Kitakami Mountains is a mountain range in northeastern Honshu, in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan. The range extends for 250 kilometres from the southern border of Aomori Prefecture in the north to the northern border of Miyagi Prefecture in the south, are bordered by the Kitakami River valley in the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east, with an average width of around 80 kilometres; the Kitakami Mountains are thus located within eastern Iwate Prefecture. The range is an eroded plateau with a thick granite bedrock, thus accounting for its other name: Kitakami Plateau. In the north, the mountains are characterized by marine terraces at an altitude of around 300 meters, whereas in the south, the mountains are drowned to form a indented rias coast. Geologically, the Kitakami Mountains are Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations, divided into northern and southern groups; the southern area has oldest previous Silurian foundation, once a shallow sea on the continental margin where the water temperature was high enough for coral growth from the Silurian to the Devonian periods.
Until the Paleogene, the Kitakami Mountains were geologically part of Primorsky region of Siberia. About 30 million years to 15 million years ago, the Japanese archipelago separated from the continent and moved to its present position; the Kitakami Mountains around that time was an island, the west side was a shallow sea, the Ōu Mountains were not yet born. The uplift of the Ōu mountain range began in late Miocene and the Kitakami Basin was born; the Kitakami Mountains were exposed to erosion for a long time because they were above water from the Cenozoic onwards. In addition, as a result the glacier effects of the last glacial period, the current gentle topography was created. Mount Hayachine, near the center of the range, is the highest peak at 1,917 metres, supports endemic alpine vegetation. Notable caves within the Kitakami Mountains include Akkadō and Ryūsendō; the peaks of the Kitakami mountains include the following: Mount Hayachine 1917 m Hashigamidake 739.6 m Akkamori 1239 m Kuromoriyama 837 m Goyozan 1351 m Muroneyama 895 m Omoriyama 750 m Tokusenjosan 711 m Tatsuganesan 512 m Kojima, Tomoko.
The Geology of Japan. The Geological Society of London. ISBN 1862397430
Hachinohe is a city located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 28 February 2017, the city had an estimated population of 229,527, a population density of 756 persons per km2 in 107,598 households; this makes it the second biggest city of Aomori prefecture. The total area is 305.54 square kilometres. The area around Hachinohe has been occupied since prehistoric times, was a major population center for the Emishi people. Numerous Jōmon period remains have been discovered within the borders of Hachinohe; the area was nominally under control of the Northern Fujiwara in the Heian period, became part of the holdings granted to the Nanbu clan after the defeat of the North Fujiwara by Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Kamakura period. The Nanbu established numerous horse ranches, accompanied by numbered fortified settlements. During the Edo period, it was part of Morioka Domain, but in 1664 the Tokugawa shogunate authorized the creation of a separate 20,000 koku Hachinohe Domain for a junior line of the Nanbu clan.
The town prospered as a castle town centered on Hachinohe Castle, served as a small commercial centre and port for the fishing grounds off southeastern Hokkaido. Today, the port still serves a number of international cargo vessels. After the Meiji Restoration, Hachinohe Domain was abolished, replaced by Hachinohe Prefecture, subsequently merged into Aomori Prefecture. There was a debate as to whether the capital of newly formed Aomori Prefecture should be at Hachinohe or Hirosaki. Per the establishment of the Meiji period municipalities system on April 1, 1889, the town of Hachinohe was created within Sannohe District. In 1901, it merged with neighboring Chōja, on May 1, 1929, with neighboring Konakano and Same villages to form the city of Hachinohe; the city further expanded by annexing the village of Shimonaganawashiro in 1942, Korekawa in 1954, Kaminaganawashiro and Toyosaki in 1955 and Odate in 1958. On March 31, 2005, the village of Nangō was merged into Hachinohe. During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, a United States Army base, Camp Haugen, was located in Hachinohe, was the home of the Seventh Division.
An Armed Forces Radio Service radio station was located on the base. In 1950, after the North Korean invasion of South Korea, troops from Camp Haugen left for Korea. AFRS Hachinohe altered its broadcasts to include coverage of South Korea so Americans could benefit from its news and entertainment programs. With the final withdrawal of American forces from Hachinohe in 1956, the base was turned over to the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and was re-designated JGSDF Camp Hachinohe. In March 2011, the city was one of those hit by the 2011 Japanese tsunami; the tsunami tossed many huge fishing boats ashore and damaged the port area. About 100 homes were destroyed. Divers from the United States Navy ship Safeguard joined with Japanese workers to help clear the port to facilitate the delivery of relief supplies via the city. On January 1, 2017, Hachinohe was given core city status. Hachinohe is located in the flatlands on the southeast coast of Aomori Prefecture, facing the Pacific Ocean. Both the Oirase River and the Mabechi River flow through Hachinohe.
A portion of the coastal areas of the city were within the borders of the Tanesashi Kaigan Hashikamidake Prefectural Natural Park, incorporated into the Sanriku Fukkō National Park in 2013. Hachinohe has a humid continental climate, with cold and snowy winters. Summers are milder than in other parts of Honshu because the city is close to the open sea, while winters if distinctly cold are much less snowy than in Aomori city or Sapporo or Wakkanai, although snowfall is higher than in Kushiro; the average annual temperature in Hachinohe is 9.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1165 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 22.7 °C, lowest in January, at around -1.9 °C. Aomori Prefecture Sannohe District Hashikami Gonohe Nanbu Kamikita District OiraseIwate Prefecture Karumai Per Japanese census data: Hachinohe has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 32 members. Hachinohe is the largest city in eastern Aomori Prefecture, serves as the regional industrial and commercial center.
