click links in text for more info

Mabon ap Modron

Mabon ap Modron is a prominent figure from Welsh literature and mythology, the son of Modron and a member of Arthur's war band. Both he and his mother were deities in origin, descending from a divine mother–son pair, his name is related to the Romano-British god Maponos, whose name means "Great Son". He is equated with the Demetian hero Pryderi fab Pwyll, may be associated with the minor Arthurian character Mabon fab Mellt; the name Mabon is derived from the Common Brittonic and Gaulish deity name Maponos "Great Son", from the Proto-Celtic root *makwo- "son". Modron is derived from the name of the Brittonic and Gaulish deity Mātronā, meaning "Great Mother", from Proto-Celtic *mātīr "mother". Culhwch's father, King Cilydd, the son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth; when he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden.

Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur. The young man sets off to seek his kinsman, he asks for support and assistance. Cai is the first knight to volunteer to assist Culhwch in his quest, promising to stand by his side until Olwen is found. A further five knights join them in their mission, they travel onwards until they come across the "fairest of the castles of the world", meet Ysbaddaden's shepherd brother, Custennin. They learn that the castle belongs to Ysbaddaden, that he stripped Custennin of his lands and murdered the shepherd's twenty-three children out of cruelty. Custennin sets up a meeting between Culhwch and Olwen, the maiden agrees to lead Culhwch and his companions to Ysbadadden's castle. Cai pledges to protect the twenty-fourth son, with his life; the knights attack the castle by stealth, killing the nine porters and the nine watchdogs, enter the giant's hall.

Upon their arrival, Ysbaddaden attempts to kill Culhwch with a poison dart, but is outwitted and wounded, first by Bedwyr by the enchanter Menw, by Culhwch himself. Ysbaddaden relents, agrees to give Culhwch his daughter on the condition that he completes a number of impossible tasks, including hunting the Twrch Trwyth and recovering the exalted prisoner, Mabon son of Modron, the only man able to hunt the dog Drudwyn, in turn the only dog who can track the Twrch Trwyth. Arthur and his men learn that Mabon was stolen from his mother's arms when he was three nights old, question the world's oldest and wisest animals about his whereabouts, until they are led to the salmon of Llyn Llyw, the oldest animal of them all; the enormous salmon carries Bedwyr downstream to Mabon's prison in Gloucester. The rest of Arthur's men launch an assault on the front of the prison, while Cei and Bedwyr sneak in the back and rescue Mabon, he subsequently plays a key role in the hunt for the Twrch Trwyth. One of the earliest direct reference to Mabon can be found in the tenth century poem Pa Gur, in which Arthur recounts the feats and achievements of his knights so as to gain entrance to a fortress guarded by Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr, the eponymous porter.

The poem relates that Mabon fab Mydron is one of Arthur's followers, is described as a "servant to Uther Pendragon". A second figure, Mabon fab Mellt, is described as having "stained the grass with blood", he further appears in the medieval tale The Dream of Rhonabwy, in which he fights alongside Arthur at the Battle of Badon and is described as one of the king's chief advisors. Mabon is certainly related to the continental Arthurian figures Mabonagrain, Nabon le Noir and Maboun

125th Street (Manhattan)

125th Street is a two-way street that runs east–west in the New York City borough of Manhattan, from First Avenue on the east to Marginal Street, a service road for the Henry Hudson Parkway along the Hudson River in the west. It is considered to be the "Main Street" of Harlem, is co-named Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. Notable buildings along 125th Street include the Adam Clayton Powell Jr.. State Office Building, the Hotel Theresa, the Studio Museum in Harlem, the Mount Morris Bank Building,Harlem Commonwealth Council, the Harlem Children's Zone, the Church of St. Joseph of the Holy Family, the former West End Theatre, now home to the La Gree Baptist Church; the street was designated by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east–west streets that would be 100 feet in width. The western part of the street runs diagonally between the neighborhoods of Manhattanville and Morningside Heights from the northwest from an interchange with the Henry Hudson Parkway at 130th Street.

