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Macedonia naming dispute

The use of the name "Macedonia" was disputed between the Southeast European countries of Greece and North Macedonia. Pertinent to its background is an early 20th-century multifaceted dispute and armed conflict that formed part of the background to the Balkan Wars; the specific naming dispute, although an existing issue in Yugoslav–Greek relations since World War II, was reignited after the breakup of Yugoslavia and the newly gained independence of the former Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1991. Since it was an ongoing issue in bilateral and international relations until it was settled with the Prespa agreement in June 2018, the subsequent ratification by the Macedonian and Greek parliaments in late 2018 and early 2019, the official renaming of Macedonia to North Macedonia in February 2019; the dispute arose from the ambiguity in nomenclature between North Macedonia known as the Republic of Macedonia, the adjacent Greek region of Macedonia and the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. Citing historical and irredentist concerns, Greece opposed the use of the name "Macedonia" without a geographical qualifier such as "Northern Macedonia" for use "by all... and for all purposes".

As over 2 million ethnic Greeks identify themselves as Macedonians, view themselves as unrelated to ethnic Macedonians, Greece further objected to the use of the term "Macedonian" for the neighboring country's largest ethnic group and language. North Macedonia was accused by Greece of appropriating symbols and figures that are considered part of Greek culture such as the Vergina Sun and Alexander the Great, of promoting the irredentist concept of a United Macedonia, which involves territorial claims on Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia; the dispute escalated to the highest level of international mediation, involving numerous attempts to achieve a resolution. In 1995, the two countries formalised bilateral relations and committed to start negotiations on the naming issue, under the auspices of the United Nations; until a solution was found, the provisional reference "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" was used by multiple international organisations and states. UN members, the UN as a whole, agreed to accept any name resulting from successful negotiations between the two countries.

The parties were represented by Ambassadors Vasko Naumovski and Adamantios Vassilakis with the mediation of Matthew Nimetz, who had worked on the issue since 1994. On 12 June 2018, an agreement was reached between Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras and his Macedonian counterpart Zoran Zaev, whereby the name "Republic of North Macedonia" would be adopted. A referendum concerning the name change was held in Macedonia on 30 September 2018, with voters overwhelmingly affirming support for EU and NATO membership by accepting the agreement, albeit with a voter turnout of just below 37 percent, lower than the 50 percent threshold needed to validate the result. After the agreement was ratified by both sides, it entered into force from 12 February 2019. In antiquity, the territory of the present-day Republic of North Macedonia equated to the kingdom of Paeonia, which lay north of ancient Macedonia; the western and central parts of modern Greek region of Macedonia corresponds to that of ancient Macedonia, while the Bulgarian part and the eastern part of the Greek area, are in Ancient Thrace.

After the Romans conquered Greece in 168 BC they established a large administrative district in northern Greece which added Paeonia and eastern parts of Ancient Thrace to other territories outside the original ancient Macedonia. It used the name'Macedonia' to describe the whole of this new province; this province was divided in the 4th century CE into Macedonia Prima in the south, encompassing most of the ancient Macedonia and southeastern parts of Ancient Thrace, coinciding with the modern Greek region of Macedonia, Macedonia Salutaris in the north, encompassing Dardania, the whole of Paeonia and northeastern Thrace. Thus Macedonia Salutaris encompassed most of the present-day North Macedonia and southeastern Bulgaria. In late Roman times, the provincial boundaries were reorganized to form the Diocese of Macedonia, much larger; this situation lasted, until the 7th century. From the beginning of the 6th century, the former Roman province part of the Byzantine Empire became a subject to frequent raids by Early Slavs which, in the course of next centuries, resulted in drastic demographic and cultural changes.

