The Gap, Inc. known as Gap Inc. or Gap, is an American worldwide clothing and accessories retailer. Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris F. Fisher and is headquartered in San Francisco, California; the company operates six primary divisions: Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Hill City, Athleta. Gap Inc. is the largest specialty retailer in the United States, is 3rd in total international locations, behind Inditex Group and H&M. As of September 2008, the company has 135,000 employees and operates 3,727 stores worldwide, of which 2,406 are located in the U. S; the Fisher family remains involved in the company, collectively owning much of its stock. Donald Fisher served as Chairman of the Board until 2004, playing a role in the ouster of then-CEO Millard Drexler in 2002, remained on the board until his death on September 27, 2009. Fisher's wife and their son, Robert J. Fisher serve on Gap's board of directors. Robert succeeded his father as chairman in 2004 and served as CEO on an interim basis following the resignation of Paul Pressler in 2007, before being succeeded by Glenn K. Murphy up until 2014.
On February 1, 2015, Art Peck took over as CEO of Gap Inc. In 1959, Don Fisher, a California commercial real estate broker specializing in retail store location, was a social friend of Walter "Wally" Haas Jr, President of Levi Strauss & Co. Fisher was inspired by the sudden success of'The Tower of Shoes' in an old Quonset Hut in a non-retail industrial area of Sacramento, California; that drew crowds by advertising that no matter what brand, style or size of shoes a woman could want it was at The Tower of Shoes. And knowing that Macy's, the biggest Levi's customer, was running out of the best selling Levi's sizes, colors, Fisher asked Haas to let him copy The Tower of Shoes' business model and apply it to Levi's products. Haas referred Fisher to Bud Robinson, his Director of Advertising, for what Haas assumed would be a quick refusal. Fisher agreed to stock only Levi's apparel in every style and size, all grouped by size, Levi's guaranteed The Gap to be never out of stock by overnight replenishment from Levi's San Jose, California warehouse.
And Robinson offered to pay 50% of The Gap's radio advertising upfront and avoided antitrust laws by offering the same marketing package to any store that agreed to sell nothing but Levi's products. Fisher opened the first Gap store on Ocean Avenue in San Francisco on August 21, 1969. In 1970, Gap opened its second store in San Jose. In 1971, Gap established its corporate headquarters in California with four employees. By 1973, the company had over 25 locations and had expanded into the East Coast market with a store in the Echelon Mall in Voorhees, New Jersey. In 1974, Gap began to sell private-label merchandise. In the 1990s, Gap assumed an upscale identity and revamped its inventory under the direction of Millard Drexler. However, Drexler was removed from his position after 19 years of service in 2002 after over-expansion, a 29-month slump in sales, tensions with the Fisher family. Drexler refused to sign a non-compete agreement and became CEO of J. Crew. One month after his departure, merchandise that he had ordered was responsible for a strong rebound in sales.
Robert J. Fisher recruited Paul Pressler as the new CEO. However, his focus groups failed to recover the company's leadership in its market. In 2007, Gap announced that it would "focus efforts on recruiting a chief executive officer who has deep retailing and merchandising experience ideally in apparel, understands the creative process and can execute strategies in large, complex environments while maintaining strong financial discipline"; that January, Pressler resigned after two disappointing holiday sales seasons and was succeeded by Robert J. Fisher on an interim basis, he began working with the company in 1980 and joined the board in 1990, would assume several senior executive positions, including president of Banana Republic and the Gap units. The board's search committee was led by Adrian Bellamy, chairman of The Body Shop International and included founder Donald Fisher. On February 2, Marka Hansen, the former head of the Banana Republic division, replaced Cynthia Harriss as the leader of the Gap division.
The executive president for marketing and merchandising Jack Calhoun became interim president of Banana Republic. In May, Old Navy laid off 300 managers in lower volume locations to help streamline costs; that July, Glenn Murphy CEO of Shoppers Drug Mart in Canada, was announced as the new CEO of Gap, Inc. New lead designers were brought on board to help define a fashionable image, including Patrick Robinson for Gap Adult, Simon Kneen for Banana Republic, Todd Oldham for Old Navy. Robinson was hired as chief designer in 2007, but was dismissed in May 2011 after sales failed to increase. However, he enjoyed commercial success in international markets. In 2007, Ethisphere Magazine chose Gap from among thousands of companies evaluated as one of 100 "World's Most Ethical Companies."In October 2011, Gap Inc. announced plans to close 189 US stores, nearly 21 percent, by the end of 2013. The company announced it would open its first stores in Brazil in the Fall of 2013. In January 2015, Gap Inc announced plans to close their subsidiary Piperlime in order to focus on their core brands.