East of Morningside Avenue it runs east–west through central Harlem to Second Avenue, where a ramp connects it to the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge. However, 125th Street continues to First Avenue, where it connects to the southbound FDR Drive and the Willis Avenue Bridge. West of Convent Avenue, 125th Street was rerouted onto what was, prior to 1920, called Manhattan Street. What remains of the original alignment of 125th Street was renamed La Salle Street at that time; the remaining blocks run between Claremont Avenue. The New York Times lamented the name changes, noting that the new names had "somewhat doubtful nomenclature", that the City's "Aldermen like French names" but gave no rationale for the moves otherwise. A block of the original 125th Street in this area was de-mapped to make the super-blocks where the Grant Houses projects now exist. A proposal to convert the street into a Trans-Harlem Expressway died when funds were diverted from the proposed 125th Street Hudson River bridge at the street's western end.

Beginning in the late 1990s, many sections of 125th Street have been gentrified and developed with such stores as MAC Cosmetics, Old Navy, H&M, CVS/pharmacy, Magic Johnson Theaters. In collaboration with the community, the city has developed a plan for the 125th Street corridor focusing on reinforcing and building upon its strengths as an arts and cultural corridor. A rift in the crust runs along underneath this street from the East River to New Jersey and is known as the 125th Street Fault or the Manhattanville Fault, it is suspected to have caused a magnitude-5.2 earthquake in 1737, two smaller ones in 1981, a 2.4 magnitude quake in 2001. The fault line runs to Roosevelt Island to the southeast, it creates a fault valley deep enough to require the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line to use a trestle between 122nd and 135th Streets though the line goes underground at either end and remains at the same elevation above sea level throughout. Riverside Drive crosses over the fault valley on a high viaduct.

The following New York City Subway stations are located at 125th Street: 125th Street at Broadway serving the 1 train 125th Street at St. Nicholas Avenue serving the A, ​B, ​C, ​D trains 125th Street at Lenox Avenue serving the 2 and ​3 trains 125th Street at Lexington Avenue serving the 4, ​5, ​6, <6> trainsThe following NYC Bus lines serve 125th Street: Bx15, M100, M101 and M60 SBS all serve 125th as crosstown lines. M5 at Riverside Drive M4, M104, at Broadway M3 at St. Nicholas Avenue M10 at Frederick Douglass Boulevard M2 at Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard M7 and M102 at Lenox Avenue M1 at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue M98 at Park Avenue and Third Avenue M103 at Lexington Avenue and Third Avenue M35 at Lexington Avenue M15 and M15 SBS at Second Avenue and First Avenue Metro-North Railroad's Harlem–125th Street station is located at the street's intersection with Park Avenue; the planned second phase of the Second Avenue Subway, continuing north from the 116th Street station, will turn westward onto 125th Street, terminating at a station at Lexington Avenue.

The new station would connect to the Metro-North and preexisting Lexington Avenue subway stations there. As of 2011, former president Bill Clinton maintains an office on 125th Street; the intersection of 125th and Lexington Avenue is the location where Lou Reed buys heroin on the Velvet Underground's "I'm Waiting for the Man" from their seminal 1967 debut album, The Velvet Underground & Nico. Notes Media related to 125th Street at Wikimedia Commons

Parnitha Funitel

The Parnitha Funitel on Mont Parness is the successor of an aerial tramway constructed in the 1970s to serve Casino Mont Parnes, the most popular casino in the Athens area, located on one of the peaks of mount Parnitha. It was a common way for Athenians to reach on the peak for family day trips, a popular habit today. However, since April 2006, a newly built funitel, replacing the older one, was launched and it continues serving its previous purposes. Note, that it was not only a renovation, but a full construction on the place where the older funitel installation once used to be. Year of Construction: 1972 Line Length: 1,690 metres Average Inclination: 20 degrees Max. Velocity: 7.0 m/s Number of Cars: 2 Capacity of Cars: 30 passengers Total Max. Transfer Ability: 280 passengers/hour Conductors: 3 Engines: 1 x 194 kW Manufacturer: Habbeger AG Year of Construction: 2004 Line Length: 1,595 metres Average Inclination: 20 degrees Max. Velocity: 6.0 m/s Number of Cars: 24 Capacity of public cars: 20 seats/car Capacity of VIP cars: 6 seats/car Total Max.

