Macau spelled Macao, the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a city and special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With a population of 667,400 and an area of 32.9 km2, it is the most densely populated region in the world. Macau was a colony of the Portuguese Empire, after Ming China leased the territory as a trading post in 1557. Between 1557 and 1887, Macau was governed by the Portuguese under Chinese authority and sovereignty with the Portuguese paying an annual land rent. In 1887, Portugal was given perpetual colonial rights for Macau which gave Portuguese sovereignty over Macau; the colony remained under Portuguese rule until 1999. As a special administrative region, Macau maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China. A sparsely populated collection of coastal islands, the territory has become a major resort city and the top destination for gambling tourism, it is the ninth-highest recipient of tourism revenue and its gambling industry is seven times larger than that of Las Vegas.

Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality. Its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity is one of the highest in the world and higher than any country in the world in 2014 according to the World Bank. Macau has a high Human Development Index; the government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau has the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world; the territory is urbanised and most development is built on reclaimed land. The first known written record of the name "Macau", rendered as "Ya/A Ma Gang", is found in a letter dated 20 November 1555; the local inhabitants believed that the sea-goddess Mazu had blessed and protected the harbour and called the waters around A-Ma Temple using her name. When Portuguese explorers first arrived in the area and asked for the place name, the locals thought they were asking about the temple and told them it was "Ma Kok"; the earliest Portuguese spelling for this was Amaquão. Multiple variations were used until Amacão / Amacao and Macão / Macao became common during the 17th century standardising as Macau / Macao today.

Macau Peninsula had many names in Chinese, including Jing'ao, Haojing'ao. The islands Taipa and Hengqin were collectively called Shizimen; these names would become Aomen, Oumún in Cantonese and translating as "bay gate" or "port gate", to refer to the whole territory. According to archaeological findings, there were human settlements within the regions around six thousand years ago. Macau formally became a part of China since Qin dynasty; the region is first known to have been settled during the Han dynasty. However, Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century; the first European visitor to reach China by sea was the explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Merchants first established a trading post in Hong Kong waters at Tamão, beginning regular trade with nearby settlements in southern China. Military clashes between the Ming and Portuguese navies followed the expulsion of the Tamão traders in 1521. Despite the trade ban, Portuguese merchants continued to attempt settling on other parts of the Pearl River estuary settling on Macau.

Luso-Chinese trade relations were formally reestablished in 1554 and Portugal soon after acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557, agreeing to pay 500 taels of silver as annual land rent. The small population of Portuguese merchants became a growing city; the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau was created in 1576, by 1583, the Senate had been established to handle municipal affairs for the growing settlement. Macau was at the peak of its prosperity as a major entrepôt during the late 16th century, providing a crucial connection in exporting Chinese silk to Japan during the Nanban trade period. Although the Portuguese were prohibited from fortifying Macau or stockpiling weapons, the Fortaleza do Monte was constructed in response to frequent Dutch naval incursions; the Dutch attempted to take the city in the 1622 Battle of Macau, but were repelled by the Portuguese. Macau entered a period of decline in the 1640s following a series of catastrophic events for the burgeoning colony: Portuguese access to trade routes was irreparably severed when Japan halted trade in 1639, Portugal revolted against Spain in 1640, Malacca fell to the Dutch in 1641.

Maritime trade with China was banned in 1644 following the Qing conquest under the Haijin policies and limited only to Macau on a lesser scale while the new dynasty focused on eliminating surviving Ming loyalists. While the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition in 1684, China again restricted trade under the Canton System in 1757. Foreign ships were required to first stop at Macau before further proceeding to Canton. Qing authorities exercised a much greater role in governing the territory during this period; as the opium trade became more lucrative during the eighteenth century, Macau again became an important stopping point en route to China. Following the First Opium War and establishment of Hong Kong, Macau lost its role as a major port. Firecracker and incense production, as well as tea and tobacco processing, were vital industries in the colony during this time. Portugal wa

Abbas Abubakar Abbas

Abbas Abubakar Abbas is a Nigerian-born Bahraini athlete sprinter who competes internationally for. He was the silver medallist in the 400 metres at the 2014 Asian Games, he has a personal best of 45.17 seconds for the event. Born in Kano State, Nigeria, he first established himself at the national level with a runner-up finish over 400 metres at the 2012 Nigerian National Sports Festival, finishing behind Orukpe Erayokan. Less than a month the 16-year-old Nigerian opted to compete for Bahrain, changing his eligibility to the Middle-East state. Abbas made his debut for his adopted nation the following year at the 2013 World Youth Championships in Athletics. Running in the 400 m, he managed a personal best in the qualifiers with a time of 46.85 seconds. In the final he finished in third place, but was disqualified for a lane infraction, he completed a 200 m/400 m double at the West Asian Youth Athletics Championships three months later. At the start of following track season he was a double medallist at the Arab Junior Athletics Championships, winning the 200 m and placing second in a Bahraini 1–2 of the 400 m, behind Ali Khamis Abbas.