The first and only Pip
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation
The Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation is a non-profit membership organization that seeks to document and preserve the architectural heritage and cultural history of several downtown New York City neighborhoods: Greenwich Village, the Far West Village, the Meatpacking District, the South Village, NoHo, the East Village. In these historic neighborhoods, GVSHP seeks both to protect historic resources and to monitor new development via an array of advocacy and outreach efforts, involvement in governmental process and public discourse, educational programs for adults and children, its work toward securing historic district and landmarks protections, saving significant buildings from demolition, securing contextual zoning for sections of neighborhoods, right-sizing plans for new construction has earned wide praise from preservation leaders. GVSHP has helped secure designation of ten new historic districts or district extensions, landmark status for dozens of buildings, four contextual rezonings.
GVSHP has received numerous distinctions in preservation and real estate circles, such as the Preservation League of New York State's "Excellence in Historic Preservation Award" for organizational excellence, Executive Director Andrew Berman's inclusion in The New York Observer's "The 100 Most Powerful People in New York Real Estate." GVSHP was founded in 1980 as the Greenwich Village Trust for Historic Preservation. In 1982, Regina Kellerman, a prominent architectural historian and co-founder of GVT, was named as its first executive director, GVT moved its operations to the Salmagundi Club at 47 Fifth Avenue. In 1984, GVT changed its name to the current one, Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. Throughout the 1980s, GVSHP initiated research on the history and architecture of Greenwich Village, including subjects like the Gansevoort Meat Market, Bleecker Street and maritime history of the Greenwich Village waterfront. In 1991, GVSHP launched its first educational program, “Greenwich Village: History and Historic Preservation,” as a joint effort with the Merchant's House Museum, and, in 1995, designed and published a 12-page children’s workbook, “Discovering Greenwich Village,” for distribution to children in the school program.
The education program has since been expanded to include field-trip style walking tours of Greenwich Village, encouraging students to examine the architectural form of Greenwich Village as a manifestation of its social history and context. In the mid-1990s, GVSHP initiated an oral history project to document the experiences of Village preservationists of the twentieth century, many of whom were involved in defeating Robert Moses's Lower Manhattan Expressway; the participants in the oral history project include famous Village residents such as Jane Jacobs, Edwin Fancher, Doris Diether. Since 1999, GVSHP has operated from the Neighborhood Preservation Center, the former rectory of St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, on East 11th Street, increased its focus on the East Village since moving its office to that neighborhood. Major ongoing efforts include advocacy around the proposed transfer of development rights in Greenwich Village along the Hudson River Park; the group testifies before the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, monitors applications for alterations to protected buildings.
GVSHP has taken the lead in advocating for designation of the South Village as a historic district. The first section of this historic district was designated in 2010, a second in 2013, but the group continues to press for a third section to be landmarked. In the West Village, the group celebrates the singular role the area has played in the LGBT civil rights movement, has advocated for several official recognitions of this history; as the Real Estate Board of New York has faulted preservation protections for New York City’s housing affordability crisis, GVSHP has rebutted those claims. GVSHP responds to development and preservation issues as they arise, but hosts a full yearly calendar of community and commemorative programs; each month, the group offers several free programs, including lectures, walking tours, panel discussions, house tours, more. The organization's primary annual fundraiser is the Village House Tour, held on the first Sunday each May, its major members’ event is the Village Awards and Annual Meeting in June, at which important local citizens and civic groups are recognized for their work benefiting the community.
In 2014, the organization produced a book of stories and artworks entitled “Greenwich Village Stories,” published by Rizzoli. This collection of art and text by contributors including Nat Hentoff, Lou Reed, Hettie Jones, Saul Leiter and Jane Freilicher is sold through mainstream booksellers as a partial fundraiser for GVSHP. In partnership with a local business, the group places two historic plaques per year on sites of cultural or historic importance, such as the former location of the San Remo Café in July 2013 and the former home of poet Frank O’Hara in June 2014. GVSHP runs a children’s program through local schools, employing trained educators to teach students how history can be understood through the built environment, using Greenwich Village as a living museum. A continuing education program for real estate professionals includes lectures, slide shows and walking tours on aspects of architecture and planning history. Another ongoing project that promotes an understanding of the Village’s historic importance is the Greenwich Village Preservation Archive and
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, short-story writer, noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, he published seven novels, six short-story collections, two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was wounded and returned home, his wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson.
The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, he based For Whom the Bell Tolls on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, he was present at the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West and Cuba. In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.
Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a conservative community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to." For a short period after their marriage and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, their first son's namesake. Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest"; the family moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingway's mother performed in concerts around the village; as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm, her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.
The family spent summers at Windemere near Petoskey, Michigan. Hemingway's father taught him to hunt and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan as a young boy; these early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure and living in remote or isolated areas. From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended River Forest High School, he took part in a number of sports such as boxing and field, water polo, football. He excelled in English classes, with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two years. During his junior year he had a journalism class, structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office," with better writers submitting pieces to the school newspaper, The Trapeze. Hemingway and Marcelline both submitted pieces, he edited the Trapeze and the Tabula, imitating the language of sportswriters, taking the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type."Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist.
After leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative." Early in 1918, after applying to serve with, being turned down by, the US Army and Marines because of poor eyesight, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy. He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June, he was at the Italian Front, it was around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers, he described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite for the complete dead we collected fragments."
A few days he was stationed a
Dead end (street)
A dead end known as a cul-de-sac, no through road or no exit road, is a street with only one inlet or outlet. The term "dead end" is understood in all varieties of English, but the official terminology and traffic signs include many different alternatives; some of these are used only regionally. In the United States and other countries, cul-de-sac is not an exact synonym for dead end and refers to dead ends with a circular end, allowing for easy turning at the end of the road. In Australia, they are referred to as a court when they have a bulbous end. Dead ends are created in urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential areas. While some dead ends provide no possible passage except in and out of their road entry, others allow cyclists, pedestrians or other non-automotive traffic to pass through connecting easements or paths, an example of filtered permeability; the International Federation of Pedestrians proposed to call such streets "living end streets" and to provide signage at the entry of the streets that make this permeability for pedestrians and cyclists clear.
Its application retains the dead end's primary function as a non-through road, but establishes complete pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity. The earliest examples of dead ends were unearthed in the El-Lahun workers' village in Egypt, built circa 1885 BC; the village is laid out with straight streets. The western part of the excavated village, where the workers lived, shows fifteen narrow and short dead-ends laid out perpendicularly on either side of a wider, straight street. Dead-end streets appeared during the classical period of Athens and Rome; the 15th century architect and planner Leon Battista Alberti implies in his writings that dead-end streets may have been used intentionally in antiquity for defense purposes. He writes: "The Ancients in All Towns were for having some intricate Ways and turn again Streets, without any Passage through them, that if an Enemy comes into them, he may be at a Loss, be in Confusion and Suspense; the same opinion is expressed by an earlier thinker, when he criticized the Hippodamian grid: "...but for security in war the opposite, as it used to be in ancient times.
For, difficult for foreign troops to enter and find their way about when attacking". In the UK, their prior existence is implied by an 1875 law which banned their use in new developments. Inferential evidence of their earlier use can be drawn from the text of a German architect, Rudolf Eberstadt, that explains their purpose and utility: We have, in our medieval towns, showing commendable methods of cutting up the land. I ought to mention here that to keep traffic out of residential streets is necessary not only in the general interest of the population, above all, for the sake of the children, whose health is dependent on the opportunity of moving about in close connection with their dwelling places, without the danger of being run over. In the earlier periods, traffic was excluded from residential streets by gates or by employing the cul-de-sac, it was in the United Kingdom that the cul-de-sac street type was first legislated into use, with The Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906. The proponents of the Act, Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker, thus gained permission to introduce culs-de-sac in their subsequent site plans, they promoted it as a suitable street type for Garden Suburbs.
Unwin's applications of the cul-de-sac and the related crescent always included pedestrian paths independent of the road network. This design feature reflects the predominance of pedestrian movement for local trips at the turn of the 20th century, presages the current planning priority for increased pedestrian accessibility; the 1906 Act defined the nature of the cul-de-sac as a non-through road and restricted its length to 500 feet. Garden cities in the UK that followed Hampstead, such as Welwyn Garden City, all included culs-de-sac. In the 1920s, the garden city movement gained ground in the United States and, with it, came its design elements, such as the cul-de-sac. Clarence Stein, a main proponent of the movement, incorporated it in the Radburn, New Jersey, to become a model for subsequent neighbourhood developments; the country's Federal Housing Authority recommended and promoted their use through their 1936 guidelines and the power of lending development funds. In Canada, a variation of Stein's Radburn 1929 plan that used crescents instead of culs-de-sac was built in 1947: Wildwood Park, designed by Hubert Bird.