Transfer Ability: 2,000 passengers/hour Conductors: 3 Engines: 2 x 411 kW Transfer Time: ~5 minutes Wind Speed Limit: 120 km/h Total Cost: ~12 million euros Manufacturer: Doppelmayr Seilbahnen S. A

Ignatius Lissner

The Reverend Ignatius F. Lissner, S. M. A. was a French-born Catholic priest, instrumental in developing the ministry of the Catholic Church in the United States to the African American population. He established there the Society of African Missions, he was called the "Apostle of the Negro" at the time of his death. He was born on 6 April 1867 to Nicholas Lissner and Anna Marie Spehner, the youngest of nine children, in Wolxheim, Bas-Rhin, in the region of Alsace in France, his father, a descendant of Jews from Poland, had converted to Catholicism, he was raised in a devoutly Catholic home, from which five children were to enter service in the Church. Lissner was drawn to the priesthood at an early age and entered the diocesan minor seminary to start his education. By 1888, he felt called to serve in the African missions and entered the Society on 21 December of that year, he did his studies to prepare for ordination, first at the Society's school at Clermont-Ferrand, completing his theological studies at their Major Seminary in Lyon.

He was ordained in the seminary chapel on 25 July 1891. After his ordination, Lissner was assigned to serve in Whydah in the Kingdom of Dahomey, undergoing increasing control by France, it is now part of the nation of Benin. In the summer of 1892, several months after his arrival, an insurrection among the native population broke out and many of the missionaries in the region fled the town. Lissner, chose to stay and was taken captive by King Béhanzin for several months. Managing to escape, he returned to the city on 2 December 1892 with French military forces who were able to retake it from rebel hands. Lissner remained in Dahomey for another five years; the details of his work among the people there are lost, other than his founding the Parish of St. Joseph in Grand-Popo. In March 1897 Lissner was assigned to travel to North America to raise funds for the work of the Society. After his arrival in the United States, he traveled throughout the nation to make the work of the Society known and to beg for financial support for its works.

He traveled to Canada, preaching throughout the Province of Quebec. In 1899 he was assigned to work in Egypt, where he stayed until 1901. At that point he was sent back to the United States to resume his work of raising funds and recruiting for the Society. For the next five years, Lissner worked as a minister to the poor of the country, itself still considered mission territory by the Church Church, with an infrastructure growing to serve the growing number of immigrants from Europe, was still under the supervision of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, he became aware of the lack of organized care for the small population of African-American Catholics. The expectation that there would be organized outreach to the general population of ex-slaves after the American Civil War had not been met, as the system of recruiting specialists for the "Colored Mission", as it was called, had little success; the Holy See decided to take action. In 1906, Bishop Benjamin Keily of the Diocese of Savannah-Atlanta received instructions from Rome that he was to use the services of the Society of African Missions to provide pastoral care to the blacks of the diocese.

On the following 17 December Lissner received a letter from the bishop offering the Society the exclusive charge of this population. In January 1907, under Lissner's direction, two priests of the Society took charge of the Parish of St. Benedict the Moor in Savannah, Georgia. Lissner himself went to Rome to present his plans for the missions entrusted to his care, receiving the blessing of Pope Pius X for this work, he returned to the United States that following November, accompanied by several other members of the Society, all of whom were from his native Alsace. Over the next six years, Lissner went on to found a series of parish and parochial schools to serve the blacks of rural Georgia; the members of the Society carried out this work in the face of a lack of support from their colleagues among the local Catholic clergy and of hostility from the Ku Klux Klan. In 1915 a bill came before the Georgia legislature which would have outlawed the education of black children by white teachers; the schools which Lissner had established in Savannah were served by Franciscan Sisters, who were all white.

In an effort to head off the closing of these schools, he proposed to Bishop Keily that a religious congregation of black Religious Sisters be founded to take over the charge of these schools. The bishop agreed to the proposal, saying "Yes, colored Sisters for colored people." As a result, Lissner recruited the help of Elizabeth Barbara Williams, a longterm member of a former congregation of Franciscan Sisters which had disbanded, to help in this work. Williams, under Lissner's authority and guidance, was joined by other black women to found the Handmaids of the Most Pure Heart of Mary, a congregation open to receiving members regardless of race. Under the name of Mother Theodore, she headed the new congregation; the bill which sparked their founding, did not pass in the Legislature and the white Sisters remained at two of the schools. The Handmaids took control of one of Lissner's schools. Having no real financial resources, they resorted to running a laundry and begging to support themselves, faced a daily struggle for their survival as a community.

