House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines, is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. It is often informally called Congress, Members of the House are officially styled as Representative and sometimes informally called Congressmen/Congresswomen and are elected to a three-year term. They can be re-elected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms, around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 234 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people, there are party-list representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives. The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker, currently Pantaleon Alvarez of Davao del Norte, the official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa located in the Batasan Hills in Quezon City in Metro Manila. The building is simply called Batasan and the word has become a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives.
At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16,1900, william Howard Taft was chosen to be the first American civilian Governor-General and the first leader of this Philippine Commission, which subsequently became known as the Taft Commission. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907, under the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. It is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, in 1916, the Jones Act, officially the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new fully elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives, the legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly, but in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted.
The Liberal bloc of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks and these two will contest all of the elections in what appeared to be a two-party system. This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, the 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. Corazon Aquino who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino, with the victory of Fidel V. This meant the restoration of Lakas-NUCD as the top party in the chamber, the same would happen when Benigno Aquino won in 2010, which returned the Liberals into power. The presiding officer is the Speaker, the members of the House of Representatives who are its officers are ex officio members of all of the committees and has a vote. The Speaker is the head of the House of Representatives, the speaker is elected by majority of all the members of the house, including vacant seats. The speaker is elected at the convening of each Congress
Pampanga or Pampaŋga is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Angeles City, while geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city and is governed independently of the province. The name La Pampanga was given by the Spaniards, who encountered natives living along the banks of the Pampanga River and its creation in 1571 makes it the first Spanish province on Luzon Island. The town of Villa de Bacolor in the province served as the Spanish colonial capital when Great Britain invaded Manila as part of the Seven Years War. Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport, which is in Clark Freeport Zone, the province is home to two Philippine Air Force airbases, Basa Air Base in Floridablanca and the former United States Clark Air Base in Angeles City. By 2015, the province has 2,198,110 inhabitants, ancient Pampangas territorial area included portions of the modern provinces of Tarlac, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan.
Pampanga was re-organized as a province by the Spaniards on December 11,1571, due to excessive abuses committed by some encomenderos, King Philip II of Spain in 1574 prohibited the further awarding of private estates, but this decree was not fully enforced until 1620. The encomiendas of La Pampanga at that time had eighteen thousand six hundred, which is about 850 square miles in area and inhabited by more than 1.5 million people, had its present borders drawn in 1873. During the Spanish regime it was one of the richest Philippine provinces and its surrounding region were primarily dependent on Kapampangan agricultural and forestry products as well as on the supply of skilled workers. As other Luzon provinces were created due to increases in population, during the 17th century, The Dutch recruited men from Pampanga as mercenaries who served the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, known as Papangers part of the larger Mardijkers community. Their legacy can be found in North Jakarta, there are few traces of their descendants, except for a small community in Kampung Tugu.
The old Pampanga towns of Aliaga, Gapan, San Antonio, the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo of Pampanga was yielded to the province of Bulacan in the same provincial boundary configuration in 1848. However, in 1873, the four towns were returned to Pampanga. On December 8,1941, Japanese planes bombed Clark Air Base marking the beginning of the invasion of Pampanga, between 1941 and 1942, occupying Japanese forces began entering Pampanga. The establishment of the general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from 1935 to 1946. The Philippine Constabulary was active from 1935 to 1942 and 1944 to 1946 in the province of Pampanga. S. military forces fight the Imperial Japanese armed forces. The June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo displaced a number of people with the submersion of whole towns. Pampanga covers a area of 2,002.20 square kilometres occupying the south-central section of the Central Luzon region
This page is about the military unit. For the article on the movement, please see Boy Scouts of the Philippines. The Philippine Scouts was an organization of the United States Army from 1901 until the end of World War II. Philippine Scout units were given a suffix of, to them from other U. S. Army units. The first Scout companies were organized by the US in 1901 to combat the Philippine revolutionary forces led at that time by General Emilio Aguinaldo and support formations were organized as engineer, medical and military police units. The infantry and field regiments were grouped together with the U. S. 31st Infantry Regiment to form the U. S. Army’s Philippine Division, at this point, the Scouts became the U. S. Army’s front line troops in the Pacific. The Philippine Department assigned the Scouts to subdue the Moro tribes on the island of Mindanao, in the 1930s, Philippine Scouts, along with the 31st Infantry Regiment, saw action at Jolo, Palawan. Philippine Scout regiments became some of the first United States Army units to be in combat during World War II, even after that some individual soldiers and units refused to surrender and become beginning elements of the resistance to the Japanese occupation.