He ran two personal bests in those events at the Plovdiv Memorial Vulpev-Bakchevanov that July, timing 21.25 seconds and 45.93 seconds, respectively. At the 2014 World Junior Championships in Athletics he was a 400 m finalist and despite a slow start managed to take the bronze medal – his first global podium finish, he rose among the senior elite runners at the 2014 Asian Games: two Bahraini junior records came in the qualifiers, first a run of 45.61 one of 45.17 seconds. He was beaten Youssef Masrahi in the final by over a second, but was still a clear second to take the silver medal at the age of 18, his best time that year ranked him the second fastest junior 400 m runner for the season, just behind world junior champion Machel Cedenio. 200 metres – 21.25 seconds 400 metres – 45.17 seconds Abbas Abubakar Abbas at World Athletics Abbas Abubakar Abbas at Olympics at

Ural Airlines Flight 178

Ural Airlines Flight 178 was an Ural Airlines scheduled passenger flight from Moscow–Zhukovsky to Simferopol, Crimea. On 15 August 2019, the Airbus A321 operating the flight carried seven crew; the flight suffered a bird strike after taking off from Zhukovsky and crash landed in a cornfield, 5 kilometres past the airport. All on board survived; the aircraft suffered a bird strike shortly after takeoff from Zhukovsky International Airport, Russia, bound for Simferopol International Airport, Crimea. A passenger recorded the plane's descent into a cornfield after a flock of gulls struck both CFM56-5 engines; the first bird strike caused a complete loss of power in the left engine. A second bird strike caused the right engine to produce insufficient thrust to maintain flight; the pilots opted to make an emergency landing in a cornfield beyond the end of the airport runway and decided to turn off both engines just before touchdown. The aircraft made a hard landing in the cornfield 2.8 nautical miles from Zhukovsky International Airport.

The pilot chose not to lower the landing gear in order to skid more over the corn. Everyone on board the flight survived. There have been differing reports on the number of injuries sustained as the criteria for counting a person as "injured" are not overly strict. According to some reports, 55 people received medical attention at the scene. 29 people were taken to hospital. Six people were admitted as in-patients; the number of injuries was fixed at 74, none of whom was injured. All passengers were offered ₽100,000 as accident compensation; the aircraft was an Airbus A321-211, registered in Bermuda as VQ-BOZ, msn 2117. It was built in 2003 for MyTravel Airways, it operated for AtlasGlobal as TC-ETR in 2010, Solaris Airlines in 2011 as EI-ERU, before being delivered to Ural Airlines in 2011 as VQ-BOZ. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair in the accident and the airline announced that it would be cut up in situ to be scrapped, in an operation, scheduled to commence on 23 August 2019; the accident represents the sixth hull loss of an Airbus A321.

The pilot in command was 41-year-old Damir Yusupov who graduated from the Buguruslan Flight School of Civil Aviation, in Buguruslan, Russia, in 2013. He has received a degree in Air Navigation from the Ulyanovsk Institute of Civil Aviation, in Ulyanovsk, Russia. At the time of the accident, he had over 3,000 hours of flight time; the co-pilot was 23-year-old Georgy Murzin who graduated from the Buguruslan Flight School of Civil Aviation, in 2017. At the time of the accident, he had over 600 hours of flight time. There were five flight attendants on board; the proliferation of birds near Moscow–Zhukovsky is attributed to illegal waste dumps. The deployed bird control measures are insufficient. In 2012, the management of one of the waste sites had been sued in Zhukovsky district court, alleging that "the waste sorting facilities attract massive numbers of birds due to significant content of edible refuse, with the site located at the distance of 2 km from the airport runway this could lead to collisions between birds and aircraft, threatening human life and limb".

The court did not find sufficient grounds to rule in favor of plaintiffs and their demands to enjoin the defendants from sorting or storing household waste at the specified site. As of 2019, this site is no longer sorting or storing household waste, instead compacting it and transferring it further for disposal. A Zhukovsky air traffic controller declared: We issue warnings to every departing aircraft; the birds come to sit on the runway ⁠— ⁠there's the river and the dump nearby, so they're here constantly. In September 2019, Rosaviatsiya proposed to work with law enforcement authorities to check the legality of waste dumps near airports, will examine the frequency of scheduled and unscheduled inspections of airports for the presence of birds. Shortly after the accident, Ural Airlines released a statement on Twitter stating: "Flight U6178 Zhukovsky-Simferopol on departure from Zhukovsky sustained multiple bird strikes to the aircraft engines; the aircraft made an emergency landing. There were no injuries to the passengers and crew."

The airline praised the professionalism of the pilots. On social media, immediate comparisons were made between the accident and the "Miracle on the Hudson" incident involving US Airways Flight 1549; the pilot in command, Damir Yusupov, first officer, Georgy Murzin, were awarded the honorary title of Hero of the Russian Federation. While being praised in Russia, the crew of the aircraft was entered into the blacklist of Ukrainian NGO Myrotvorets, which accused them of "knowingly and on multiple occasions making illegal crossings of the state border of Ukraine". Author of the first Russian disaster movie Air Crew, Alexander Mitta, announced plans to make a film based on the events of Flight 178; the Interstate Aviation Committee opened an investigation into the accident. The investigation is being assisted by Rosaviatsiya, the British Air Accidents Investigation Branch, the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile; the cockpit voice recorder and flight data recorder were both recovered and their data downloaded.

US Airways Flight 1549 – 2009 accident after both engines failed following a bird strike shortly after takeoff.