In 1922, Lissner made a business trip to New York City, where he met with Cardinal Patrick Hayes, the Archbishop of New York. Hayes was aware of the small community of Black Sisters which Lissner had helped found and was guiding, he asked Lissner for their help in caring for black c


Electrocommunication is the communication method used by weakly-electric fish. Weakly-electric fish are a group of animals that utilize a communicating channel, "invisible" to most other animals: electric signaling. Electric fish communicate by generating an electric field that a second individual receives with its electroreceptors; the fish interperets the message using the signal's frequencies, delay, etc. The best studied species are two freshwater lineages- the African Mormyridae and the South American Gymnotiformes. While weakly-electric fish are the only group that have been identified to carry out both generation and reception of electric fields, other species either generate signals or receive them, but not both. Animals that either generate or receive electric fields are found only in wet or aquatic environments due to water's low electrical resistance, compared to other substances. So far, communication between electric fish has been identified to serve the purpose of conveying information such as: species courtship and biological sex motivational status environmental conditions Electric fish are capable of generating an external electric fields or receive electric fields.

Electric fish can be further divided into three categories: discharging, weakly discharging, fish that sense but is unable to generate electric fields. Electric fish generate strong electric field up to 500 volts for predatory purposes. Weakly-electric fish generates electric fields for communication and electrolocation purposes. Lastly, fish that are only able to detect electrical signals includes sharks, skates, a number of other groups. Electric fish generate discharge from electric organs located near the tail region. Electric organs are derived from muscle cells. To detect the electric signals, electric fish has two types of receptive cells- ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors. All organisms respond to sufficiently strong electric shocks, but only some aquatic vertebrates can detect and utilize weak electric fields such as those that occur naturally; these aquatic organisms are therefore called electroreceptive. The ability to sense and utilize electric fields was found solely in lower, aquatic vertebrates.

Terrestrial animals, with few exceptions, lack this electric sensing channel due to low conductivity of air, soil, or media other than aqueous environment. Exceptions include the Australian monotremes, i.e. the echidna which eats ants and termites, the semi-aquatic platypus that hunts by utilizing electric fields generated by invertebrate prey. In order to detect weakly-electric fields, animals must possess electroreceptors that detect electric potential differences. For electric fish, receptive organs are groups of sensory cells rooted in epidermal pits, which look like small spots on the skin. In each receptive organ, there are sensory cells embedded in the bottom of the opened "pit" that faces outside. Electroreceptors detect electric signals by building up a potential difference between the outside environment and the fish body's internal environment. Current flow due to such potential difference further results in a receptor potential, presynaptic to the sensory fibers; this receptor potential leads to action potential fired by sensory cells.

Electric fish carry a variety of sensitive receptive organs that are tuned to different types and ranges of signals. To classify types of electroreceptors, the first differentiation point should be made between ampullary and tuberous organs, which exist in both mormyrids and gymnotiforms; these two types of electric receptors have distinct anatomical differences- ampullary organs have their opened "pit" formed in a duct-like structure and filled with mucous substance. In addition to anatomical differences, these two receptors have distinctive functional differences. Ampullary organs are more sensitive and tuned to a low frequency range of 1–10 Hz, the range of non-electrogenic, biological source of electricity. Therefore, ampullary organs are used for passive electrolocation. On the other hand, which are used for electrocommunication by weakly-electric fish, are less sensitive and tuned to much higher frequencies. Tuberous organs, the type of receptive organ used for electrocommunication, can be divided into two types, depending on the way information is encoded: time coders and amplitude coders.

There are multiple forms of tuberous organs in each time and amplitude coders, all weakly-electric fish species possess at least one form of the two coders. Time coder fires phase-locked action potential at a fixed delay time after each outside transient is formed. Therefore, time coders neglect information about waveform and amplitude but focus on frequency of the signal and fire action potentials on a 1:1 basis to

Stanley & Iris

Stanley & Iris is a 1990 American romantic drama film directed by Martin Ritt and starring Jane Fonda and Robert De Niro. The screenplay by Harriet Frank, Jr. and Irving Ravetch is loosely based on the novel Union Street by Pat Barker. The original music score is composed by John Williams and the cinematography is by Donald McAlpine; the film was marketed with the tagline "Some people need love spelled out for them." It was the final film for Ritt and Ravetch, as Ritt died ten months after the film's release, while Ravetch and Frank died in 2010 and 2020. It was the last film Fonda would appear in until 2005's Monster-in-Law. Iris King, a widow still grieving 8 months after the loss of her husband, works in a baking factory in Connecticut and lives in a high-crime area, she lives from paycheck to paycheck as she raises her two children and Richard. Staying with her are her sister Sharon and Sharon's abusive husband Joe, both unemployed. With money tight for the family, Kelly discovers she is pregnant, which makes matters worse.