Later paroled POWs would join the resistance, when the Philippine Revolution erupted in 1896, a Spanish Colonel named Eugenio Blanco who had large estates near the town of Macabebe in Pampanga organized a regiment from among his clients. The Macabebes sided with the Spaniards even while the rest of Pampanga threw its support for the quest for independence, Macabebes protected the retreating Spaniards, rescuing friars and the families of the Spanish Army. At the conclusion of the Spanish–American War 270 men of this 72nd Macabebe Regiment found themselves stranded in Manila, many shipped out to join a Spanish garrison in the Caroline Islands, and the remainder slipped back into Macabebe after it was occupied by the Americans. The Macabebes proved themselves reliable over the two months, and Batson formed five companies of 128 men each, all veterans of service in the Spanish Army. In retaliation, Gen. Antonio Lunas troops burned the town of Macabebe, batsons Macabebe companies saw combat against Aguinaldos forces beginning in October 1899, after which they were reorganized into the Philippine Cavalry Squadron and enlisted as irregulars.
The Macabebes won lasting notability in the operation under General Frederick Funston to capture General Aguinaldo, in 1901, on the Armys recommendation, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt authorized the formation of a unified native Scouts organization. The Army activated this Native Scouts force in October 1901 by integrating 50 local companies into a force of 5,000 men. Over the next ten years, the Scouts won accolades from their American commanders which contributed to their survival as a unit, MacArthur took command of all military forces in the Philippines except the U. S. Navy’s Asiatic Fleet. The Philippine Division, Philippine Department and all other Philippine Scout units were included in USAFFE, at the time of USAFFEs formation, the unit consisted of 22,532 troops, of which 11,972 were Philippine Scouts
The Kapampangan people, known as Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the seventh largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2.89 million. They live mainly in the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac, as well as Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, as a result, Kapampangans now populate a region that extends beyond the political boundaries of the small province of Pampanga. In Bataan, Kapampangans populate the municipalities of Dinalupihan and Hermosa, Kapampangans can be found scattered all across the southern barrios of Cabiao in the province of Nueva Ecija and in the western section of the province of Bulacan. Kapampangan enclaves still exist in Tondo and other parts of the National Capital Region, Kapampangans have migrated to Mindoro and Mindanao and have formed strong Kapampangan organizations called aguman in Davao City and General Santos City. Agumans based in the United States and Canada are active in the revival of the Kapampangan language, california-based organizations promoted Kapampangan language and culture and raised funds for charitable and cultural projects in California and in Pampanga.
The oldest artifact found in the Province of Pampanga is a 5000-year-old stone adze found in Candaba. It is said to be a used in building boats. Earthenware and tradeware dating back to 1500 BC have found in Candaba. Farming and fishing were the industries of the Kapampangan people. Kapampangans have played a dynamic yet conflicting role in Philippine history and it was the Kapampangans of Macabebe who were the first to defend the Luzon Empire from Spanish domination in 1571. Yet it was the Kapampangans that the Spaniards relied on to defend their new colony from the Dutch and it was at this time that one Castillan plus three Kapampangans were considered as four Castillans as long they gallantly served in the colonial armed forces. Such behaviour earned them the stereotype of being quislings in exchange for personal wealth, in 1896, Kapampangans were one of the principal ethnic groups to push and fuel the Philippine revolution against Spain. Yet it was the Kapampangans of Macabebe that fiercely defended the last Spanish garrison against the revolutionaries.
