, the fishing vessel Rosebud sailed to London to deliver a petition to the Minister of Health on behalf of those villagers whose homes were threatened under the government's slum clearance scheme.
During the Second World War Newlyn was a base for the Air Sea Rescue craft covering the Western Approaches. The harbour was bombed during the war, hitting the collier Greenhithe, beached in the harbour at the time and supplied coal to the east coast drifters, which travelled to Newlyn during the mackerel fishing season between the wars. Reporting the event on the "Germany Calling" propaganda broadcast Lord Haw-Haw announced that the Luftwaffe had sunk a British cruiser in Newlyn Harbour; the 2014 LP Cornish Pop Songs by indie band the Hit Parade contains several songs referencing Newlyn fishing industry including "The Ghost of the Fishing Fleet", a comment on the declining investment in the area, neglect by central government and the recent influx in tourist trade. Newlyn, along with nearby Mousehole and Paul, was the last stronghold of the Cornish language due to the strength of its fishing fleet. William Gwavas, James Jenkins, Nicholas Boson, Thomas Boson, John Boson, John Keigwin, John Kelynack Jnr had roots in or strong links with the district.
Subsequently, several antiquarians including Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, Daines Barrington, Georg Sauerwein and Henry Jenner who all collected Cornish writings or sayings, the latter two became proficient in its use. In 1894 Newlyn became part of Paul Urban Dis
Bude is a small seaside resort town in north Cornwall, England, UK, in the civil parish of Bude-Stratton and at the mouth of the River Neet. It was sometimes known as Bude Haven, it lies southwest of Stratton, south of Flexbury and Poughill, north of Widemouth Bay and is located along the A3073 road off the A39. Bude is twinned with Ergué-Gabéric in France. Bude's coast faces Bude Bay in the Celtic Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean; the population of the civil parish can be found under Bude-Stratton. Its earlier importance was as a harbour, a source of sea sand useful for improving the moorland soil; the Victorians favoured it as a watering place, it was a popular seaside destination in the 20th century. It lies just west of Stratton and north of Widemouth Bay and is located along the A3073 road off the A39 road. A section of Bude's coast, located between Compass Cove to the south and Furzey Cove to the north, is a SSSI noted for its geological and biological interest. Carboniferous sandstone cliffs surround Bude.
During the Variscan Orogeny the strata were faulted and folded. As the sands and cliffs around Bude contain calcium carbonate, farmers used to take sand from the beach, for spreading on their fields; the cliffs around Bude are the only ones in Cornwall that are made of Carboniferous sandstone, as most of the Cornish coast is formed of Devonian slate and Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The stratified cliffs of Bude give their name to a sequence of rocks called the Bude Formation. Many formations can be viewed from the South West Coast Path. Many ships have been wrecked on the jagged reefs; the figurehead of one of these, the Bencoolen, a barque whose wrecking in 1862 resulted in the drowning of most of the crew, was preserved in the churchyard but was transferred to the town museum to save it from further decay. The aftermath of the wreck of the Bencoolen was described by Robert Stephen Hawker in letters which were published in Hawker's Poetical Works. Like the rest of the British Isles and South West England, Bude experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters.
Temperature extremes at the Met Office weather station at Bude range from −11.1 °C during February 1969 to 32.2 °C in June 1976. The Met Office recorded Bude as the sunniest place in the United Kingdom during the summer of 2013 with 783 hours of sunlight. In the Middle Ages the only dwelling here was Efford Manor, the seat of the Arundells of Trerice, which had a chapel of St Leonard. Another chapel existed at Chapel Rock, dedicated to Holy Trinity and St Michael. Bude Canal, which once ran to Launceston, now runs only a few miles inland. Several historic wharf buildings were demolished in the 1980s, but since the canal has undergone restoration; until the start of the 20th century, the neighbouring town of Stratton was dominant, a local saying is "Stratton was a market town when Bude was just a furzy down", meaning Stratton was long established when Bude was just gorse-covered downland. On 10 October 1844, during an exercise, the unnamed Bude Lifeboat capsized when the steering oar broke followed by four on the port side, two of the crew were drowned.
The local senior school Budehaven Community School suffered a major fire in October 1999, destroying most of the older parts of the school. The school was forced to close for several weeks; the damaged part of the school was rebuilt with interactive classrooms. Present-day Bude has two beaches with broad sands close to the town, is a good centre for adjacent beaches, its sea front faces west and the Atlantic rollers make for good surfing when conditions are right. The main access road into and out of Bude is the Atlantic Highway. Stagecoach South West operates numerous bus services in and around Bude, with direct services to local towns, such as Holsworthy, Wadebridge Bideford, Barnstaple. In the latter part of Queen Victoria's reign, the middle classes were discovering the attractions of sea bathing, the romantic movement encouraged an appreciation of wild scenery and the Arthurian Legend. To serve this desire, a railway line was extended to Bude in 1898; this encouraged the holiday trade, but Bude never rivalled Newquay or the resorts in south Cornwall and Devon.
There are a number of good beaches in the Bude area. Bude was the founder club in British Surf Life Saving. Summerleaze, Crooklets and'middle' beach, are all within the town. There are a number of other coves and beaches to be found and explored in the local area. In the 18th century there was a small unprotected tidal harbour at Bude, but it was difficult whenever the sea was up; the Bude Canal Company improved the harbour. Around twenty small boats use the tidal moorings of the original harbour during the summer months. Most are sport fishermen, but there is some small-scale, semi-commercial, fishing for crab and lobster. There is a wharf on the Bude Canal about half a mile from the sea lock that links the canal to the tidal haven; this can be opened only at or near high tide, only when sea conditions allow. North Cornwall District Council administered the canal and lock gates until its abolition in March 2009; these gates were renewed after the or