Iris makes the acquaintance of Stanley Cox, a cook in the bakery's lunchroom cafeteria, when he comes to her aid after her purse is snatched on a bus. But as their friendship develops, she begins noticing peculiarities about Stanley − he doesn't own a car, he lives with and supports his elderly father, becomes frustrated when asked to sign his name, doesn't believe in opening Chinese fortune cookies, cannot pick out a specific item from a shelf. Iris soon realizes that Stanley is illiterate, when she innocently mentions this to Stanley's boss, Stanley is fired the next day over food safety and legal concerns, despite being a good cook and model employee. Afterwards, Stanley is unable to obtain any steady work, forcing him to move into a garage and put his father in a shabby retirement home, his father dies in the home only a few weeks upsetting Stanley over the fact that his illiteracy prevented him from caring for his father properly. Stanley seeks Iris out and asks her to teach him to read, explaining that his traveling-salesman father moved him all over the country when Stanley was a boy, bouncing him to nearly 50 different schools in total, resulting in Stanley developing no reading or writing skills from this lack of educational stability.

Iris begins giving Stanley basic reading lessons and he grows close to her and her family. It is during one of these reading exercises that he tells her that he has wanted to be intimate with her since they first met, but Iris is hesitant. Iris tests Stanley's developing reading skills by making him a map and having him meet her at a certain street corner in 15 minutes, but Stanley gets hopelessly lost. Hours he reaches the corner where a frantic Iris is still waiting. Frustrated, Stanley marches off alone without saying his interest in learning to read gone. Iris visits him at his garage home to try to persuade him to continue learning to read. Looking around, she sees a large mechanical project that Stanley is working on, as he invents things as a hobby, he has designed a cake-cooling machine. Iris is immensely impressed and Stanley reveals that a local company has shown interest in his invention and offered him a job. Stanley agrees to start reading again with Iris, in time learns to write short sentences.

Stanley surprises Iris by cooking a big dinner for her and her family, the two of them begin to grow close again. After Kelly has her baby, Iris is displeased when she drops out of school to work at the bakery, as she doesn't want her daughter wasting her life in the kind of dead-end job she herself is in. Stanley and Iris decide to make love, but Iris is still clinging to her late husband's memory; this threatens their budding relationship further and they don't see each other for some time. Not prepared to give up on Iris the way she didn't give up on him, Stanley goes to see her. Iris hands him an unmailed letter she wrote to him, Stanley surprises her by reading it aloud nearly perfectly. Iris, now ready to start letting go of the past, accompanies Stanley to a fancy hotel where they order room service and spend the night together. Stanley soon moves to Detroit for a new, well-paying job he has been offered, his inventing ability having paid off. Several months back in Connecticut, Iris is walking home carrying groceries when an expensive car pulls up next to her and she is surprised to find Stanley behind the wheel.

Stanley tells her that he's been given a raise and is looking to buy a large six-bedroom house in Detroit − and that he wants her to move there with him as his wife. Iris accepts. In 2017 Varèse Sarabande issued an expanded edition with John Williams' score for Martin Ritt's 1972 film Pete'n' Tillie; the film was shot on location in Toronto and Waterbury, Connecticut. During the filming in Waterbury, local Vietnam War veterans picketed the production protesting Jane Fonda's anti-war activities of a decade and a half earlier. Fonda and De Niro were each paid $3.5 million for their performances. Ritt received $1.65 million and the Ravetches $500,000. Stanley & Iris received negative reviews from critics, as the film holds a 33% rating on Rotten Tomatoes from 15 reviews, it was a commercial failure at the box office, grossing less than $6 million against its $23 million budget. Stanley and Iris on IMDb Stanley and Iris at AllMovie Stanley and Iris at Rotten Tomatoes Stanley and Iris at Box Office Mojo