With the outbreak of World War II, Japanese planes invaded the province of Pampanga and attacked the United States Air Base at Clark Field in Angeles. Later Japanese soldiers entered the province of Pampanga on 1942 and the Japanese Occupation formally began, many Kapampangans joined a group of stronghold soldiers that survived the invasion and officially trained under the 31st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army. USAFFE was stationed in Pampanga on July 26,1941 before the Japanese Occupation to June 30,1946, after the Battle of Bataan in 1942, some Kapampangan soldiers of the USAFFE 31st Infantry Division fought four years of battles against Japanese troops. Many Kapampangans joined the resistance fighters of the Hukbalahap Communist resistance. Many Kapampangan festivals display an indigenous flavor unique only to the Kapampangan people and they start the battle in Ugtung-aldo or afternoon and they end it in Sisilim or sunset with the tune of what Macabebeanons and Masantuleñios called BATTALA Masantol and Lubao
He was captured in Palanan, Isabela by American forces on March 23,1901, which brought an end to his presidency. In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon, after the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was freed in a general amnesty. He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasnt able to finish his studies due to outbreak of cholera in 1882, Emilio became the Cabeza de Barangay of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite el Viejo, when he was only 17 years old to avoid conscription. In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted, at the age of 25 years old, Aguinaldo became Cavite Viejos first gobernadorcillo capitan municipal while on a business trip in Mindoro. On January 1,1896, he married Hilaria del Rosario and they had five children, Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio, Emilio Jun R.
Aguinaldo Jr. Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo-Suntay and Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on March 6,1921 at the age of 44, nine years later, on July 14,1930, Aguinaldo married Maria Agoncillo at Barasoain Church. She died on May 29,1963, a year before Aguinaldo himself, Aguinaldo served three-terms as mayor and vice-mayor of his home town Kawit Cavite. Great-Grandson Emilio Orange M. Aguinaldo IV married news reported abs-cbn Bernadette Sembrano in 2007, on January 1,1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Cavite by the codename Colon, Aguinaldo joined the organization and used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene. The local chapter of Katipunan in Cavite was established and named Sangguniang Magdalo, the Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte. However and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive alleging lack of arms, in August 1896, as coordinated attacks broke out and sparked the revolution beginning in Manila.
Emilio Aguinaldo marched from Kawit with 600 men and launched a series of skirmishes at Imus which eventually ended in open hostilities against Spanish troops stationed there. On September 1, with the aid of Captain Jose Tagle of Imus, a Spanish relief column commanded by Brig. General Ernesto de Aguirre had been dispatched from Manila to aid the beleaguered Spanish defenders of Imus, supported only by a hundred troops and by a cavalry, Aguirre gave the impression that he had been sent out to suppress a minor disturbance. Aguinaldo and his men counter-attacked but suffered losses and almost cost his own life. Despite the success, Aguirre did not press the attack and felt the inadequacy of his troops, during the lull in the fighting, Aguinaldos troops reorganized and prepared for another Spanish attack. On September 3, Aguirre came back with a larger force of 3,000 men
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo is an international Christian church that originated in the Philippines. It was registered in 1914 by Felix Y, who became its first Executive Minister. The Iglesia Ni Cristo claims to be the one church and the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus. INC doctrine cites that the registration of the Church with the Government of the Philippine Islands on July 27,1914. By the time of Manalos death in 1963, the Iglesia ni Cristo had become a church with 1,250 local chapels and 35 large concrete cathedrals. In 2010, the Philippine census by the National Statistics Office found that 2, born on May 10,1886, in Taguig, was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church. In his teenage years, Manalo became dissatisfied with Roman Catholic theology, in 1904, he joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, entered the Methodist seminary, and became a pastor for a while. He sought through various denominations, including the Presbyterian Church, Christian Mission, Manalo left Adventistism in 1913 and associated himself with atheist and agnostic peers.