The Slavs continued to assault the Byzantine Empire, either independently, or aided by Bulgars or Avars during the 7th century. The Byzantines organized a massive expedition against the Slavs in the area, they subdued many Slavic tribes and established a new theme of Thrace in the hinterland of Thessaloniki. A new theme called. Most of the modern region of Macedonia became in the 9th century a Bulgarian province known as Kutmichevitsa, its southern parts corresponded to new Byzantine provinces of Strymon. The area of North Macedonia was incorporated again into the Byzantine Empire in the early 11th century as a new province called Bulgaria; as result for nearly thousand years the name of Macedonia had different meanings for Western Europeans and for the Balkan people. For the Westerners it denoted the territory of the Ancient Macedonia, but for the Balkan Christians, when used, it covered the territories of the former Byzantine theme of Macedonia, situated between modern Turkish Edirne and the river Nestos, in present-day

Hermitage Museum

The State Hermitage Museum is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The second-largest art museum in the world, it was founded in 1764 when Empress Catherine the Great acquired an impressive collection of paintings from the Berlin merchant Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky; the museum celebrates the anniversary of its founding each year on 7 December, Saint Catherine's Day. It has been open to the public since 1852, its collections, of which only a small part is on permanent display, comprise over three million items, including the largest collection of paintings in the world. The collections occupy a large complex of six historic buildings along Palace Embankment, including the Winter Palace, a former residence of Russian emperors. Apart from them, the Menshikov Palace, Museum of Porcelain, Storage Facility at Staraya Derevnya, the eastern wing of the General Staff Building are part of the museum; the museum has several exhibition centers abroad. The Hermitage is a federal state property.

Since July 1992, the director of the museum has been Mikhail Piotrovsky. Of the six buildings in the main museum complex, five—namely the Winter Palace, Small Hermitage, Old Hermitage, New Hermitage, Hermitage Theatre—are open to the public; the entrance ticket for foreign tourists costs more than the fee paid by citizens of Russia and Belarus. However, entrance is free of charge the third Thursday of every month for all visitors, free daily for students and children; the museum is closed on Mondays. The entrance for individual visitors is located in the Winter Palace, accessible from the Courtyard. A hermitage is the dwelling of a recluse; the word derives from Old French hermit, ermit "hermit, recluse", from Late Latin eremita, from Greek eremites "people who live alone", in turn derived from ἐρημός, "desert". The building was given this name because of its exclusivity - in its early days, only few people were allowed to visit; the only building housing the collection was the "Small Hermitage".

Today, the Hermitage Museum encompasses many buildings on the Palace Embankment and its neighbourhoods. Apart from the Small Hermitage, the museum now includes the "Old Hermitage", the "New Hermitage", the "Hermitage Theatre", the "Winter Palace", the former main residence of the Russian tsars. In recent years, the Hermitage has expanded to the General Staff Building on the Palace Square facing the Winter Palace, the Menshikov Palace; the Western European Art collection includes European paintings and applied art from the 13th to the 20th centuries. It is displayed, on the first and second floor of the four main buildings. Drawings and prints are displayed in temporary exhibitions. Since 1940, the Egyptian collection, dating back to 1852 and including the former Castiglione Collection, has occupied a large hall on the ground floor in the eastern part of the Winter Palace, it serves as a passage to the exhibition of Classical Antiquities. A modest collection of the culture of Ancient Mesopotamia, including a number of Assyrian reliefs from Babylon, Dur-Sharrukin and Nimrud, is located in the same part of the building.

The collection of classical antiquities occupies most of the ground floor of the Old and New Hermitage buildings. The interiors of the ground floor were designed by German architect Leo von Klenze in the Greek revival style in the early 1850s, using painted polished stucco and columns of natural marble and granite. One of the largest and most notable interiors of the first floor is the Hall of Twenty Columns, divided into three parts by two rows of grey monolithic columns of Serdobol granite, intended for the display of Graeco-Etruscan vases, its floor is made of a modern marble mosaic imitating ancient tradition, while the stucco walls and ceiling are covered in painting. The Room of the Great Vase in the western wing features the 2.57 m high Kolyvan Vase, weighing 19 t, made of jasper in 1843 and installed before the walls were erected. While the western wing was designed for exhibitions, the rooms on the ground floor in the eastern wing of the New Hermitage, now hosting exhibitions, were intended for libraries.