In 1954, the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation published its own guidelines in which the cul-de-sac was recommended for local streets and, as the FHA in the US, used its lending power to see its inclusion in development plans. The Varsity Village and Braeside, subdivisions in Calgary, Alberta used the Radburn model in the late 1960s. In the 1960s the cul-de-sac attained systematic international application in planned new cities such as Doxiadis’ Islamabad. In the UK, new towns such as Harlow by Sir Frederick Gibberd and Milton Keynes incorporated culs-de-sac and crescents in their layouts. Planning theorists have suggested the use alternatives to culs-de-sac. Most notably, Christopher Alexander et al. in his "A Pattern Language" 1977 book suggests the use of looped local roads which do not abruptly stop. Although dead end streets, would fit his definition of looped local roads Alexande
Paul Jackson Pollock was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was noticed for his technique of pouring or splashing liquid household paint on to a horizontal surface, enabling him to view and paint his canvases from all angles, it was called ‘action painting’, since he used the force of his whole body to paint in a frenetic dancing style. This extreme form of abstraction divided the critics: some praised the immediacy and fluency of the creation, while others derided the random effects. In 2016, Pollock's painting titled Number 17A was reported to have fetched US$200 million in a private purchase. A reclusive and volatile personality, Pollock struggled with alcoholism for most of his life. In 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner, who became an important influence on his career and on his legacy. Pollock died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related single-car accident. In December 1956, four months after his death, Pollock was given a memorial retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
A larger, more comprehensive exhibition of his work was held there in 1967. In 1998 and 1999, his work was honored with large-scale retrospective exhibitions at MoMA and at The Tate in London. Paul Jackson Pollock was born in Wyoming, in 1912, the youngest of five sons, his parents, Stella May and LeRoy Pollock, were born and grew up in Tingley and were educated at Tingley High School. Pollock's mother is interred at Ringgold County, Iowa, his father had been born with the surname McCoy, but took the surname of his adoptive parents, neighbors who adopted him after his own parents had died within a year of each other. Stella and LeRoy Pollock were Presbyterian. LeRoy Pollock was a farmer and a land surveyor for the government, moving for different jobs. Stella, proud of her family's heritage as weavers and sold dresses as a teenager. In November 1912, Stella took her sons to San Diego, he subsequently grew up in Chico, California. While living in Echo Park, California, he enrolled at Los Angeles' Manual Arts High School, from which he was expelled.
He had been expelled in 1928 from another high school. During his early life, Pollock explored Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father. In 1930, following his older brother Charles Pollock, he moved to New York City, where they both studied under Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League. Benton's rural American subject matter had little influence on Pollock's work, but his rhythmic use of paint and his fierce independence were more lasting. In the early 1930s, Pollock spent a summer touring the Western United States together with Glen Rounds, a fellow art student, Benton, their teacher. Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros, he used paint pouring as one of several techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female and Composition with Pouring I. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor and he developed what was called his "drip" technique.
From 1938 to 1942 Pollock worked for the WPA Federal Art Project. During this time Pollock was trying to deal with his established alcoholism, from 1938 through 1941 Pollock underwent Jungian psychotherapy with Dr. Joseph Henderson and with Dr. Violet Staub de Laszlo in 1941–42. Henderson engaged him through his art. Jungian concepts and archetypes were expressed in his paintings; some historians have hypothesized. Pollock signed a gallery contract with Peggy Guggenheim in July 1943, he received the commission to create the 8-by-20-foot Mural for the entry to her new townhouse. At the suggestion of her friend and advisor Marcel Duchamp, Pollock painted the work on canvas, rather than the wall, so that it would be portable. After seeing the big mural, the art critic Clement Greenberg wrote: "I took one look at it and I thought,'Now that's great art,' and I knew Jackson was the greatest painter this country had produced." The catalog introducing his first exhibition described. It has fire, it is unpredictable.
It is undisciplined. It spills out of itself in a mineral prodigality, not yet crystallized." Pollock's most famous paintings were made during the "drip period" between 1947 and 1950. He rocketed to fame following an August 8, 1949 four-page spread in Life magazine that asked, "Is he the greatest living painter in the United States?" At the peak of his fame, Pollock abruptly abandoned the drip style. Pollock's work after 1951 was darker in color, including a collection painted in black on unprimed canvases; these paintings have been referred to as his'Black pourings' and when he exhibited them at the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, none of them sold. Parsons sold one to a friend at half the price; the departure from his earlier style wasn't what. These works show Pollock attempting to find a balance between abstraction and depictions of the figure, he returned to using color and continued with figurative elements. During this period, Pollock had moved to a more commercial gallery. In response to this pressure, along with personal frustration, his alcoholism deepened.
The two artists met while they both exhibited at the McMillen Gallery in 1942. Krasner was unfamiliar, yet intrigue