On November 1913, Manalo secluded himself with literature and unused notebooks in a friends house in Pasay. He emerged from seclusion three days with his new-found doctrines, together with his wife, went to Punta, Santa Ana, Manila, in November 1913 and started preaching. He left the congregation in the care of his first ordained minister and returned to his native Taguig to evangelise, there and he was able to baptize a few converts, including some of his persecutors. He registered his new-found religion as the Iglesia ni Cristo on July 27,1914, at the Bureau of Commerce as a corporation sole, expansion followed as INC started building congregations in the provinces in 1916, with Pasig having two locals established. The first three ministers were ordained in 1919, by 1924, INC had about 3,000 to 5,000 adherents in 43 or 45 congregations in Manila and six nearby provinces. By 1936, INC had 85,000 members and this figure grew to 200,000 by 1954. A Cebu congregation was built in 1937—the first to be established outside of Luzon, the first mission to Mindanao was commissioned in 1946.
Meanwhile, its first concrete chapel was built in Sampaloc, adherents fleeing for the provinces away from Manila, where the Japanese forces were concentrated during World War II, were used for evangelization. As Manalos health began to fail in the 1950s, his son Eraño began taking leadership of the church, Felix Manalo died on April 12,1963. Within the span of 49 years of his administration, the Iglesia ni Cristo had 1,250 local chapels and 35 large concrete cathedrals and he was a recognized and highly respected religious leader of the Philippines
Philippine Statistics Authority
The Philippine Statistics Authority was created on September 12,2013 when the Philippine Statistical Act of 2013 was signed by President Benigno S. Aquino III. It collects, compiles and publishes information on economic, demographic, political affairs. Likewise, it enforces the civil functions in the Philippines. The organization assumed its responsibilities when Commonwealth Act No.591 was approved on August 19,1940 and it was known as the Bureau of the Census and Statistics. It became the National Census and Statistics Office in 1974 until was renamed to be the National Statistics Office, the emergence of the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics was spurred by government efforts to improve the agricultural data base in the country. In the past, the data system suffered from significant gaps, some duplications. The BAS has assumed most of the functions of its predecessor and this law designates BAS as the central information source and server of the National Information Network of the Department of Agriculture.
Census in the Philippines Demographics of the Philippines Official website, old URL Philippine Statistics Act of 2013 Implementing rules and regulations of the Philippine Statistics Act of 2013
Members Church of God International
Members Church of God International, abbreviated as MCGI, is an international Christian religious organization with headquarters in the Philippines. It started as a group with less than a hundred believers in 1977. In 2004, its name was changed to Members Church of God International in line with the churchs overseas expansion. Currently, MCGI is present in six inhabited continents of the world more than 1,360 established local congregations. They believe that the Father is greater than all, greater than Jesus Christ as declared by Christ himself and they do not observe customs and traditions which they consider to have pagan origins incompatible with Christianity. MCGI members prefer themselves to be called and identified as plain Christians, MCGI is not related to the many Church of God groups that descended from the Barney Creek Meeting House revival of the late 19th century in the United States. Since the year the church was established, church workers were being sent to the provinces around Manila.
Brother Nicolas Antiporda Perez, lead the church from 1928 until the time of his death in May 1975, after Perezs death in 1975, Levita Gugulan, the secretary-general of the church, succeeded as presiding minister, Soriano countered the authority of Gugulan. In 1980, missionary works started and was first done in the towns of Pampanga and then, the provinces of Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan. In the last quarter of 1980, the church launched the radio program Ang Dating Daan, through the local radio station DWWA1206 kHz, ADD was heard in many parts of the Philippine Archipelago. The program became popular in the Philippines because of its live question, in 1983, the program kicked off its national television appearance through IBC Channel 13. Ang Dating Daan as a program in radio made its stint in RJTV29, PTV4, SBN21, in 2004, the church changed its name to Members Church of God International. On January 7,2006, the first live Bible exposition in the United States was held in Los Angeles, in 2008, Bible Expositions were conducted in the continent of Oceania bringing forth the first congregation in Papua New Guinea.