The floor of the Athena Room in the south-eastern corner of the building, one of the original libraries, is decorated with an authentic 4th-century mosaic excavated in an early Christian basilica in Chersonesos in 1854. The collection of classical antiquities features Greek artifacts from the third millennium – fifth century BC, ancient Greek pottery, items from the Greek cities of the North Pontic Greek colonies, Hellenistic sculpture and jewellery, including engraved gems and cameos, such as the famous Gonzaga Cameo, Italic art from the 9th to second century BC, Roman marble and bronze sculpture and applied art from the first century BC - fourth century AD, including copies of Classical and Hellenistic Greek sculptures. One of the highlights of the collection is the Tauride Venus, according to latest research, is an original Hellenistic Greek sculpture rather than a Roman copy as it was thought before. There are, only a few pieces of authentic Classical Greek sculpture and sepulchral monuments.

On the ground floor in the western wing of the Winter Palace the collections of prehistoric artifacts and the culture and art of the Caucasus are located, as well as the second treasure gallery. The prehistoric artifacts date from the Paleolithic to the Iron Age and were excavated all over Russia and other parts of the former Soviet Union and Russian Empire. Among them is a renowned collection of the art and culture

T. N. Angami

Thepfülo-u Nakhro Angami was a Naga politician who served as the first Speaker of the Nagaland Legislative Assembly and the second Chief Minister of the North East Indian state of Nagaland. T. N. Angami was born the son of V N Angami in Jotsoma village near Kohima in a wealthy Angami Naga family in 1913, he was schooled in Kohima and Shillong. He served as a Store Keeper in the Indian Army during the Second World War. From 1946, he worked in the office of the Deputy Commissioner of the Naga Hills District for five years. Angami began his political life in 1951 when he resigned from his job as an office assistant to join the Naga National Council, an organisation that he went on to head as its president; as the Council under Angami Zapu Phizo took to armed rebellion against the Government of India, Angami opposed Phizo and, in 1957, formed the Reforming Committee of the Naga National Council with the aims of opposing violence, winning over the rebels and restoring peace in Nagaland. In August 1957, the Reforming Committee convened an All Tribes Conference in Kohima that called for the constitution of the Naga Hills District and the Tuensang Division of the North East Frontier Agency into a single administrative division within the Union of India.

The state of Nagaland was established in 1963 and P. Shilu Ao of the Naga Nationalist Organisation became its first Chief Minister. Following elections to the Nagaland Legislative Assembly in 1964, Angami was elected its first Speaker. Following a no confidence motion against the government, Ao resigned as Chief Minister and was succeeded by Angami who served from August, 1966 to February, 1969; as Chief Minister, he convened a Peace Mission and convinced the Government of India to take a more liberal view of the rebels and to grant them amnesty without preconditions. His efforts resulted in a ceasefire agreement between the Government of the Naga rebels. In the elections of 1969, the Naga Nationalist Organisation was voted back to power but Angami stepped down as Chief Minister and was succeeded by Hokishe Sema. Angami shifted to the United Democratic Front and joined the Congress

Porus, Jamaica

Porous is a village in Manchester, Jamaica that overlooks a plain to the south, with hills behind it to the north. A tributary of the Rio Minho runs parallel to the main road. Porus was founded in 1840 by the missionary James Phillippo as a free village for ex-slaves following emancipation, it was his sixth such village. It was called Vale Lionel after the Governor of Jamaica, Sir Lionel Smith, but was soon renamed "Porous" most after the porous soil in the vicinity. In its early days, its population was small although it boasted a large coffee market, it is now a thriving community of predominantly small artisans. Porus is on the A2 road which runs from Spanish Town in south central Jamaica to Savanna-la-Mar on the south west coast. From 1895 to 1992 Porous was served by Porous railway station on the Kingston to Montego Bay line. Although all services on the line have ceased, the extensive station buildings remain. Future generations are hoping to rebuild these services better than ever. There are seven schools, churches, a post office, a police station, a comprehensive health clinic, various small retail outlets.