Commercial fishing still plays a major role in the local economy, with Hachinohe port having one of the largest volumes of landed fish in Japan. However, since its designation as a new industrial city in 1964, Hachinohe has developed a large coastal industrial belt with a diverse range of chemical, steel and fertilizer products. Major industrial parks include the Hachinohe High Tech Park and Hachinohe North-Interchange Industrial Complex. Hachinohe Port is a major international port for northern Japan. Hachinohe Gakuin University Hachinohe Institute of Technology Hachinohe Gakuin Junior College Hachinohe has 43 public elementary schools and 24 public junior high schools operated by the city government, one private middle school; the city has eight public high schools operated by the Aomori Prefectural Board of Education, one public high school operated by the national government. There are eight private high schools; the city has three special education schools. East Japan Railway Company - Tōhoku Shinkansen Hachinohe East Japan Railway Company - Hachinohe Line Hachinohe - Naganawashiro -
Rumoi River is a river in Hokkaidō, Japan. The Rumoi is 44 kilometres in length, it traces its source to Mount Poroshiri 731 metres in the Hidaka Mountain range, flows across Rumoi Subprefecture in the west of Hokkaidō and empties into the Sea of Japan. The mouth of the Rumoi River is in the city of Rumoi
Chitose River is a river in Hokkaidō, Japan. The river is a class A river. In the city of Ebetsu, the river is sometimes known as Ebetsu River. In the Ainu language Chitose was called shikot, meaning big depression or hollow, like Lake Shikotsu a caldera lake. To the Japanese, this sounded too much like dead bones; the name of the river was changed in 1805. The Chitose River is the outflow of Lake Shikotsu. From the lake the river flows through a series of power plants owned by the Oji Paper Company; the Chitose River flows through the center of the city of Chitose, before entering the Ishikari Plain. On the plain, the river is fed by numerous irrigation canals. Here the Chitose River forms part of the border between Sorachi Subprefectures; the river passes through the city of Ebetsu before it flows into the Ishikari River. The Chitose River causes flooding damage about every two years, widening to as many as 40 kilometres; the last major flood was in 1981, where the river flooded 20,000 hectares of land.
National and local governments have been adopting numerous measures to try and reduce the severity of the flooding. Geographical Survey Institute
The Ishikari River, at 268 kilometres long, is the third longest in Japan and the longest in Hokkaidō. The river drains an area of 14,330 square kilometres, making it the second largest in Japan, with a total discharge of around 14.8 cubic kilometres per year. It originates from Mount Ishikari in the Daisetsuzan Volcanic Group and flows through Asahikawa and Sapporo. Major tributaries of the river include the Chūbetsu, Uryū, Toyohira rivers; until 40,000 years ago, it flowed into the Pacific Ocean near Tomakomai. Lava from the volcanic Shikotsu mountains moved its mouth to the Ishikari Bay; the name of the river is derived from the Ainu for "make itself go round about something", i.e. "winding." As it suggests, the river once meandered in the Ishikari plain and was as long as the Shinano River, the longest river in Japan. Massive construction left many oxbow lakes in the plain; the landscape and human activities along the Ishikari River the hard life of tenant farmers, are described in the novel'The Absentee Landlord' published in 1929 by the Japanese writer Takiji Kobayashi.
Ishikari-gawa - Britannica
Port of Hachinohe
The Port of Hachinohe is a seaport on the Pacific coast of Aomori Prefecture, in the city of Hachinohe in the Tōhoku region of northern Honshū, Japan. It is classified as a Specially-Authorized Port by the Japanese government as an official port of entry into Japan with associated immigration and customs facilities; the port is divided with a total land area of 619 hectares. Hachinohe developed as a castle town of the Nanbu clan’s Hachinohe Domain in the Edo period; the port was a major fishing port, a port of call for the coastal trade from Osaka and Edo to Hokkaidō. In modern times, the area was earmarked for economic development by the Meiji government, which hired Dutch oyatoi gaikokujin civil engineer Anthonie Rouwenhorst Mulder to redesign and rebuilt the port facilities along western lines. Immigration facilities were established in 1925, the port was opened for foreign trade by the Home Ministry in 1928, it was designated a primary seaport by the Japanese government in 1954. The port facilities suffered minor damage from a tsunami caused by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake off Chile and again in 1968 from the Tokachi-oki earthquake.
The port facilities were continually expanded from the 1970s through the 1990s, with additional berths and the construction of a port island. Scheduled container services to Southeast Asia began in 1994, to Korea and the United States in 1998, to China in 1999. In 2001, the Hattaro Refrigerated Warehouse was completed, furnishing the Port of Hachinohe with a temperature control and humidification system for storage of agricultural products. In March 2011, the port facilities were damaged by a tsunami from the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. Hachinohe Port Authority administers the Port of Hachinohe and its 48 berths for both domestic and international container services. Domestic routes include Tokyo and Yokohama, overseas routes include Taiwan, Korea, South America, Europe and the United States; the port has seven fuel terminals with capacity to store over 11 million barrels of oil, supplies fuel for the local fishing fleet as well as nearby Misawa Air Base operated by the United States Air Force. Hachinohe is a major fishing port, with 142,000 tons of seafood products landed in 2004, the fourth largest volume in Japan.
In the year 2002, Hachinohe was first in Japan in terms of squid, Olive flounder Hachinohe Port is connected with regular ferry services to Tomakomai, Hokkaidō. World Ports Database