In the same year, congregations were established in Ghana, West Africa as a result of a series of Bible studies in Africa, the early months of 2009 saw the Church introduced in Latin America. The organization is managed by the MCGI Central Administration under the MCGI Workers Ministry and it is composed of the Overall Servants, council of Helpers of the Ministry and Church Workers. Currently, Brother Eliseo Soriano is the Overall Servant to MCGI and his deputy, the Overall Servant prepares the outline of Biblical topics and preach sermons. A part of it will be delivered and discussed by his deputy, preaching of Biblical topic is done by the Overall Servants, either live or recorded, which is being aired in all MCGI local congregations. They personally take time to spiritual and personal problems of members every Thanksgiving gathering, during the consultation period
Pampanga River is the second largest river in the island of Luzon, next to Cagayan River and the third largest but most important river in the Philippines. It is the fourth longest river in the Philippines next to Agusan River and it is located in the Central Luzon region and traverses the provinces of Pampanga and Nueva Ecija. Its headwaters are located at the Sierra Madre and runs a south, the rivers basin covers an area of 10,540 km², including the allied basin of Guagua River. The basin is drained through the Pampanga River and via the Labangan Channel into the Manila Bay and its main tributaries are Peñaranda and the Coronel-Santor Rivers on the eastern side of the basin and the Rio Chico River from the northwest side. The Angat River joins the Pampanga River at Calumpit, Bulacan via the Bagbag River, mount Arayat stands in the middle of the basin. This area is submerged during the season but is relatively dry during summer. The basin experiences, on an average, at least one flooding in a year, the dry season generally occurs from December to May, and wet the rest of the year.
The wettest months are from July to September. The Pampanga River Basin could handle between 100-130mm of 24 Hour Rainfall. Extensive flooding occurred at the Pampanga River Basin in July 1962, May 1966, May 1976, October 1993, August 2003, August 2004, Late September–October 2009, and August 2012. In fact the 1972 flooding was so extensive that it flooded out 14 provinces in Ilocos, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog provinces and Metro Manila. The Pampanga River Basin and the Agno River Basin converged over Tarlac, making the Central Luzon and Pangasinan plains one whole great lake in the July and August 1972. At the higher sections of the basin, dams especially the Pantabangan Dam located in Pantabangan, with the anticipated completion of the Pampanga Delta Project, it is expected that flood flows at the lower section of the Pampanga River will recede at a much faster rate than before. Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration International River Network
Hagonoy is a first class urban municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 129,807 people and it is the birthplace of Former Senator Gat. Blas F. Hagonoy was first mentioned in the history of the Philippines in 1571, even before the blood compact between Spains Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the Philippines Sikatuna was made, the place was already known as Hagonoy. The land consists of marsh and river tributaries going to the sea. According to research and studies, there are Malay groups from Borneo, Sumatra and it is considered as the first wave of travelers who lived and resided on that part of the country long before Ferdinand Magellan’s discovery of the Philippines. The second blast came, with their families and clans migrating in the Visayas region, the rest of the families on the second wave continue to travel and reach the islands of Luzon, until they arrive at Manila Bay. Some of them stay on the side of the bay and built communities, while others went into the rivers.
They maybe the group passed by estuary of the Rio Grande de Pampanga, sargento Juan Moron once trusted his land to the Augustinian friars, and thats how it was handed to Fray Diego Vivar. Magat Salamat, a hero, once headed this town. He was the ancestor of the Salamat families now living in different barrios of this town, the town was named after the hagunoy, a medicinal plant that used to be abundant in its river banks and along the seashores. The original populace used its leaves as their herbal remedy of choice for common illnesses, because of the medicinal value of the plant, the news of its effectiveness spread leading the people to call the place Hagonoy. In the 15th century, some took a boat from Manila to the province of Bulacan. This is now the Barangays of Sta, at that time, a very charming lass was so popular among the young men of the locality. She had many suitors and admirers and she needed someone to get leaves of the hagonoy plant by the river(which is now called Sapang Pari---because the friars and priests used this river to commute.
A man offered to promptly get some leaves of the plant and in deep gratitude, as he was gathering the leaves of the hagonoy plant for his dearly beloved, the group of friars in a passing boat stopped to ask him, Quien vive. The man did not understand Spanish and was intimidated by the guardia civil that escorted the friars. Thinking that they were asking what he was grasping in his hands, he quickly retorted hagonoy po. and these were the first Augustinian friars that got into town and they noted the places name as Hagonoy. Hence, the origin of the towns name