List of cities and towns in Jamaica Photos: Fruit stall Downtown Bar Fruit stall Fruit stall Police station Community centre Methodist church United church School Station Train

Fort Rotterdam

Fort Rotterdam is a 17th-century fort in Makassar on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. It is a Dutch fort built on top of an existing fort of the Gowa Kingdom; the first fort on the site was constructed by the a local sultan in around 1634, to counter Dutch encroachments. The site was ceded to the Dutch under the Treaty of Bongaya, they rebuilt it between 1673 and 1679, it was surrounded by a seven meter high rampart and a two meter deep moat. The fort was governmental headquarters until the 1930s, it was extensively restored in the 1970s and is now a cultural and educational centre, a venue for music and dance events, a tourist destination. Fort Rotterdam was built on the location of an earlier Makassarese fort, called Ujung Pandang. Although it has been claimed by some authors that this fort dates back to 1545, there is no direct evidence for this, it seems more that the fort was built in 1634, as part of a fortification programme that the Makassar rulers undertook in response to a war with the Dutch East India Company which broke out in that year.

The original fort, Jum Pandan, gave its name to the city Ujung Pandang, another name for the city of Makassar. In 1667 Fort Ujung Pandang was ceded to the Dutch as part of the Treaty of Bongaya, after the defeat of the Sultanate of Gowa in the Makassar War. In subsequent years it was rebuilt on the initiative of Dutch admiral Cornelis Speelman, to become the center of Dutch colonial power in Sulawesi, it was renamed Fort Rotterdam after Speelman's place of birth. In the years 1673 -- 1679 it got the ` turtle' shape it still has to this day; this shape gave the fort the nickname "Benteng Penyu". The stone for the construction of the fort was taken from the karst mountains in Maros, the limestone from Selayar and the timber from Tanete and Bantaeng. Following the Java War of 1825–1830, Javanese prince, now national hero, Diponegoro was imprisoned in the fort following his exile to Makassar in 1830 until his death in 1855, it was used as a Japanese prisoner of war camp in World War II. Fort Rotterdam remained governmental headquarters until the 1930s.

After 1937, the fort was no longer used as a defense. During the brief Japanese occupation it was used for conducting scientific research in the field of linguistics and agriculture, after which it fell into disrepair. In the 1970s, the fort was extensively restored. Fort Rotterdam lies in the centre of Makassar, it is rectangular in shape, surrounded by a seven meter wall. It was equipped with six bulwarks, five of which are still visible: Bastion Bonie to the west; the sixth bulwark, Bastion Ravelin, is no longer visible. Some of the bastions still contain cannons, it is possible to walk over most of the ramparts. A two meter deep moat system used to surround the perimeter of the fort, however only the southwest portion of the moat can still be seen. Inside the fort are thirteen buildings, eleven of them are 17th-century original buildings of the fort. At the centre of the fort is a church building. Several buildings along the north and south curtain walls still exist; the buildings along the northern curtain wall were some of the oldest buildings, dating from 1686, such as the residence of the governor, residence of the senior merchant, of the captain, the predikant, the secretary, with several storage buildings for weapons.

The governor's residence at the north-westernmost corner is nicknamed as "the Speelman's House", however Speelman himself never lived in this house. The house was used by the governor of Celebes until the mid 19th-century when he moved to a more comfortable villa in Jalan Ahmad Yani; the Speelman's House now houses part of La Galigo museum. La Galigo museum has some prehistoric megaliths from Watampone, as well as ancient weapons, shells, utensils and stamps; the buildings on the south curtain used for storage, house a museum displaying local skills in silk weaving and boatbuilding. The barracks on the eastern wall now house a small library, featuring old Dutch books that belonged to Reverend Mates, a 19th-century missionary. There are ships' logs of VOC captains and ancient lontar manuscripts; the department of archaeology is housed in the former building of the head of administration for the VOC. The other two buildings inside Fort Rotterdam were built by the Japanese during the Japanese occupation period.

The southwestern Bastion contains a prison where Prince Diponegoro was imprisoned at the end of his life. The fort is now used to hold various events. There is a conservatory for music and dance, an archive of the city, a historic and archaeological institute. Colonial architecture in Indonesia

USS Flounder

USS Flounder, a Gato class submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the flounder. Her keel was laid down by the Electric Boat Company in Groton, Connecticut on 5 December 1942, she was launched on 22 August 1943, commissioned on 29 November 1943 with Commander C. A. Johnson in command. Flounder arrived at Milne Bay, New Guinea, from New London, Connecticut, on 6 March 1944, 11 days sailed on her first war patrol, bound for the Palau Islands. Many planes were sighted, limiting her action, few contacts were made, she returned to Milne Bay to refit sailed to Manus for training, from that base took departure 3 June on her second war patrol. In the Philippine Sea during the assault on the Mariana Islands, Flounder made a sound contact on 17 June which resulted in her sinking the 2,681-ton transport Nipponkai Maru. Escorts began a persistent, but ineffective counter-attack. On 24 June, as Flounder sailed on the surface, two enemy planes dived out of the cloud cover, dropped bombs which landed close aboard, causing some minor damage.

The submarine topped off her fuel tanks at Manus 6 July, sailed on to Brisbane, Australia, to refit. Flounder cleared Brisbane on her third war patrol 1 August 1944, after calling at Manus on 8 and 9 August, sailed on to serve as lifeguard during strikes on the Philippine Islands. Once more, during the portion of her patrol devoted to aggressive patrol, she found few contacts, was able to make only one attack; the intended target, a small escort, dodged her torpedoes, drove her deep with depth charges. Flounder took on provisions and fuel at Mios Woendi, New Guinea, from 28 August to 1 September completed her patrol in Davao Gulf, returning to Brisbane on 4 October. On her fourth war patrol, for which she sailed on 27 October 1944, Flounder patrolled the South China Sea with two other submarines. North of Lombok Strait on 10 November Flounder sighted what was first thought to be a small sailboat. Closer inspection revealed the target to be the conning tower of a submarine, Flounder went to battle stations submerged.

She sent four torpedoes away, observing one hit and feeling another as the target submarine exploded and was enveloped by smoke and flame. Coming back to periscope depth a half-hour Flounder found nothing in sight, she had sunk one of the German submarines operating in the Far East, U-537. An attack by Flounder's group on a convoy off Palawan on 21 November 1944 sank the freighter, Gyosan Maru 5,698 tons, but other contacts were few, the sub returned to Fremantle to refit between 13 December and 7 January 1945. Underway for her fifth war patrol, Flounder had to return to Fremantle from 12 to 14 January to repair her fathometer sailed to lead a three-submarine coordinated attack group in the South China Sea. On 12 and 13 February, her group made a determined chase after a Japanese task force, but was unable to close these fast targets. A more obliging target came her way on 22 February, when she launched four torpedoes at a patrol boat. Two of these, ran erratically, only Flounder’s skillful maneuvering saved her from being hit by her own torpedoes.

More trouble arrived three days when in a freak accident, she and USS Hoe brushed each other 66 feet beneath the surface. Only a slight leak developed, brought under control. Flounder prepared for her sixth war patrol at Subic Bay from 26 February 1945 to 16 March. Again with a wolfpack, she scouted targets south of Hainan, on 29 March contacted a large convoy, attacked by aircraft before she and her sisters could launch their torpedoes, she headed home for a stateside overhaul. Returning to Pearl Harbor action-bound on the day hostilities ended, Flounder was ordered to the East Coast, arrived at New York City on 18 September. After laying immobilized at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, New London, she was decommissioned and placed in reserve at New London on 12 February 1947; the second and fourth of Flounder’s six war patrols were designated "Successful," and she is credited with having sunk 2,681 tons of Japanese shipping as well as U-537. Flounder received two battle stars for World War II service.

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Kill Record: USS Flounder